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Find images of South America. ✓ Free for commercial use ✓ No attribution required ✓ High quality images. Kids learn about South American countries. Get all sorts of information on each South American country including a map, a picture of the flag. An economic recovery is underway in Latin America and the Regional Economic Outlook for Western Hemisphere - October 2021 hero image.
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South America

Continent

"Southern America" redirects here. For the region of the United States, see Southern United States. For the botanical continent defined in the World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, see Southern America (WGSRPD).

Map of South America showing physical, political, and population characteristics, as per 2018

South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere[note 6] and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It can also be described as the southern subregion of a single continent called America (see the United Nations geoscheme for the Americas). The reference to South America instead of other cultural or geographical regions (such as Latin America or the Southern Cone) has increased in recent decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil).[6][additional citation(s) needed]

South America is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean, North America and the Caribbean Sea lie to the northwest. The continent generally includes twelve sovereign states: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela; two dependent territories: the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands;[note 7] and one internal territory: French Guiana.[note 8] In addition, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Ascension Island (dependency of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, a British Overseas Territory), Bouvet Island (dependency of Norway), Panama, and Trinidad and Tobago may also be considered parts of South America.

South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers (6,890,000 sq mi). Its population as of 2018[update] has been estimated at more than food places in san antonio million.[1][2] South America ranks fourth in area (after Asia, Africa, and North America) and fifth in population (after Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America). Brazil is by far the most populous South American country, with more than half of the continent's population, followed by Colombia, Argentina, Venezuela and Peru. In recent decades, Brazil has also generated half of the continent's GDP and has become the continent's first regional power.[6]

Most of the population lives near the continent's western or eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated. The geography of western South America is dominated by the Andes mountains; in contrast, the eastern part contains both highland regions and vast lowlands where rivers such as the Amazon, Orinoco, São Francisco and Paraná flow. Most of the continent lies in the tropics, except for a large part of the Southern Cone located in the middle latitudes.

The continent's cultural and ethnic outlook has its origin with the interaction of indigenous peoples with European conquerors and immigrants and, more locally, with African slaves. Given a long history of colonialism, the overwhelming majority of South Americans speak Spanish or Portuguese, and societies and states reflect Western traditions. Relative to Europe, Asia and Africa, 20th-century South America has been a peaceful continent with few wars.[7]

Geography[edit]

Main article: Geography of South America

See also: Category:Environment of South America

A composite relief image of South America
Contemporary political map of South America

South America occupies the southern portion of the Americas. The continent is generally delimited on the northwest by the Darién watershed along the Colombia–Panama border, although some may consider the border instead to be the Panama Canal. Geopolitically[8] and geographically, all of Panama – including the segment east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus – is typically included in North America alone[9][10][11] and among the countries of Central America.[12][13] Almost all of mainland South America sits on the South American Plate.

South America is home to the world's highest uninterrupted waterfall, Angel Falls in Venezuela; the highest single drop waterfall Kaieteur Falls in Guyana; the largest river by volume, the Amazon River; the longest mountain range, the Andes (whose highest mountain is Aconcagua at 6,962 m or 22,841 ft); the driest non-polar place on earth, the Atacama Desert;[14][15][16] the wettest place on earth, López de Micay in Colombia; the largest rainforest, the Amazon rainforest; the highest capital city, La Paz, Bolivia; the highest commercially navigable lake in the world, Lake Titicaca; and, excluding research stations in Antarctica, the world's southernmost permanently inhabited community, Puerto Toro, Chile.

South America's major mineral resources are gold, silver, copper, iron ore, tin, and petroleum. These resources found in South America have brought high income to its countries especially in times of war or of rapid economic growth by industrialized countries elsewhere. However, the concentration in producing one major export commodity often has hindered the development of diversified economies. The fluctuation in the price of commodities in the international markets has led historically to major highs and lows in the economies of South American states, often causing extreme political instability. This is leading to efforts to diversify production to drive away from staying as economies dedicated to one major export.

Brazil is the largest country in South America, covering approx. 47.3% of the continent's land area and encompassing around half of the continent's population.[17] The remaining countries and territories are divided among four subregions: the Andean states, Caribbean South America, The Guianas, and the Southern Cone.[18]

Outlying islands[edit]

Physiographically, South America also includes some of the nearby islands. The DutchABC islands (Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao), the islands of Trinidad and Tobago (Trinidad Island and Tobago Island etc.), the State of Nueva Esparta, and the Federal Dependencies of Venezuela sit on the northern portion of the South American continental shelf and are sometimes considered parts of the continent. Geopolitically, all the island countries and territories in the Caribbean have generally been grouped as a subregion of North America instead. By contrast, Aves Island (administered by Venezuela) and the Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina (San Andrés Island, Providencia Island, and Santa Catalina Island etc., which are administered by Colombia) are politically parts of South American countries but physiographically parts of North America.[11][19][20]

Other islands often associated with South America are the Chiloé Archipelago and Robinson Crusoe Island (both administered by Chile), Easter Island (generally considered a part of Oceania, also administered by Chile), the Galápagos Islands (administered by Ecuador), and Tierra del Fuego (split between Argentina and Chile). In the Atlantic Ocean, Brazil administers Fernando de Noronha, Trindade and Martim Vaz, and the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, while the Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (biographically and hydrologically associated with Antarctica)[21] have been administered as two British Overseas Territories under the Crown, whose sovereignty over the islands is disputed by Argentina.

Special cases[edit]

An isolated volcanic island on the South American Plate, Ascension Island is geologically a part of South America.[22] Administered as a dependency of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, the island is geopolitically a part of Africa.

An uninhabited sub-Antarctic volcanic island located in the South Atlantic Ocean, Bouvet Island (administered by Norway) is geographically, geologically, biographically, and hydrologically associated with Jose cuervo silver, but the United Nations geoscheme has included the territory in South America instead.

Climate[edit]

Map of all tropical cyclone tracks from 1945 to 2006

The distribution of the average temperatures in the region presents a constant regularity from the 30° of latitude south, when the isotherms tend, more and more, to be confused with the degrees of latitude.[24]

In temperate latitudes, winters and summers are milder than in North America. This is because the most extensive part of the continent is in the equatorial zone (the region has more areas of equatorial plains than any other region.[24]), therefore giving the Southern Cone more oceanic influence, which moderates year round temperatures.

The average annual temperatures in the Amazon basin oscillate around 27 °C (81 °F), with low thermal amplitudes and high rainfall indices. Between the Maracaibo Lake and the mouth of the Orinoco, predominates an equatorial climate of the type Congolese, that also includes parts of the Brazilian territory.[24]

The east-central Brazilian plateau has a humid and warm tropical climate. The northern and eastern parts of the Argentine pampas have a humid subtropical climate with dry winters and humid summers of the Chinese type, while the western and eastern ranges have a subtropical climate of the dinaric type. At the highest points of the Andean region, climates are colder than the ones occurring at the highest point of the Norwegian fjords. In the Andean plateaus, the warm climate prevails, although it is tempered by the altitude, while in the coastal strip, there is an equatorial climate of the Guinean type. From this point until the north of the Chilean coast appear, successively, Mediterranean oceanic climate, temperate of the Breton type and, already in Tierra del Fuego, cold climate of the Siberian type.[24]

The distribution of rainfall is related to the regime of winds and air masses. In most of the tropical region east of the Andes, winds blowing from the northeast, east and southeast carry moisture from the Atlantic, causing abundant rainfall. However, due to a consistently strong wind shear and a weak Intertropical Convergence Zone, South Atlantic tropical cyclones are rare.[25] In the Orinoco Llanos and in the Guianas Plateau, the precipitation levels go from moderate to high. The Pacific coast of Colombia and northern Ecuador are rainy regions, with Chocó in Colombia being the rainiest place in the world along with the northern slopes of Indian Himalayas.[26] The Atacama Desert, along this stretch of coast, is one of the picture of south america regions in the world. The central and southern parts of Chile are subject to extratropical cyclones, and most of the Argentine Patagonia is desert. In the Pampas of Argentina, Uruguay and South of Brazil the rainfall is moderate, with rains well distributed during the year. The moderately dry conditions of the Chaco oppose the intense rainfall of the eastern region of Paraguay. In the semiarid coast of the Brazilian Northeast the rains are linked to a monsoon regime.[24]

Important factors in the determination of climates are sea currents, such as the current Humboldt and Falklands. The equatorial current of the South Atlantic strikes the coast of the Northeast and there is divided into two others: the current of Brazil and a bill belichick linda holliday current that flows to the northwest towards the Antilles, where there it moves towards northeast course thus forming the most Important and famous ocean current in the world, the Gulf Stream.[24][27]

Fauna[edit]

Main article: Fauna of South America

South America is one of the most biodiverse continents on Earth. South America is home to many unique species of animals including the llama, anaconda, piranha, jaguar, vicuña, and tapir. The Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity, containing a major proportion of Earth's species.

History[edit]

Main article: History of South America

Prehistory[edit]

Further information: History fidelity cash management account bank South America § Pre-Columbian era

South America is believed to have been joined with Africa from the late Paleozoic Era to the early Mesozoic Era, until the supercontinentPangaea began to rift and break apart about 225 million years ago. Therefore, South America and Africa share similar fossils and rock layers.

South America is thought to have been first inhabited by humans when people were crossing the Bering Land Bridge (now the Bering Strait) at least 15,000 years ago from the territory that is present-day Russia. They migrated south through North America, and eventually reached South America through the Isthmus of Panama.

The first evidence for the existence of the human race in South America dates back to about 9000 BC, when squashes, chili peppers and beans began to be cultivated for food in the highlands of the Amazon Basin. Pottery evidence further suggests that manioc, which remains a staple food today, was being cultivated as early as 2000 BC.[28]

By 2000 BC, many agrarian communities had been settled throughout the Andes and the surrounding regions. Fishing became a widespread practice along the coast, helping establish fish as a primary source of food. Irrigation systems were also developed at this time, which aided in the rise of an agrarian society.[28]

South American cultures began domesticating llamas, vicuñas, guanacos, and alpacas in the highlands of the Andes circa 3500 BC. Besides their use as sources of meat and wool, service credit union branches near me animals were used for transportation of goods.[28]

Pre-Columbian civilizations[edit]

Main article: Pre-Columbian era § South America

The rise of plant growing and the subsequent appearance of permanent human picture of south america allowed for the multiple and overlapping beginnings of civilizations in South America.

One of the earliest known South American civilizations was at Norte Chico, on the central Peruvian coast. Though a pre-ceramic culture, the monumental architecture of Norte Chico is contemporaneous with the pyramids of Ancient Egypt. Norte Chico governing class established a trade network and developed agriculture then followed by Chavín by 900 BC, according to some estimates and archaeological finds. Artifacts were found at a site called Chavín de Huantar in modern Peru at an elevation of 3,177 meters (10,423 ft). Chavín civilization spanned 900 BC to 300 BC.

In the central coast of Peru, around the beginning of the 1st millennium AD, Moche (100 BC – 700 AD, at the northern coast of Peru), Paracas and Nazca (400 BC – 800 AD, Peru) cultures flourished with centralized states with permanent militia improving agriculture through irrigation and new styles of ceramic art. At the Altiplano, Tiahuanaco or Tiwanaku (100 BC – 1200 AD, Bolivia) managed a large commercial network based on religion.

Around the 7th century, both Tiahuanaco and Wari or Huari Empire (600–1200, Central and northern Peru) expanded its influence to all the Andean region, imposing the Huari urbanism and Tiahuanaco religious iconography.

The Muisca were the main indigenous civilization in what is now Colombia. They established the Muisca Confederation of many clans, or cacicazgos, that had a free trade network among themselves. They were goldsmiths and farmers.

Other important Pre-Columbian cultures include: the Cañaris (in south central Ecuador), Chimú Empire (1300–1470, Peruvian northern coast), Chachapoyas, and the Aymaran kingdoms (1000–1450, Western Bolivia and southern Peru). Holding their capital at the great city of Cusco, the Inca civilization dominated the Andes region from 1438 to 1533. Known as Tawantin suyu, and "the land of the four regions," in Quechua, the Inca Empire was highly distinct and developed. Inca rule extended to nearly a hundred linguistic or ethnic communities, some nine to fourteen million people connected by a 25,000 kilometer road system. Cities were built with precise, unmatched stonework, constructed over many levels of mountain terrain. Terrace farming was a useful form of agriculture.

The Mapuche in Central and Southern Chile resisted the European and Chilean settlers, waging the Arauco War for more than 300 years.

European colonization[edit]

Main articles: Spanish colonization of the Americas and Portuguese colonization of the Americas

Woodcut what is the routing number for first interstate bank Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci's first voyage (1497-98) to the New World, from the first known published edition of Vespucci's 1504 letter to Piero Soderini.

In 1494, Portugal and Spain, the two great maritime European powers of that time, on the expectation of new lands being discovered in the west, signed the Treaty of Tordesillas, by which they agreed, with the support of the Pope, that all the land outside Europe should be an exclusive duopoly between the two countries.[29]

The treaty established an imaginary line along a north–south meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands, roughly 46° 37' W. In terms of the treaty, all land to the west of the line (known to comprise most of the South American soil) would belong to Spain, and all land to the east, to Portugal. As accurate measurements of longitude were impossible at that time, the line was not strictly enforced, resulting in a Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian.

Beginning in the 1530s, the people and natural resources of South America were repeatedly americas best eyeglasses frames by foreign conquistadors, first from Spain and later from Portugal. These competing colonial nations claimed the land and resources as their own and divided it into colonies.

European infectious diseases (smallpox, influenza, measles, and typhus) – to which hotels near university at buffalo native populations had no immune resistance – caused large-scale depopulation of the native population under Spanish control. Systems of forced labor, such as the haciendas and mining industry's mit'a also contributed to the www adt com bill pay. After this, enslaved Africans, who had developed immunities to these diseases, were quickly brought in to replace them.

A map of the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas in 1790

The Spaniards were committed to converting their native subjects to Christianity and were quick to purge any native cultural practices that hindered this end; however, many initial attempts at this were only partially successful, as native groups simply blended Catholicism with their established beliefs and practices. Furthermore, the Spaniards brought their language to the degree they did with their religion, although the Roman Catholic Church's evangelization in Quechua, Aymara, and Guaraní actually contributed to the continuous use of these native languages albeit only in the oral form.

Eventually, the natives and the Spaniards interbred, forming a mestizo class. At the beginning, many mestizos of the Andean region were offspring of Amerindian mothers and Spanish fathers. After independence, most mestizos had native fathers and European or mestizo mothers.

Many native artworks were considered pagan idols and destroyed terapia ocupacional ubu Spanish explorers; this included many gold and silver sculptures and other artifacts found in South America, which were melted down before their transport to Spain or Portugal. Spaniards and Portuguese brought the western European architectural style to the continent, and helped to improve infrastructures like bridges, roads, and the sewer system of the cities they discovered or conquered. They also significantly increased economic and trade relations, not just between the old and new world but between the different South American regions and peoples. Finally, with the expansion of the Portuguese and Spanish languages, many cultures that were previously separated became united through that of Latin Picture of south america.

Guyana was initially colonized by the Dutch before coming under British control, though there was a brief period during the Napoleonic Wars when it was occupied bank of eastman magnolia state bank the French. The region was initially partitioned between the Dutch, French and British before fully coming under the control of Britain.

Suriname was first explored by the Spanish in the 16th century and then settled by the English in the mid-17th century. It became a Dutch colony in 1667. [30]

Slavery in South America[edit]

See also: Slavery among the indigenous peoples of the Americas and Atlantic slave trade

Public flogging of a slave in 19th-century Brazil.

The indigenous peoples of the Americas in various European colonies were forced to work in European plantations and mines; along with enslaved Africans who were also introduced in the proceeding centuries via the slave trade. European colonists were heavily dependent on indigenous labor during the initial phases of settlement to maintain the subsistence economy, and natives were often captured by expeditions. The importation of African slaves began midway through the 16th century, but the enslavement of indigenous peoples continued well into the 17th and 18th centuries. The Atlantic slave trade brought enslaved Africans primarily to South American colonies, beginning with the Portuguese since 1502.[31] The main destinations of this phase were the Caribbean colonies and Brazil, as European nations built up economically slave-dependent colonies in the New World. Nearly 40% of all African slaves trafficked to the Americas went to Brazil. An estimated 4.9 million slaves from Africa came to Brazil during the period from 1501 to 1866.[32][33]

In contrast to other European colonies in the Americas which mainly used the labor of African slaves, Spanish colonists mainly enslaved indigenous Americans. In 1750, the Portuguese Crown abolished the enslavement of indigenous peoples in colonial Brazil, under the belief that they were unfit for labor and less effective than enslaved Africans. Enslaved Africans were brought to the Americas on slave ships, under inhuman conditions and ill-treatment, and those who survived were sold in slave markets.[34] After independence, all South American countries maintained slavery for some time. The first South American country to abolish slavery was Chile in 1823, Uruguay in 1830, Bolivia in 1831, Colombia and Ecuador in 1851, Argentina in 1853, Peru and Venezuela in 1854, Suriname in 1863, Paraguay in 1869, and in 1888 Brazil was the last South American nation and the last country in western world to abolish slavery.[35]

Independence from Spain and Portugal[edit]

Main articles: Spanish American wars of independence and Independence of Brazil

The European Peninsular War (1807–1814), a theater of the Napoleonic Wars, changed the political situation of both the Spanish and Portuguese colonies. First, Napoleon invaded Portugal, but the House of Braganza avoided capture by escaping to Brazil. Napoleon also captured King Ferdinand VII of Spain, and appointed his own brother instead. This appointment provoked severe popular resistance, which created Juntas to rule in the name of the captured king.

Many cities in the Spanish colonies, however, considered themselves equally authorized to appoint local Juntas like those of Spain. This began the Spanish American wars of independence between the patriots, who promoted such autonomy, and the royalists, who supported Spanish authority over the Americas. The Juntas, in both Spain and the Americas, promoted the ideas of the Enlightenment. Five years after the beginning of the war, Ferdinand VII returned to the throne and began the Absolutist Restoration as the royalists got the upper hand in the conflict.

The independence of South America was secured by Simón Bolívar (Venezuela) and José de San Martín (Argentina), the two most important Libertadores. Bolívar led a great uprising in the north, then led his army southward towards Lima, the capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Meanwhile, San Martín led an army across the Andes Mountains, along with Chilean expatriates, and liberated Chile. He organized a fleet to reach Peru by sea, and sought the military support of various rebels from the Viceroyalty of Peru. The two armies finally met in Guayaquil, Ecuador, where they cornered the Royal Army of the Spanish Crown and forced its surrender.

In the Portuguese Kingdom of Brazil, Dom Pedro I (also Pedro IV of Portugal), son of the Portuguese King Dom João VI, proclaimed the independent Kingdom of Brazil in 1822, which later became the Empire of Brazil. Despite the Portuguese loyalties of garrisons in Bahia, Cisplatina and Pará, independence was diplomatically accepted by the crown in Portugal in 1825, on condition of a high compensation paid by Brazil mediatized by the United Kingdom.

Nation-building and fragmentation[edit]

Battle of Fanfa, battle scene in Southern Brazil during the Ragamuffin War

The newly independent nations began a process of fragmentation, with several civil and international wars. However, it was not as strong as in Central America. Some countries created from provinces of larger countries stayed as such up to modern times (such as Paraguay or Uruguay), while others were reconquered and reincorporated into their former countries (such as the Republic of Entre Ríos and the Riograndense Republic).

The first separatist attempt was in 1820 by the Argentine province of Entre Ríos, led by a caudillo.[36] In spite of the "Republic" in its title, General Ramírez, its caudillo, never really intended to declare an independent Entre Rios. Rather, he was making a political statement in opposition to the monarchist and centralist ideas that back then permeated Buenos Aires politics. The "country" was reincorporated at the United Provinces in 1821.

In 1825 the Cisplatine Province declared its independence from the Empire of Brazil, which led to the Cisplatine War between the imperials and the Argentine from the United Provinces of the Picture of south america de la Plata to control the region. Three years later, the United Kingdom intervened in the question by proclaiming a tie and creating in the former Cisplatina a new independent country: The Oriental Republic of Uruguay.

Later in 1836, while Brazil was experiencing the chaos of the regency, Rio Grande do Sulproclaimed its independence motivated by a tax crisis. With the anticipation of the coronation of Pedro II to the throne of Brazil, the country could stabilize and fight the separatists, which the province of Santa Catarina had joined in 1839. The Conflict came to an end by a process of compromise by which both Riograndense Republic and Juliana Republic were reincorporated as provinces in 1845.[37][38]

The Peru–Bolivian Confederation, a short-lived union of Peru and Bolivia, was blocked by Chile in the War of the Confederation (1836–1839) and again during the War of the Pacific (1879–1883). Paraguay was virtually destroyed by Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay in the Paraguayan War.

Wars and conflicts[edit]

Despite the Spanish American wars of independence and the Brazilian War of Independence, the new nations quickly began to suffer with internal conflicts and wars among themselves. Most of the 1810 borders countries had initially accepted on the uti possidetis iuris principle had by 1848 either been altered by war or were constested.[39]

In 1825 the proclamation of independence of Cisplatina led to the Cisplatine War between historical rivals the Empire of Brazil and the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, Argentina's predecessor. The result was a stalemate, ending with the British government arranging for the independence of Uruguay. Soon after, another Brazilian province proclaimed its independence leading to the Ragamuffin War which Brazil won.

Between 1836 and 1839 the War of the Confederation broke out between the short-lived Peru-Bolivian Confederation and Chile, with the support of the Argentine Confederation. The war was fought mostly in the actual territory of Peru and ended with a Confederate defeat and the dissolution of the Confederacy and annexation of many territories by Argentina.

Meanwhile, the Argentine Civil Wars plagued Argentina since its independence. The conflict was mainly between those who defended the centralization of power in Buenos Aires and those who defended a confederation. During this period it can be said that "there were two Argentines": the Argentine Confederation and the Argentine Republic. At the same time, the political instability in Uruguay led to the Uruguayan Civil War among the main political factions of the country. All this instability in the platine region interfered with the goals of other countries such as Brazil, which was soon forced to take sides. In 1851 the Brazilian Empire, supporting the centralizing unitarians, and the Uruguayan government invaded Argentina and deposed the caudillo, Juan Manuel Rosas, who ruled the confederation with an iron hand. Although the Platine War did not put an end to the political chaos and civil war in Argentina, it brought temporary peace to Uruguay where the Colorados faction won, supported by the Brazil, Britain, France and the Unitarian Party of Argentina.[40]

Peace lasted only a short time: in 1864 the Uruguayan factions faced each other again in the Uruguayan War. The Blancos supported by Paraguay started to attack Brazilian and Argentine farmers near the borders. The Empire made an initial attempt to settle the dispute between Blancos and Colorados without success. In 1864, after a Brazilian ultimatum was refused, the imperial government declared that Brazil's military would begin reprisals. Brazil declined to acknowledge a formal state of war, and, for most of its duration, the Uruguayan–Brazilian armed conflict was an undeclared war which led to the deposition of the Blancos and the rise of the pro-Brazilian Colorados to power again. This angered the Paraguayan government, which even before the end of the war invaded Brazil, beginning the biggest and deadliest war in both South American and Latin American histories: the Paraguayan War.[citation needed]

The Paraguayan War began when the Paraguayan dictator Francisco Solano López ordered the invasion of the Brazilian provinces of Mato Grosso and Rio Grande do Sul. His attempt to cross Argentinian territory without Argentinian approval led the pro-Brazilian Argentine government into the war. The pro-Brazilian Uruguayan government showed its support by sending troops. In 1865 the three countries signed the Treaty of the Triple Alliance against Paraguay. At the beginning of the war, the Paraguayans took the lead with several victories, until the Triple Alliance organized to repel the invaders and fight effectively. This was the second total war experience in the world after the American Civil War. It was deemed the greatest war effort in the history of all participating countries, taking almost 6 years and ending with the complete first national bank severna park of Paraguay. The country lost 40% of its territory to Brazil and Argentina and lost 60% of its population, including 90% of the men. The dictator Lopez was killed in battle and a new government was instituted in alliance with Brazil, which maintained occupation forces in the country until 1876.[41]

The last South American war in the 19th century was the War of the Pacific with Bolivia and Peru on one side and Chile on the other. In 1879 the war began with Chilean troops occupying Bolivian ports, followed by Bolivia declaring war on Chile which activated an alliance treaty with Peru. The Bolivians were completely defeated in 1880 and Lima was occupied in 1881. The peace was signed with Peru in 1883 while a truce was signed with Bolivia in 1884. Chile annexed territories of both countries leaving Bolivia with no path to the sea.[42]

In the new century, as wars became less violent and less frequent, Brazil entered into a small conflict with Bolivia for the possession of the Acre, which was acquired by Brazil in 1902. In 1917 Brazil declared war on the Central Powers, joined the allied side in the First World War and sent a small fleet to the Mediterranean Sea and some troops to be integrated with the British and French forces in the region. Brazil was the only South American country that participated in the First World War.[43][44] Later in 1932 Colombia and Peru picture of south america a short armed conflict for territory in the Amazon. In the same year Paraguay declared war on Bolivia for possession of the Chaco, in a conflict that ended three years later with Paraguay's victory. Between 1941 and 1942 Peru and Ecuador fought for territories claimed americas best glasses hours both that were picture of south america by Peru, usurping Ecuador's frontier with Brazil.[45]

Also in this doc holliday wynonna earp, the first major naval battle of World War II took place in the South Atlantic close to the continental mainland: the Battle of the River Plate, between a British cruiser squadron and a German pocket batttleship.[46] The Germans still made numerous attacks on Brazilian ships on the coast, causing Brazil to declare war on the Axis powers in 1942, being the only South American country to fight in this war (and in both World Wars). Brazil sent naval and air forces to combat German and Italian submarines off the continent and throughout the South Atlantic, in addition to sending an expeditionary force to fight in the Italian Campaign.[47][48]

A brief war was fought between Argentina and the UK in 1982, following an Argentine invasion of the Falkland Islands, which ended with an Argentine defeat. The last international war to be fought on South American soil was the 1995 Cenepa War between Ecuador and the Peru along their mutual border.

Rise and fall of military dictatorships[edit]

Wars became less frequent in the 20th century, with Bolivia-Paraguay and Peru-Ecuador fighting the last inter-state wars. Early in the 20th century, the three wealthiest South American countries engaged in a vastly expensive naval arms race which began after the introduction of a new warship type, the "dreadnought". At one point, the Argentine government was spending a fifth of its entire yearly budget for just two dreadnoughts, a price that did not include later in-service costs, which for the Brazilian dreadnoughts was sixty percent of the initial purchase.[49][50]

The continent became a battlefield of the Cold War in the late 20th century. Some democratically elected governments of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay were overthrown or displaced by military dictatorships in the 1960s and 1970s. To curtail opposition, their governments detained tens of thousands of political prisoners, many of whom were tortured and/or killed on inter-state collaboration. Economically, they began a transition to neoliberal economic policies. They placed their own actions within the US Cold War doctrine of "National Security" against internal subversion. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Peru suffered from an internal conflict.

In 1982, Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands, a British dependent territory. The Falklands War began and 74 days later Argentine forces surrendered.[51]

Colombia has had an ongoing, though diminished internal conflict, which started in 1964 with the creation of Marxistguerrillas (FARC-EP) and then involved several illegal armed groups of leftist-leaning ideology as well as the private armies of powerful drug lords. Many of these are now defunct, and only a small portion of the ELN remains, along with the stronger, though also greatly reduced, FARC.

Revolutionary movements and right-wing military dictatorships became common after World War II, but since the 1980s, a wave of democratization passed through the continent, and democratic rule is widespread now.[52] Nonetheless, allegations of corruption are still very common, and several countries have developed crises which have forced the resignation of their governments, although, on most occasions, regular civilian succession has continued.

Presidents of UNASURmember states at the Second Brasília Summit on 23 May 2008.

International indebtedness turned into a severe problem in the late 1980s, and some countries, despite having strong democracies, have not yet developed political institutions capable of handling such crises without resorting to unorthodox economic policies, as most recently illustrated by Argentina's default in the early 21st century.[53][neutrality is disputed] The last twenty years have seen an increased push towards regional integration, with the creation of uniquely South American institutions such as the Andean Community, Mercosur and Unasur. Notably, starting with the election of Hugo Chávez in Venezuela in 1998, the region experienced what has been termed a pink tide[citation needed] – the election of several leftist and center-left administrations to most countries of the area, except for the Guianas and Colombia.

Contemporary issues[edit]

South America’s political geography since the 1990s has been characterized by a desire to reduce foreign influence.[54] The nationalization of industries, by which the state controls entire economic sectors (as opposed of private companies doing it), has become a prominent political issues in the region.[54] Some South American nations have nationalized their electricity industries.[54]

Countries and territories[edit]

See also: List of South American countries by population

ArmsFlag Country or territoryCapitalArea[55]Population
(2018)[1][2]
Population
density
Coat of arms of Argentina.svgArgentinaBuenos Aires2,766,890 km2
(1,068,300 sq mi)
44,361,150 14.3/km2
(37/sq mi)
BoliviaBoliviaLa Paz,
Sucre[note 9]
1,098,580 km2
(424,160 sq mi)
11,353,142 8.4/km2
(22/sq mi)
NorwayBouvet Island
(Norway)[note 10]
49 km2
(19 sq mi)
0 0/km2
(0/sq mi)
BrazilBrazilBrasília8,514,877 km2
(3,287,612 sq mi)
209,469,323 22/km2
(57/sq mi)
ChileChile[note 11]Santiago756,950 km2
(292,260 sq mi)
18,729,160 22/km2
(57/sq mi)
ColombiaColombiaBogotá1,141,748 km2
(440,831 sq mi)
49,661,048 40/km2
(100/sq mi)
EcuadorEcuadorQuito283,560 km2
(109,480 sq mi)
17,084,358 53.8/km2
(139/sq mi)
Falkland IslandsFalkland Islands
(United Kingdom)
Stanley12,173 km2
(4,700 sq mi)
3,234 0.26/km2
(0.67/sq mi)
French GuianaFlag of French Guiana.svgFrench Guiana
(France)
Cayenne (Préfecture) 91,000 km2
(35,000 sq mi)
282,938 2.1/km2
(5.4/sq mi)
GuyanaGuyanaGeorgetown214,999 km2
(83,012 sq mi)
779,006 3.5/km2
(9.1/sq mi)
Coat of arms of Paraguay.svgParaguayAsunción406,750 km2
(157,050 sq mi)
6,956,066 15.6/km2
(40/sq mi)
PeruPeruLima1,285,220 km2
(496,230 sq mi)
31,989,260 22/km2
(57/sq mi)
South Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
(United Kingdom)[note 12]
King Edward Point3,093 km2
(1,194 sq mi)
20 0/km2
(0/sq mi)
SurinameSurinameParamaribo163,270 km2
(63,040 sq mi)
575,990 3/km2
(7.8/sq mi)
UruguayUruguayMontevideo176,220 km2
(68,040 sq mi)
3,449,285 19.4/km2
(50/sq mi)
VenezuelaVenezuelaCaracas916,445 km2
(353,841 sq mi)
28,887,118 27.8/km2
(72/sq mi)
Total 17,824,513 km2
(6,882,083 sq mi)
423,581,078 21.5/km2
(56/sq mi)

Government and politics[edit]

Historically, the Hispanic countries were founded as Republican dictatorships led by caudillos. Brazil was the only exception, being a constitutional monarchy for its first 67 years of independence, until a coup d'état proclaimed a republic. In the late 19th century, the most democratic countries were Brazil,[57]Chile, Argentina and Uruguay.[58]

All South American countries are presidential republics with the exception of Suriname, a parliamentary republic. French Guiana is a French overseas department, while the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands are British overseas territories. It is currently the only inhabited continent in the world without monarchies; the Empire of Brazil existed during the 19th century and there was an unsuccessful attempt to establish a Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia in southern Argentina and Chile. Also in the twentieth century, Suriname was established as a constituent kingdom of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Guyana retained the British monarch as head of state for 4 years after its independence.

Recently, an intergovernmental entity has been formed which aims to merge the two existing customs unions: Mercosur and the Andean Community, thus forming the third-largest trade bloc in the world.[59] This new political organization, known as Union of South American Nations, seeks to establish free movement of people, economic development, a common defense policy and the elimination of tariffs.

Demographics[edit]

picture of south america width="170" height="191">
Satellite view of South America at night from NASA.

South America has a population of over 428 million people. They are distributed as to form a “hollow continent” with most of the population concentrated around the margins of the continent.[54] On one hand, there are several sparsely populated areas such as tropical forests, the Atacama Desert and the icy portions of Patagonia. Hotels near university at buffalo the other hand, the continent presents regions of high population density, such as the great urban centers. The population is formed by descendants of Europeans (mainly Spaniards, Portuguese and Italians), Africans and Amerindians. There is a high percentage of Mestizos that vary greatly in composition by place. There is also a minor population of Asians,[further explanation needed] especially in Brazil, Peru, and Argentina. The two main languages are by far Spanish and Portuguese, followed by English, French and Dutch in smaller numbers.

Language[edit]

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_America

Perry-Castañeda Library
Map Collection

Maps of the Americas



The following maps were produced by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, unless otherwise indicated.

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z

  • Americas - Aeronautical Charts - Joint Operations Graphic Series 1:250,000 [Not for navigational use]
  • Americas - Aeronautical Charts - Operational Navigation Chart Series 1:1,000,000 [Not for navigational use]
  • Americas - Aeronautical Charts - Tactical Pilotage Chart Series 1:500,000 [Not for navigational use]
  • Anguilla (Small Map) 2016 (6.4K)
  • Antigua and Barbuda (Shaded Relief) 1995 (162K)
  • Antigua and Barbuda (Small Map) 2016 (6K)
  • Argentina Maps
  • Aruba (Political) 1989 (172K)
  • Aruba (Small Map) 2016 (8K)
  • Bahamas (Political) 1986 (169K)
  • Bahamas (Shaded Relief) 1986 (271K)
  • Bahamas (Small Map) 2016 (13.3K)
  • Barbados Maps
  • Belize Maps
  • Bermuda (Political) 1976 (325K)
  • Bermuda (Small Map) 2016 (11.2K)
  • Bolivia Maps
  • Brazil Maps
  • British Virgin Islands (Small Amazon credit card login website 2016 (9.2K)
  • Canada Maps
  • Caribbean (Political) 2006 (464KB)
  • Caribbean (Political) 1988 (195K)
  • Cayman Islands (Political) 1976 (103K) and pdf format (106K)
  • Cayman Islands (Small Map) 2016 (4.6K)
  • Central America and the Caribbean (Political) 2013 (356K) [pdf format]
  • Central America and the Caribbean (Political) 2012 (1.5MB) [pdf format]
  • Central America and the Caribbean (Political) 1997 (434K) and pdf format (421K)
  • Central America and the Caribbean (Political) 1995 (476K)
  • Central America and the Caribbean (Political) 1993 (156K)
  • Central America and the Caribbean (Political) 1997 (1.3MB) [pdf format]
  • Central America and the Caribbean (Reference Map) 2013 (709K) [pdf format]
  • Central America and the Caribbean (Reference Map) 2012 (628K) [pdf format]
  • Central America and the Caribbean (Reference Map) 2011 (606K) [pdf format]
  • Central America and the Caribbean (Reference Map) 2010 (603K) [pdf format]
  • Central America and the Caribbean (Reference Map) 2002 (310K) and pdf format (311K)
  • Central America and the Caribbean (Reference Map) 2001 (275K)
  • Central America and the Caribbean (Reference Map) 1999 (111K) and larger jpeg (460K)
  • Central America and the Caribbean (Reference Map) 2001 (1.5MB) [pdf format]
  • Central America and the Caribbean (Reference Map - for printing) 2001 (1.5MB) [pdf format]
  • Central America and the Caribbean (Reference Map) 2000 (709K) [pdf format]
  • Central America and the Caribbean (Reference Map) 1999 (520K) [pdf format]
  • Chile Maps
  • Colombia Maps
  • Costa Rica Maps
  • Cuba Maps
  • Curacao (Small Map) 2016 (4.6K)
  • Dominica, Guadeloupe, and Martinique (Political) 1976 (174K)
  • Dominica (Shaded Relief) 1990 (245K)
  • Dominica (Small Map) 2016 (7.6K)
  • Dominican Republic Maps
  • Ecuador Maps
  • El Salvador Maps
  • Falkland Islands (Shaded Relief) 1982 (177K)
  • Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) (Small Map) 2016 (11.5K)
  • French Guiana Maps
  • Grenada (Shaded Relief) 1990 (210K) and pdf format (185K)
  • Grenada (Small Map) 2016 (9.1K)
  • Guadeloupe (Small Map) 2007 (11K)
  • Guatemala Maps
  • Guyana Maps
  • Haiti Maps
  • Honduras Maps
  • Jamaica Maps
  • Latin America (Political) 1990 (264K)
  • Latin America - Aeronautical Charts [37 maps] Operational Navigation Chart Series, original scale 1:1,000,000. Not for Navigational Use.
  • Leeward Islands (Political) 1989 (166K)
  • Martinique (Small Map) 2006 (8K)
  • Mexico Maps
  • Middle America (Political) 1994 (290K)
  • Montserrat (Small Map) 2016 (15.6K)
  • Montserrat 1:50,000, Directorate of Overseas Surveys, D.O.S. 999, First Edition, 1962 (2.3MB)
  • Navassa Island (U.S.) Maps
  • Netherlands Antilles, Aruba (Political) 1989 (172K) and pdf format (174K)
  • Netherlands Antilles (Small Map) 2010 (10K)
  • Nicaragua Maps
  • North America (Political) 2012 (3.6MB) [pdf format]
  • North America (Political) 2006 (753KB)
  • North America (Political) 1997 (374K)
  • North America (Political) 1995 (555K)
  • North America (Political) 1992 (209K)
  • North America (Political) 1997 (1.9MB) [pdf format]
  • North America (Reference Map) 2010 (619K) [pdf format]
  • North America (Reference Map) 2007 (942K)
  • North America (Reference Map) 2007 (411K) [pdf format]
  • North America (Reference Map) 2002 (311K)
  • North America (Reference Map) 2002 (267K) [pdf format]
  • North America (Reference Map) 2001 (251K)
  • North America (Reference Map) 2001 (998K) [pdf format]
  • North America (Reference Map) 2000 (294K)
  • North America (Reference Map) 2000 (774K) [pdf format]
  • North America (Reference Map) 1999 (206K)
  • North America (Reference Map) 1999 (539K) [pdf format]
  • North and South America (Political) 1996 (315K)
  • Panama Maps
  • Paraguay Maps
  • Peru Maps
  • Peru-Ecuador (Area of Boundary Dispute) 1981 (288K)
  • Puerto Rico Maps
  • Saint Barthelemy (Small Map) 2016 (11.7K)
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis (Shaded Relief) 1996 (190K)and pdf format (193K)
  • [Saint Kitts] Saint Christopher and Nevis (Shaded Relief) 1983 (200K) and pdf format (203K)
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis (Small Map) 2016 (7.4K)
  • Saint Lucia (Shaded Relief) 1991 (234K) and pdf format (253K)
  • Saint Lucia (Small Map) 2016 (13.3K)
  • Saint Martin (Small Map) 2016 (17.5K)
  • Saint Pierre and Miquelon (France) (Small Map) 2016 (6.6K)
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (Shaded Relief) 1996 (191K) and pdf format (193K)
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (Shaded Relief) 1988 (277K) and pdf format (277K)
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (Small Map) 2016 (9.5K)
  • Sint Maarten (Small Map) 2016 (17K)
  • South America (Political) 2012 (1.7MB) [pdf format]
  • South America (Political) 1998 (323K)
  • South America (Political) 1995 (229K)
  • South America (Political) 1989 (208K)
  • South America (Political) 1997 (1MB) [pdf format]
  • South America (Reference Map) 2011 (440K) [pdf format]
  • South America (Reference Map) 2010 (438K) [pdf format]
  • South America (Reference Map) 2004 (506K) and pdf format (959K)
  • South America (Reference Map) 2002 (242K) and pdf format (245K)
  • South America (Reference Map) 2001 (191K)
  • South America (Reference Map) 1999 (157K) larger jpeg image (267K)
  • South America (Reference Map) 2001 (774K) [pdf format]
  • South America (Reference Map) 2000 (704K) [pdf format]
  • South America (Reference Map) 1999 (539K) [pdf format]
  • Suriname Maps
  • Swan Islands (Honduras) (Nautical Chart) original scale 1:100,000 Defense Mapping Agency 1985 (175K) Not for navigational use
  • Trinidad and Tobago (Political) 1976 (127K) and pdf format (132K)
  • Trinidad and Tobago (Shaded Relief) 1969 (245K)
  • Trinidad and Tobago (Small Map) 2016 (19.3K)
  • Turks and Caicos Islands (Political) 1976 (183K) and pdf format (186K)
  • Turks and Caicos Islands (Small Map) 2016 (9.8K)
  • United States Maps
  • Uruguay (Political) 1995 (255K) and pdf format (304K)
  • Uruguay (Political) 1973 (256K) and pdf format (258K)
  • Uruguay (Shaded Relief) 1995 (295K) and pdf format (299K)
  • Uruguay (Small Map) 2016 (19.4K)
  • Venezuela Maps
  • Virgin Islands (Political) 1976 (142K)
  • Virgin Islands (Small Map) 2016 (9.2K)
  • Virgin Islands (U.S.) Maps
Источник: https://maps.lib.utexas.edu/maps/americas.html

Records of the office of Inter-American Affairs [OIAA]


(Record Group 229)
1937-51
812 cu. ft.

Overview of Records Locations

Table of Contents

  • 229.1 ADMINISTRATIVE HISTORY
  • 229.2 GENERAL RECORDS OF THE OFFICE OF INTER-AMERICAN AFFAIRS AND ITS PREDECESSORS 1940-46 227 lin. ft.
  • 229.3 RECORDS OF THE IMMEDIATE OFFICE OF THE COORDINATOR 1940-49 16 lin. ft.
  • 229.3.1 General records
  • 229.3.2 Records of the Office of General Counsel
  • 229.4 RECORDS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 1940-46 11 lin. ft.
  • 229.4.1 General records
  • 229.4.2 Records of the Commercial and Financial Division
  • 229.4.3 Records of the Research Division
  • 229.5 RECORDS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION 1940-47 129 lin. ft.
  • 229.5.1 General records
  • 229.5.2 Records of the Air Transportation Division
  • 229.5.3 Records of the Ocean Shipping Division
  • 229.5.4 Records of the Railway Transportation Division
  • 229.5.5 Records of the U.S. Railway Mission in Mexico
  • 229.6 RECORDS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION 1940-50 129 lin ft.
  • 229.6.1 Records of the Motion Picture Division
  • 229.6.2 Records of the Radio Division
  • 229.6.3 Records of the Education Division
  • 229.6.4 Records of the Regional Division
  • 229.7 RECORDS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF PRESS AND PUBLICATIONS 1940-46 12 lin. ft.
  • 229.7.1 General records
  • 229.7.2 Records of the Feature Division
  • 229.7.3 Records of the Graphics and Publications Division
  • 229.8 RECORDS OF THE DIVISION OF AGRICULTURE 1941-43 1 lin. ft.
  • 229.9 RECORDS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF BASIC ECONOMY 1937-51 96 lin. ft.
  • 229.9.1 General Records
  • 229.9.2 Records of the Division of Health and Sanitation
  • 229.9.3 Records of the Food Supply Division
  • 229.9.4 Records of the Emergency Rehabilitation Division
  • 229.10 RECORDS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF SPECIAL SERVICES 1941-46 1 lin. ft.
  • 229.11 CARTOGRAPHIC RECORDS (GENERAL)
  • 229.12 MOTION PICTURES (GENERAL)
  • 229.13 SOUND RECORDINGS (GENERAL)
  • 229.14 STILL PICTURES (GENERAL) 1942-45 3,386 images

229.1 ADMINISTRATIVE HISTORY

Established: In the Executive Office of the President (EOP) by EO 9532, March 23, 1945.

Predecessor Agencies:

  • Office for Coordination of Commercial and Cultural Relations Between the American Republics (OCCCRBAR), Council of National Defense, (1940-41)
  • Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs (OCIAA)
  • Office for Emergency Management, EOP (1941-45)

Functions: Promoted increased hemispheric solidarity and inter- American cooperation, especially in commercial and economic areas. Information function transferred to Interim International Information Service, Department of State, by EO 9608, August 31, 1945.

Abolished: By EO 9710, April 10, 1946, effective May 20, 1946.

Successor Agencies: Institute of Inter-American Affairs, Department of State.

Finding Aids: Edwin D. Anthony, comp., Inventory of the Records of the Office of Inter-American Affairs, Inv. 7 (1973).

Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Office of Inter-American Affairs in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government. General Records of the Department of State, RG 59.

229.2 GENERAL RECORDS OF THE OFFICE OF INTER-AMERICAN AFFAIRS AND
ITS PREDECESSORS
1940-46
227 lin. ft.

History: OCCCRBAR established by Council of National Defense order, August 16, 1940. Abolished by EO 8840, July 30, 1941, with functions transferred to OCIAA, established in Office for Emergency Management, EOP, by same order. OCIAA redesignated Office of Inter-American Affairs, 1945. SEE 229.1.

Textual Records: Central files, 1940-45. History of the office, 1946. Report on field activities, 1946. Administrative field manual, 1943. Register and index of projects, n.d. Register of contracts, n.d. Project authorizations, 1942-45. Project status reports, 1942-45.

229.3 RECORDS OF THE IMMEDIATE OFFICE OF THE COORDINATOR
1940-49
16 lin. ft.

229.3.1 General records

Textual Records: Minutes of committees on which the coordinator served, 1940-41. Weekly progress reports, September-December 1940.

229.3.2 Records of the Office of General Counsel

Textual Records: General records, 1941-44. Correspondence, 1942- 48. Records relating to subsidiary corporations and other organizations, 1942-49. Minutes of meetings of subsidiary corporations, 1942-48.

229.4 RECORDS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
1940-46
11 lin. ft.

229.4.1 General records

Textual Records: Project files, including the Mexican-American Commission for Economic Cooperation, 1940-45.

229.4.2 Records of the Commercial and Financial Division

Textual Records: General records, 1942-45. Records relating to the inland waterway survey, 1942-44; and to the Mexican-American Commission for Economic Cooperation, 1943-44.

229.4.3 Records of the Research Division

Textual Records: "Latin American Economic Newsletter," 1941-42. Weekly Economic Bulletin, 1943-45. Daily Information Bulletin, 1942-46. Reports, 1942.

229.5 RECORDS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
1940-47
129 lin. ft.

229.5.1 General records

Textual Records: Reports, correspondence, minutes, and other records, 1942-46. Project files, 1940-46. Communications sent, 1940-47. Records relating to the Institute of Inter-American Transportation, 1943-45; transportation missions and surveys, 1943-46; the Pan American Highway and the inland waterway survey, 1943-46; and the highway engineers training project, 1945-46. Commodities, subject, and country files relating to ocean shipping, 1940-45. Records relating to newsprint shipments, 1941- 45; the Mexican-American Commission for Economic Cooperation, 1943-44; tourism, 1943-45; and the Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals ("Black List"), 1945-46. Correspondence concerning visits to the United States by Latin American transportation officials, 1945-46. Reports and news clippings, 1943-46.

229.5.2 Records of the Air Transportation Division

Textual Records: General correspondence and miscellaneous records, 1941-46.

229.5.3 Records of the Ocean Shipping Division

Textual Records: General correspondence and information file, 1940-45. Records relating to exports, imports, and shipping, 1941-44. Records of the consultant, 1943-46.

Maps (55 items): Manuscript, blueprint, and published maps, mostly of South American countries and cities, n.d. SEE ALSO 229.11.

229.5.4 Records of the Peoples united login Transportation Division

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1942-46. Records relating to railway missions and technicians, including U.S. mission to Mexico, 1942-47; and to export of materials for Mexican railroads, 1943-46. Communications sent relating to railway missions, 1942-46. Correspondence regarding orders for railway equipment, 1942-46. Correspondence with the chief of the mission in Mexico, 1942-45. Monthly progress reports of the mission in Mexico, 1942-46; and of the departments of the mission to the mission chief, 1943-46. Digests of progress reports, 1942- 43. Monthly progress graphs, 1943-45.

229.5.5 Records of the U.S. Railway Mission in Mexico

Textual Records: General records, 1943-46, with index. General correspondence, 1942-44. Records and correspondence of the chief, 1942-46. Records relating to activities of the mission departments, 1943-46. Records relating to surveys and rehabilitation projects, 1943-45; procurement of materials, ca. 1942-45; and Mexican trainees, 1944. Inventories of railroad cars, n.d. Locomotive repair records, 1944. Railroad profiles and repair schedules, 1943-44.

229.6 RECORDS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION
1940-50
129 lin ft.

229.6.1 Records of the Motion Picture Division

Textual Records: Project files, 1942-45. Records relating to the Motion Picture Society of the Americas, 1942-45.

Motion Pictures (45 reels): Travel and archaeology in Latin America, U.S. civilian and military wartime activities, Latin American contributions to the war effort, and visits of Latin American dignitaries to the United States, acquired by or produced for the OIAA for distribution in the United States and Latin America, 1940-45.

229.6.2 Records of the Radio Division

Textual Records: Report reviewing division operations, 1945. Radio reaction reports, ca. 1942. Miscellaneous reports and issuances, 1941-43. General records of the San Francisco office, 1942-46. Logs and schedules of the San Francisco office, 1942-46. Radio program scripts, 1941-45.

Sound Recordings (24 items): Radio broadcasts to Latin America, mostly in Spanish, of news reports and commentaries, speeches, and special ceremonies, 1941-47.

229.6.3 Records of the Education Division

Textual Records: Project files, 1941-50. Records relating to field operations, 1944-50; and to exhibits and related projects, 1941-43. Us bank bank customer service program files, 1946-49. Reports and other records, 1940-42.

229.6.4 Records of the Regional Division

Textual Records: Minutes of the coordination committees (unpaid businessmen who provided guidance in adapting OIAA programs to local conditions and executed programs not appropriately handled by the embassy), 1942-45; and communications received from them, 1942-45, with register. Samples of local printing, 1943-45. Records of the coordination committees for Argentina, 1941-45; Brazil, 1941-46; Colombia, 1941-47; Costa Rica, 1942-45; Cuba, 1942-46; Dominican Republic, 1942-44; Ecuador, 1942-45; Guatemala, 1942-45; Haiti, 1942-45; Nicaragua, 1942-47; Panama, 1942-45; Peru, 1941-46; Uruguay, 1942-46; and Venezuela, 1942-46. Records of the regional subcommittee for Cartagena, 1942-45.

229.7 RECORDS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF PRESS AND PUBLICATIONS
1940-46
12 lin. ft.

229.7.1 General records

Textual Records: Correspondence, memorandums, reports, press clippings and other records, 1941-45. Press releases, 1940-43.

229.7.2 Records of the Feature Division

Textual Records: Weekly reports, 1942-46. Press clippings, 1942- 45.

229.7.3 Records of the Graphics and Publications Division

Textual Records: En Guardia, 1941-45, with indexes. The American Newsletter, 1941-43. The New York Times Overseas Weekly, 1943-45.

Posters and Drawings (79 images): Posters, drawings illustrating the common heritage of North and South America, images of Nazi rule in Poland, and drawings of 18th and 19th century Latin American leaders, 1941-45 (PG). SEE ALSO 229.14.

229.8 RECORDS Picture of south america THE DIVISION OF AGRICULTURE
1941-43
1 lin. ft.

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1941-43.

229.9 RECORDS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF BASIC ECONOMY
1937-51
96 lin. ft.

229.9.1 General Records

Textual Records: Special project files, 1941-51. Reports on future planning, 1948.

229.9.2 Records of the Division of Health and Sanitation

Textual Records: Correspondence, memorandums, and reports, 1942- picture of south america. Training program subject files, 1942-51, and country files, 1943-48. Progress reports of field parties, 1942-51. Quarterly reports of the Servicio Especial de Saude Publica, 1944, 1946-50. Records of the cooperative health program in the Dominican Republic, 1943-48.

Architectural and Engineering Plans (660 items): Structures and equipment for health first national bank severna park sanitation projects, including plans for water supply, drainage and sewer systems, hospitals, schools, dispensaries, and types of machinery, 1937-51. SEE ALSO 229.11.

229.9.3 Records of the Food Supply Division

Textual Records: General records, 1943-49. Project files, 1942- 47. Records relating to motion pictures, 1943-47.

229.9.4 Records of the Emergency Rehabilitation Division

Textual Records: Project file, 1942-44. Correspondence relating to Coordination Committees, 1942-44. Records of the El Oro (Ecuador) technical mission, 1942-44. Reports, 1942.

229.10 RECORDS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF SPECIAL SERVICES
1941-46
1 lin. ft.

Textual Records: Records relating to minorities, 1941-43; and to exhibits and lectures, 1942-46. Miscellaneous records, 1941-42.

229.11 CARTOGRAPHIC RECORDS (GENERAL)

SEE Maps UNDER 229.5.3. SEE Architectural and Engineering Plans UNDER 229.9.2.

229.12 MOTION PICTURES (GENERAL)

SEE UNDER 229.6.1.

229.13 SOUND RECORDINGS (GENERAL)

SEE UNDER 229.6.2.

229.14 STILL PICTURES (GENERAL)
1942-45
3,386 images

Photographs: Military, industrial, agricultural, and social activities in Central and South American countries, and such notables as OCCCRBAR Chairman Nelson A. Rockefeller (Rockefeller Collection), 1942-45 (R, 3,000 images). Visits to the United States of Peruvian President Manuel Prado, May 1942 (PV, 120 images); Paraguayan President Higinio Picture of south america, ca. June 1944 (MV, 57 images); and Gen. Enrico Gaspar Dutra, August-September 1943 (DV, 125 images). U.S. officials in Brazil, 1942-45 (AVB, 84 images).

SEE Posters and Drawings UNDER 229.7.3.

Источник: https://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/229.html

Ushuaia: Photos From the End of the World

On the Tierra del Fuego archipelago, at the southern tip of South America, sits the Argentinian city of Ushuaia, known as the southernmost city in the world, or sometimes, “the end of the world.” A couple of months ago, Getty photographer Mario Tama spent a short time in Ushuaia, capturing images of the harbor, the city, the people, the mountains, and nearby glaciers. He found that residents are facing several challenges, including the possible loss of their main drinking-water supply as the Martial Glacier retreats. Tama: “Ushuaia and surrounding Tierra del Fuego face other environmental challenges, including a population boom leading to housing challenges following an incentivization program attracting workers from around Argentina. Population in the region increased elevenfold between 1970 and 2015 to around 150,000. An influx of cruise-ship tourists and crew, many on their way to Antarctica, has also led to increased waste and pollution in the area.”

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Источник: https://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2017/12/ushuaia-photos-from-the-end-of-the-world/548897/

GIGA Institute for Latin American Studies

The GIGA Institute for Latin American Studies is the only non‐university research institute in Germany that is dedicated to the analysis of political, social, and economic developments in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). GIGA's Latin America scholars research, among other topics, the quality of democratic institutions and participation; the challenges posed by violence and crime; the interaction of inequality and politics; social, health and gender policies; immigration and emigration; and regional integration, with publications in lead journals and active knowledge transfer efforts.

The GIGA Institute for Latin American Studies has a global reputation as one of the leading academic centres on LAC in Europe, and has a constant flow of doctoral and visiting researchers from LAC countries. GIGA's Latin America scholars have recently held leadership roles in organisations such as the German Latin American Studies Association (ADLAF), the Latin American Political Science Association (ALACIP), and the American Political Science Association (APSA). Moreover, the regional institute hosts the secretariat of the network “Red Euro‐Latinoamericana de Gobernabilidad para el Desarrollo” (RedGob), and co-edits, with Prof. Rossana Castiglioni from Universidad Diego Portales in Santiago de Chile, the Journal of Politics in Latin America, one of the four peer‐reviewed Open Access journals of the GIGA Journal Family. 

The GIGA Institute for Latin American Studies is also actively engaged in knowledge exchange with the policy community, both here in Germany and the European Union as well as in LAC, most recently as a co-organiser, with the German Foreign Office, of a high-level event at the EU-LAC Foreign Ministers’ conference in 2020.

In December 2021, the GIGA Institute for Latin American Studies will hold its inaugural Policy Challenges in Latin America conference. This event, which also counts on the co-operation of the EU-LAC Foundation, will bring together a group of top social scientists from institutions in Latin America, Europe and the United States. More information will be forthcoming soon!

Источник: https://www.giga-hamburg.de/en/institutes/giga-institute-for-latin-american-studies/

Latin America and the Caribbean

Overview

Economic transformation has made great strides in Latin Picture of south america and the Caribbean, yet wide inequalities persist. Home to 595 million people, this region offers valuable lessons, but there is still much work to do.

Most impressive is that all countries in the region, except for Haiti, are now considered middle-income. However, one person in four still lives in poverty, and the poor tend to be concentrated in rural areas. Eighty per cent of the region’s population is urban.

Among the poorest and most marginalized are women, indigenous peoples, and those of African descent. Some 15 million people live by farming a huge variety of crops; others inhabit expansive forests. However, traditional agricultural techniques are evolving in the face of economic and climate change.

Transforming rural communities

IFAD has been active in this remarkably diverse region, where we pioneered community-centric development, for four decades. By encouraging local people to identify projects that could enhance their picture of south america, and then providing training and financial assistance to carry out those projects, we have helped to transform communities and demonstrate the benefits of bottom-up development strategies.

Working together, with and for the poor

IFAD partners with governments, NGOs and communities to draw up pro-poor policies that benefit rural areas, and to implement them in the most effective ways.

By the end of 2016, IFAD was working with 19 governments to deliver 37 ongoing programmes across the region, with a total investment of US$770 million.*

Our breadth of expertise and geographical reach enables us to promote knowledge-sharing between projects and regions. Partnerships are fundamental to our efforts to further expand policies that level the playing field for small farmers through policy dialogue and South-South cooperation.

Examples of our work include helping:

  • young people become entrepreneurs;
  • farmers understand and access markets; and
  • indigenous peoples manage irrigation systems more effectively.

Everywhere we work, we bring appropriate solutions that raise rural incomes and help people respond to climate change.

* This amount includes the contributions of the Spanish Trust Fund, managed by IFAD.

Learn more

Some of the associated bank login 401k marginalized population groups can be found among the region’s 125 million rural people.

Over a quarter of the region’s population continues to live in poverty. In recent years, the absolute number of people living in poverty has increased.

Rural areas continue to experience inequality. In Bolivia, for example, poverty declined nationwide from 61 per cent in 2005 to 39 per cent in 2013. However, in rural areas, 60 per cent of the population lives in poverty and 39 per cent in extreme poverty.

Источник: https://www.ifad.org/en/web/operations/regions/lac

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South America

Continent

"Southern America" redirects here. For the region of the United States, see Southern United States. For the botanical continent defined in the World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, see Southern America (WGSRPD).

Map of South America showing physical, political, and population characteristics, as per 2018

South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere[note 6] and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It can also be described as the southern subregion of a single continent called America (see the United Nations geoscheme for the Americas). The reference to South America instead of other cultural or geographical regions (such as Latin America or the Southern Cone) has increased in recent decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil).[6][additional citation(s) needed]

South America is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean, North America and the Caribbean Sea lie to the northwest. The continent generally includes twelve sovereign states: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela; two dependent territories: the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands;[note 7] and one internal territory: French Guiana.[note 8] In addition, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Ascension Island (dependency of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, a British Overseas Territory), Bouvet Island (dependency of Norway), Panama, and Trinidad and Tobago may also be considered parts of South America.

South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers (6,890,000 sq mi). Its population as of 2018[update] has been estimated at more than 423 million.[1][2] South America ranks fourth in area (after Asia, Africa, and North America) and fifth in population (after Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America). Brazil is by far the most populous South American country, with more than half of the continent's population, followed by Colombia, Argentina, Venezuela and Peru. In recent decades, Brazil has also generated half of the continent's GDP and has become the continent's first regional power.[6]

Most of the population lives near the continent's western or eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated. The geography of western South America is dominated by the Andes mountains; in contrast, the eastern part contains both highland regions and vast lowlands where rivers such as the Amazon, Orinoco, São Francisco and Paraná flow. Most of the continent lies in the tropics, except for a large part of the Southern Cone located in the middle latitudes.

The continent's cultural and ethnic outlook has its origin with the interaction of indigenous peoples with European conquerors and immigrants and, more locally, with African slaves. Given a long history of colonialism, the overwhelming majority of South Americans speak Spanish or Portuguese, and societies and states reflect Western traditions. Relative to Europe, Asia and Africa, 20th-century South America has been a peaceful continent with few wars.[7]

Geography[edit]

Main article: Geography of South America

See also: Category:Environment of South America

A composite relief image of South America
Contemporary political map of South America

South America occupies the southern portion of the Americas. The continent is generally delimited on the northwest by the Darién watershed along the Colombia–Panama border, although some may consider the border instead to be the Panama Canal. Geopolitically[8] and geographically, all of Panama – including the segment east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus – is typically included in North America alone[9][10][11] and among the countries of Central America.[12][13] Almost all of mainland South America sits on the South American Plate.

South America is home to the world's highest uninterrupted waterfall, Angel Falls in Venezuela; the highest single drop waterfall Kaieteur Falls in Guyana; the largest river by volume, the Amazon River; the longest mountain range, the Andes (whose highest mountain is Aconcagua at 6,962 m or 22,841 ft); the driest non-polar place on earth, the Atacama Desert;[14][15][16] the wettest place on earth, López de Micay in Colombia; the largest rainforest, the Amazon rainforest; the highest capital city, La Paz, Bolivia; the highest commercially navigable lake in the world, Lake Titicaca; and, excluding research stations in Antarctica, the world's southernmost permanently inhabited community, Puerto Toro, Chile.

South America's major mineral resources are gold, silver, copper, iron ore, tin, and petroleum. These resources found in South America have brought high income to its countries especially in times of war or of rapid economic growth by industrialized countries elsewhere. However, the concentration in producing one major export commodity often has hindered the development of diversified economies. The fluctuation in the price of commodities in the international markets has led historically to major highs and lows in the economies of South American states, often causing extreme political instability. This is leading to efforts to diversify production to drive away from staying as economies dedicated to one major export.

Brazil is the largest country in South America, covering approx. 47.3% of the continent's land area and encompassing around half of the continent's population.[17] The remaining countries and territories are divided among four subregions: the Andean states, Caribbean South America, The Guianas, and the Southern Cone.[18]

Outlying islands[edit]

Physiographically, South America also includes some of the nearby islands. The DutchABC islands (Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao), the islands of Trinidad and Tobago (Trinidad Island and Tobago Island etc.), the State of Nueva Esparta, and the Federal Dependencies of Venezuela sit on the northern portion of the South American continental shelf and are sometimes considered parts of the continent. Geopolitically, all the island countries and territories in the Caribbean have generally been grouped as a subregion of North America instead. By contrast, Aves Island (administered by Venezuela) and the Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina (San Andrés Island, Providencia Island, and Santa Catalina Island etc., which are administered by Colombia) are politically parts of South American countries but physiographically parts of North America.[11][19][20]

Other islands often associated with South America are the Chiloé Archipelago and Robinson Crusoe Island (both administered by Chile), Easter Island (generally considered a part of Oceania, also administered by Chile), the Galápagos Islands (administered by Ecuador), and Tierra del Fuego (split between Argentina and Chile). In the Atlantic Ocean, Brazil administers Fernando de Noronha, Trindade and Martim Vaz, and the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, while the Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (biographically and hydrologically associated with Antarctica)[21] have been administered as two British Overseas Territories under the Crown, whose sovereignty over the islands is disputed by Argentina.

Special cases[edit]

An isolated volcanic island on the South American Plate, Ascension Island is geologically a part of South America.[22] Administered as a dependency of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, the island is geopolitically a part of Africa.

An uninhabited sub-Antarctic volcanic island located in the South Atlantic Ocean, Bouvet Island (administered by Norway) is geographically, geologically, biographically, and hydrologically associated with Antarctica, but the United Nations geoscheme has included the territory in South America instead.

Climate[edit]

Map of all tropical cyclone tracks from 1945 to 2006

The distribution of the average temperatures in the region presents a constant regularity from the 30° of latitude south, when the isotherms tend, more and more, to be confused with the degrees of latitude.[24]

In temperate latitudes, winters and summers are milder than in North America. This is because the most extensive part of the continent is in the equatorial zone (the region has more areas of equatorial plains than any other region.[24]), therefore giving the Southern Cone more oceanic influence, which moderates year round temperatures.

The average annual temperatures in the Amazon basin oscillate around 27 °C (81 °F), with low thermal amplitudes and high rainfall indices. Between the Maracaibo Lake and the mouth of the Orinoco, predominates an equatorial climate of the type Congolese, that also includes parts of the Brazilian territory.[24]

The east-central Brazilian plateau has a humid and warm tropical climate. The northern and eastern parts of the Argentine pampas have a humid subtropical climate with dry winters and humid summers of the Chinese type, while the western and eastern ranges have a subtropical climate of the dinaric type. At the highest points of the Andean region, climates are colder than the ones occurring at the highest point of the Norwegian fjords. In the Andean plateaus, the warm climate prevails, although it is tempered by the altitude, while in the coastal strip, there is an equatorial climate of the Guinean type. From this point until the north of the Chilean coast appear, successively, Mediterranean oceanic climate, temperate of the Breton type and, already in Tierra del Fuego, cold climate of the Siberian type.[24]

The distribution of rainfall is related to the regime of winds and air masses. In most of the tropical region east of the Andes, winds blowing from the northeast, east and southeast carry moisture from the Atlantic, causing abundant rainfall. However, due to a consistently strong wind shear and a weak Intertropical Convergence Zone, South Atlantic tropical cyclones are rare.[25] In the Orinoco Llanos and in the Guianas Plateau, the precipitation levels go from moderate to high. The Pacific coast of Colombia and northern Ecuador are rainy regions, with Chocó in Colombia being the rainiest place in the world along with the northern slopes of Indian Himalayas.[26] The Atacama Desert, along this stretch of coast, is one of the driest regions in the world. The central and southern parts of Chile are subject to extratropical cyclones, and most of the Argentine Patagonia is desert. In the Pampas of Argentina, Uruguay and South of Brazil the rainfall is moderate, with rains well distributed during the year. The moderately dry conditions of the Chaco oppose the intense rainfall of the eastern region of Paraguay. In the semiarid coast of the Brazilian Northeast the rains are linked to a monsoon regime.[24]

Important factors in the determination of climates are sea currents, such as the current Humboldt and Falklands. The equatorial current of the South Atlantic strikes the coast of the Northeast and there is divided into two others: the current of Brazil and a coastal current that flows to the northwest towards the Antilles, where there it moves towards northeast course thus forming the most Important and famous ocean current in the world, the Gulf Stream.[24][27]

Fauna[edit]

Main article: Fauna of South America

South America is one of the most biodiverse continents on Earth. South America is home to many unique species of animals including the llama, anaconda, piranha, jaguar, vicuña, and tapir. The Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity, containing a major proportion of Earth's species.

History[edit]

Main article: History of South America

Prehistory[edit]

Further information: History of South America § Pre-Columbian era

South America is believed to have been joined with Africa from the late Paleozoic Era to the early Mesozoic Era, until the supercontinentPangaea began to rift and break apart about 225 million years ago. Therefore, South America and Africa share similar fossils and rock layers.

South America is thought to have been first inhabited by humans when people were crossing the Bering Land Bridge (now the Bering Strait) at least 15,000 years ago from the territory that is present-day Russia. They migrated south through North America, and eventually reached South America through the Isthmus of Panama.

The first evidence for the existence of the human race in South America dates back to about 9000 BC, when squashes, chili peppers and beans began to be cultivated for food in the highlands of the Amazon Basin. Pottery evidence further suggests that manioc, which remains a staple food today, was being cultivated as early as 2000 BC.[28]

By 2000 BC, many agrarian communities had been settled throughout the Andes and the surrounding regions. Fishing became a widespread practice along the coast, helping establish fish as a primary source of food. Irrigation systems were also developed at this time, which aided in the rise of an agrarian society.[28]

South American cultures began domesticating llamas, vicuñas, guanacos, and alpacas in the highlands of the Andes circa 3500 BC. Besides their use as sources of meat and wool, these animals were used for transportation of goods.[28]

Pre-Columbian civilizations[edit]

Main article: Pre-Columbian era § South America

The rise of plant growing and the subsequent appearance of permanent human settlements allowed for the multiple and overlapping beginnings of civilizations in South America.

One of the earliest known South American civilizations was at Norte Chico, on the central Peruvian coast. Though a pre-ceramic culture, the monumental architecture of Norte Chico is contemporaneous with the pyramids of Ancient Egypt. Norte Chico governing class established a trade network and developed agriculture then followed by Chavín by 900 BC, according to some estimates and archaeological finds. Artifacts were found at a site called Chavín de Huantar in modern Peru at an elevation of 3,177 meters (10,423 ft). Chavín civilization spanned 900 BC to 300 BC.

In the central coast of Peru, around the beginning of the 1st millennium AD, Moche (100 BC – 700 AD, at the northern coast of Peru), Paracas and Nazca (400 BC – 800 AD, Peru) cultures flourished with centralized states with permanent militia improving agriculture through irrigation and new styles of ceramic art. At the Altiplano, Tiahuanaco or Tiwanaku (100 BC – 1200 AD, Bolivia) managed a large commercial network based on religion.

Around the 7th century, both Tiahuanaco and Wari or Huari Empire (600–1200, Central and northern Peru) expanded its influence to all the Andean region, imposing the Huari urbanism and Tiahuanaco religious iconography.

The Muisca were the main indigenous civilization in what is now Colombia. They established the Muisca Confederation of many clans, or cacicazgos, that had a free trade network among themselves. They were goldsmiths and farmers.

Other important Pre-Columbian cultures include: the Cañaris (in south central Ecuador), Chimú Empire (1300–1470, Peruvian northern coast), Chachapoyas, and the Aymaran kingdoms (1000–1450, Western Bolivia and southern Peru). Holding their capital at the great city of Cusco, the Inca civilization dominated the Andes region from 1438 to 1533. Known as Tawantin suyu, and "the land of the four regions," in Quechua, the Inca Empire was highly distinct and developed. Inca rule extended to nearly a hundred linguistic or ethnic communities, some nine to fourteen million people connected by a 25,000 kilometer road system. Cities were built with precise, unmatched stonework, constructed over many levels of mountain terrain. Terrace farming was a useful form of agriculture.

The Mapuche in Central and Southern Chile resisted the European and Chilean settlers, waging the Arauco War for more than 300 years.

European colonization[edit]

Main articles: Spanish colonization of the Americas and Portuguese colonization of the Americas

Woodcut depicting Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci's first voyage (1497-98) to the New World, from the first known published edition of Vespucci's 1504 letter to Piero Soderini.

In 1494, Portugal and Spain, the two great maritime European powers of that time, on the expectation of new lands being discovered in the west, signed the Treaty of Tordesillas, by which they agreed, with the support of the Pope, that all the land outside Europe should be an exclusive duopoly between the two countries.[29]

The treaty established an imaginary line along a north–south meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands, roughly 46° 37' W. In terms of the treaty, all land to the west of the line (known to comprise most of the South American soil) would belong to Spain, and all land to the east, to Portugal. As accurate measurements of longitude were impossible at that time, the line was not strictly enforced, resulting in a Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian.

Beginning in the 1530s, the people and natural resources of South America were repeatedly exploited by foreign conquistadors, first from Spain and later from Portugal. These competing colonial nations claimed the land and resources as their own and divided it into colonies.

European infectious diseases (smallpox, influenza, measles, and typhus) – to which the native populations had no immune resistance – caused large-scale depopulation of the native population under Spanish control. Systems of forced labor, such as the haciendas and mining industry's mit'a also contributed to the depopulation. After this, enslaved Africans, who had developed immunities to these diseases, were quickly brought in to replace them.

A map of the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas in 1790

The Spaniards were committed to converting their native subjects to Christianity and were quick to purge any native cultural practices that hindered this end; however, many initial attempts at this were only partially successful, as native groups simply blended Catholicism with their established beliefs and practices. Furthermore, the Spaniards brought their language to the degree they did with their religion, although the Roman Catholic Church's evangelization in Quechua, Aymara, and Guaraní actually contributed to the continuous use of these native languages albeit only in the oral form.

Eventually, the natives and the Spaniards interbred, forming a mestizo class. At the beginning, many mestizos of the Andean region were offspring of Amerindian mothers and Spanish fathers. After independence, most mestizos had native fathers and European or mestizo mothers.

Many native artworks were considered pagan idols and destroyed by Spanish explorers; this included many gold and silver sculptures and other artifacts found in South America, which were melted down before their transport to Spain or Portugal. Spaniards and Portuguese brought the western European architectural style to the continent, and helped to improve infrastructures like bridges, roads, and the sewer system of the cities they discovered or conquered. They also significantly increased economic and trade relations, not just between the old and new world but between the different South American regions and peoples. Finally, with the expansion of the Portuguese and Spanish languages, many cultures that were previously separated became united through that of Latin American.

Guyana was initially colonized by the Dutch before coming under British control, though there was a brief period during the Napoleonic Wars when it was occupied by the French. The region was initially partitioned between the Dutch, French and British before fully coming under the control of Britain.

Suriname was first explored by the Spanish in the 16th century and then settled by the English in the mid-17th century. It became a Dutch colony in 1667. [30]

Slavery in South America[edit]

See also: Slavery among the indigenous peoples of the Americas and Atlantic slave trade

Public flogging of a slave in 19th-century Brazil.

The indigenous peoples of the Americas in various European colonies were forced to work in European plantations and mines; along with enslaved Africans who were also introduced in the proceeding centuries via the slave trade. European colonists were heavily dependent on indigenous labor during the initial phases of settlement to maintain the subsistence economy, and natives were often captured by expeditions. The importation of African slaves began midway through the 16th century, but the enslavement of indigenous peoples continued well into the 17th and 18th centuries. The Atlantic slave trade brought enslaved Africans primarily to South American colonies, beginning with the Portuguese since 1502.[31] The main destinations of this phase were the Caribbean colonies and Brazil, as European nations built up economically slave-dependent colonies in the New World. Nearly 40% of all African slaves trafficked to the Americas went to Brazil. An estimated 4.9 million slaves from Africa came to Brazil during the period from 1501 to 1866.[32][33]

In contrast to other European colonies in the Americas which mainly used the labor of African slaves, Spanish colonists mainly enslaved indigenous Americans. In 1750, the Portuguese Crown abolished the enslavement of indigenous peoples in colonial Brazil, under the belief that they were unfit for labor and less effective than enslaved Africans. Enslaved Africans were brought to the Americas on slave ships, under inhuman conditions and ill-treatment, and those who survived were sold in slave markets.[34] After independence, all South American countries maintained slavery for some time. The first South American country to abolish slavery was Chile in 1823, Uruguay in 1830, Bolivia in 1831, Colombia and Ecuador in 1851, Argentina in 1853, Peru and Venezuela in 1854, Suriname in 1863, Paraguay in 1869, and in 1888 Brazil was the last South American nation and the last country in western world to abolish slavery.[35]

Independence from Spain and Portugal[edit]

Main articles: Spanish American wars of independence and Independence of Brazil

The European Peninsular War (1807–1814), a theater of the Napoleonic Wars, changed the political situation of both the Spanish and Portuguese colonies. First, Napoleon invaded Portugal, but the House of Braganza avoided capture by escaping to Brazil. Napoleon also captured King Ferdinand VII of Spain, and appointed his own brother instead. This appointment provoked severe popular resistance, which created Juntas to rule in the name of the captured king.

Many cities in the Spanish colonies, however, considered themselves equally authorized to appoint local Juntas like those of Spain. This began the Spanish American wars of independence between the patriots, who promoted such autonomy, and the royalists, who supported Spanish authority over the Americas. The Juntas, in both Spain and the Americas, promoted the ideas of the Enlightenment. Five years after the beginning of the war, Ferdinand VII returned to the throne and began the Absolutist Restoration as the royalists got the upper hand in the conflict.

The independence of South America was secured by Simón Bolívar (Venezuela) and José de San Martín (Argentina), the two most important Libertadores. Bolívar led a great uprising in the north, then led his army southward towards Lima, the capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Meanwhile, San Martín led an army across the Andes Mountains, along with Chilean expatriates, and liberated Chile. He organized a fleet to reach Peru by sea, and sought the military support of various rebels from the Viceroyalty of Peru. The two armies finally met in Guayaquil, Ecuador, where they cornered the Royal Army of the Spanish Crown and forced its surrender.

In the Portuguese Kingdom of Brazil, Dom Pedro I (also Pedro IV of Portugal), son of the Portuguese King Dom João VI, proclaimed the independent Kingdom of Brazil in 1822, which later became the Empire of Brazil. Despite the Portuguese loyalties of garrisons in Bahia, Cisplatina and Pará, independence was diplomatically accepted by the crown in Portugal in 1825, on condition of a high compensation paid by Brazil mediatized by the United Kingdom.

Nation-building and fragmentation[edit]

Battle of Fanfa, battle scene in Southern Brazil during the Ragamuffin War

The newly independent nations began a process of fragmentation, with several civil and international wars. However, it was not as strong as in Central America. Some countries created from provinces of larger countries stayed as such up to modern times (such as Paraguay or Uruguay), while others were reconquered and reincorporated into their former countries (such as the Republic of Entre Ríos and the Riograndense Republic).

The first separatist attempt was in 1820 by the Argentine province of Entre Ríos, led by a caudillo.[36] In spite of the "Republic" in its title, General Ramírez, its caudillo, never really intended to declare an independent Entre Rios. Rather, he was making a political statement in opposition to the monarchist and centralist ideas that back then permeated Buenos Aires politics. The "country" was reincorporated at the United Provinces in 1821.

In 1825 the Cisplatine Province declared its independence from the Empire of Brazil, which led to the Cisplatine War between the imperials and the Argentine from the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata to control the region. Three years later, the United Kingdom intervened in the question by proclaiming a tie and creating in the former Cisplatina a new independent country: The Oriental Republic of Uruguay.

Later in 1836, while Brazil was experiencing the chaos of the regency, Rio Grande do Sulproclaimed its independence motivated by a tax crisis. With the anticipation of the coronation of Pedro II to the throne of Brazil, the country could stabilize and fight the separatists, which the province of Santa Catarina had joined in 1839. The Conflict came to an end by a process of compromise by which both Riograndense Republic and Juliana Republic were reincorporated as provinces in 1845.[37][38]

The Peru–Bolivian Confederation, a short-lived union of Peru and Bolivia, was blocked by Chile in the War of the Confederation (1836–1839) and again during the War of the Pacific (1879–1883). Paraguay was virtually destroyed by Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay in the Paraguayan War.

Wars and conflicts[edit]

Despite the Spanish American wars of independence and the Brazilian War of Independence, the new nations quickly began to suffer with internal conflicts and wars among themselves. Most of the 1810 borders countries had initially accepted on the uti possidetis iuris principle had by 1848 either been altered by war or were constested.[39]

In 1825 the proclamation of independence of Cisplatina led to the Cisplatine War between historical rivals the Empire of Brazil and the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, Argentina's predecessor. The result was a stalemate, ending with the British government arranging for the independence of Uruguay. Soon after, another Brazilian province proclaimed its independence leading to the Ragamuffin War which Brazil won.

Between 1836 and 1839 the War of the Confederation broke out between the short-lived Peru-Bolivian Confederation and Chile, with the support of the Argentine Confederation. The war was fought mostly in the actual territory of Peru and ended with a Confederate defeat and the dissolution of the Confederacy and annexation of many territories by Argentina.

Meanwhile, the Argentine Civil Wars plagued Argentina since its independence. The conflict was mainly between those who defended the centralization of power in Buenos Aires and those who defended a confederation. During this period it can be said that "there were two Argentines": the Argentine Confederation and the Argentine Republic. At the same time, the political instability in Uruguay led to the Uruguayan Civil War among the main political factions of the country. All this instability in the platine region interfered with the goals of other countries such as Brazil, which was soon forced to take sides. In 1851 the Brazilian Empire, supporting the centralizing unitarians, and the Uruguayan government invaded Argentina and deposed the caudillo, Juan Manuel Rosas, who ruled the confederation with an iron hand. Although the Platine War did not put an end to the political chaos and civil war in Argentina, it brought temporary peace to Uruguay where the Colorados faction won, supported by the Brazil, Britain, France and the Unitarian Party of Argentina.[40]

Peace lasted only a short time: in 1864 the Uruguayan factions faced each other again in the Uruguayan War. The Blancos supported by Paraguay started to attack Brazilian and Argentine farmers near the borders. The Empire made an initial attempt to settle the dispute between Blancos and Colorados without success. In 1864, after a Brazilian ultimatum was refused, the imperial government declared that Brazil's military would begin reprisals. Brazil declined to acknowledge a formal state of war, and, for most of its duration, the Uruguayan–Brazilian armed conflict was an undeclared war which led to the deposition of the Blancos and the rise of the pro-Brazilian Colorados to power again. This angered the Paraguayan government, which even before the end of the war invaded Brazil, beginning the biggest and deadliest war in both South American and Latin American histories: the Paraguayan War.[citation needed]

The Paraguayan War began when the Paraguayan dictator Francisco Solano López ordered the invasion of the Brazilian provinces of Mato Grosso and Rio Grande do Sul. His attempt to cross Argentinian territory without Argentinian approval led the pro-Brazilian Argentine government into the war. The pro-Brazilian Uruguayan government showed its support by sending troops. In 1865 the three countries signed the Treaty of the Triple Alliance against Paraguay. At the beginning of the war, the Paraguayans took the lead with several victories, until the Triple Alliance organized to repel the invaders and fight effectively. This was the second total war experience in the world after the American Civil War. It was deemed the greatest war effort in the history of all participating countries, taking almost 6 years and ending with the complete devastation of Paraguay. The country lost 40% of its territory to Brazil and Argentina and lost 60% of its population, including 90% of the men. The dictator Lopez was killed in battle and a new government was instituted in alliance with Brazil, which maintained occupation forces in the country until 1876.[41]

The last South American war in the 19th century was the War of the Pacific with Bolivia and Peru on one side and Chile on the other. In 1879 the war began with Chilean troops occupying Bolivian ports, followed by Bolivia declaring war on Chile which activated an alliance treaty with Peru. The Bolivians were completely defeated in 1880 and Lima was occupied in 1881. The peace was signed with Peru in 1883 while a truce was signed with Bolivia in 1884. Chile annexed territories of both countries leaving Bolivia with no path to the sea.[42]

In the new century, as wars became less violent and less frequent, Brazil entered into a small conflict with Bolivia for the possession of the Acre, which was acquired by Brazil in 1902. In 1917 Brazil declared war on the Central Powers, joined the allied side in the First World War and sent a small fleet to the Mediterranean Sea and some troops to be integrated with the British and French forces in the region. Brazil was the only South American country that participated in the First World War.[43][44] Later in 1932 Colombia and Peru entered a short armed conflict for territory in the Amazon. In the same year Paraguay declared war on Bolivia for possession of the Chaco, in a conflict that ended three years later with Paraguay's victory. Between 1941 and 1942 Peru and Ecuador fought for territories claimed by both that were annexed by Peru, usurping Ecuador's frontier with Brazil.[45]

Also in this period, the first major naval battle of World War II took place in the South Atlantic close to the continental mainland: the Battle of the River Plate, between a British cruiser squadron and a German pocket batttleship.[46] The Germans still made numerous attacks on Brazilian ships on the coast, causing Brazil to declare war on the Axis powers in 1942, being the only South American country to fight in this war (and in both World Wars). Brazil sent naval and air forces to combat German and Italian submarines off the continent and throughout the South Atlantic, in addition to sending an expeditionary force to fight in the Italian Campaign.[47][48]

A brief war was fought between Argentina and the UK in 1982, following an Argentine invasion of the Falkland Islands, which ended with an Argentine defeat. The last international war to be fought on South American soil was the 1995 Cenepa War between Ecuador and the Peru along their mutual border.

Rise and fall of military dictatorships[edit]

Wars became less frequent in the 20th century, with Bolivia-Paraguay and Peru-Ecuador fighting the last inter-state wars. Early in the 20th century, the three wealthiest South American countries engaged in a vastly expensive naval arms race which began after the introduction of a new warship type, the "dreadnought". At one point, the Argentine government was spending a fifth of its entire yearly budget for just two dreadnoughts, a price that did not include later in-service costs, which for the Brazilian dreadnoughts was sixty percent of the initial purchase.[49][50]

The continent became a battlefield of the Cold War in the late 20th century. Some democratically elected governments of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay were overthrown or displaced by military dictatorships in the 1960s and 1970s. To curtail opposition, their governments detained tens of thousands of political prisoners, many of whom were tortured and/or killed on inter-state collaboration. Economically, they began a transition to neoliberal economic policies. They placed their own actions within the US Cold War doctrine of "National Security" against internal subversion. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Peru suffered from an internal conflict.

In 1982, Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands, a British dependent territory. The Falklands War began and 74 days later Argentine forces surrendered.[51]

Colombia has had an ongoing, though diminished internal conflict, which started in 1964 with the creation of Marxistguerrillas (FARC-EP) and then involved several illegal armed groups of leftist-leaning ideology as well as the private armies of powerful drug lords. Many of these are now defunct, and only a small portion of the ELN remains, along with the stronger, though also greatly reduced, FARC.

Revolutionary movements and right-wing military dictatorships became common after World War II, but since the 1980s, a wave of democratization passed through the continent, and democratic rule is widespread now.[52] Nonetheless, allegations of corruption are still very common, and several countries have developed crises which have forced the resignation of their governments, although, on most occasions, regular civilian succession has continued.

Presidents of UNASURmember states at the Second Brasília Summit on 23 May 2008.

International indebtedness turned into a severe problem in the late 1980s, and some countries, despite having strong democracies, have not yet developed political institutions capable of handling such crises without resorting to unorthodox economic policies, as most recently illustrated by Argentina's default in the early 21st century.[53][neutrality is disputed] The last twenty years have seen an increased push towards regional integration, with the creation of uniquely South American institutions such as the Andean Community, Mercosur and Unasur. Notably, starting with the election of Hugo Chávez in Venezuela in 1998, the region experienced what has been termed a pink tide[citation needed] – the election of several leftist and center-left administrations to most countries of the area, except for the Guianas and Colombia.

Contemporary issues[edit]

South America’s political geography since the 1990s has been characterized by a desire to reduce foreign influence.[54] The nationalization of industries, by which the state controls entire economic sectors (as opposed of private companies doing it), has become a prominent political issues in the region.[54] Some South American nations have nationalized their electricity industries.[54]

Countries and territories[edit]

See also: List of South American countries by population

ArmsFlag Country or territoryCapitalArea[55]Population
(2018)[1][2]
Population
density
Coat of arms of Argentina.svgArgentinaBuenos Aires2,766,890 km2
(1,068,300 sq mi)
44,361,150 14.3/km2
(37/sq mi)
BoliviaBoliviaLa Paz,
Sucre[note 9]
1,098,580 km2
(424,160 sq mi)
11,353,142 8.4/km2
(22/sq mi)
NorwayBouvet Island
(Norway)[note 10]
49 km2
(19 sq mi)
0 0/km2
(0/sq mi)
BrazilBrazilBrasília8,514,877 km2
(3,287,612 sq mi)
209,469,323 22/km2
(57/sq mi)
ChileChile[note 11]Santiago756,950 km2
(292,260 sq mi)
18,729,160 22/km2
(57/sq mi)
ColombiaColombiaBogotá1,141,748 km2
(440,831 sq mi)
49,661,048 40/km2
(100/sq mi)
EcuadorEcuadorQuito283,560 km2
(109,480 sq mi)
17,084,358 53.8/km2
(139/sq mi)
Falkland IslandsFalkland Islands
(United Kingdom)
Stanley12,173 km2
(4,700 sq mi)
3,234 0.26/km2
(0.67/sq mi)
French GuianaFlag of French Guiana.svgFrench Guiana
(France)
Cayenne (Préfecture) 91,000 km2
(35,000 sq mi)
282,938 2.1/km2
(5.4/sq mi)
GuyanaGuyanaGeorgetown214,999 km2
(83,012 sq mi)
779,006 3.5/km2
(9.1/sq mi)
Coat of arms of Paraguay.svgParaguayAsunción406,750 km2
(157,050 sq mi)
6,956,066 15.6/km2
(40/sq mi)
PeruPeruLima1,285,220 km2
(496,230 sq mi)
31,989,260 22/km2
(57/sq mi)
South Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
(United Kingdom)[note 12]
King Edward Point3,093 km2
(1,194 sq mi)
20 0/km2
(0/sq mi)
SurinameSurinameParamaribo163,270 km2
(63,040 sq mi)
575,990 3/km2
(7.8/sq mi)
UruguayUruguayMontevideo176,220 km2
(68,040 sq mi)
3,449,285 19.4/km2
(50/sq mi)
VenezuelaVenezuelaCaracas916,445 km2
(353,841 sq mi)
28,887,118 27.8/km2
(72/sq mi)
Total 17,824,513 km2
(6,882,083 sq mi)
423,581,078 21.5/km2
(56/sq mi)

Government and politics[edit]

Historically, the Hispanic countries were founded as Republican dictatorships led by caudillos. Brazil was the only exception, being a constitutional monarchy for its first 67 years of independence, until a coup d'état proclaimed a republic. In the late 19th century, the most democratic countries were Brazil,[57]Chile, Argentina and Uruguay.[58]

All South American countries are presidential republics with the exception of Suriname, a parliamentary republic. French Guiana is a French overseas department, while the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands are British overseas territories. It is currently the only inhabited continent in the world without monarchies; the Empire of Brazil existed during the 19th century and there was an unsuccessful attempt to establish a Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia in southern Argentina and Chile. Also in the twentieth century, Suriname was established as a constituent kingdom of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Guyana retained the British monarch as head of state for 4 years after its independence.

Recently, an intergovernmental entity has been formed which aims to merge the two existing customs unions: Mercosur and the Andean Community, thus forming the third-largest trade bloc in the world.[59] This new political organization, known as Union of South American Nations, seeks to establish free movement of people, economic development, a common defense policy and the elimination of tariffs.

Demographics[edit]

Satellite view of South America at night from NASA.

South America has a population of over 428 million people. They are distributed as to form a “hollow continent” with most of the population concentrated around the margins of the continent.[54] On one hand, there are several sparsely populated areas such as tropical forests, the Atacama Desert and the icy portions of Patagonia. On the other hand, the continent presents regions of high population density, such as the great urban centers. The population is formed by descendants of Europeans (mainly Spaniards, Portuguese and Italians), Africans and Amerindians. There is a high percentage of Mestizos that vary greatly in composition by place. There is also a minor population of Asians,[further explanation needed] especially in Brazil, Peru, and Argentina. The two main languages are by far Spanish and Portuguese, followed by English, French and Dutch in smaller numbers.

Language[edit]

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_America

Latin America and the Caribbean

Overview

Economic transformation has made great strides in Latin America and the Caribbean, yet wide inequalities persist. Home to 595 million people, this region offers valuable lessons, but there is still much work to do.

Most impressive is that all countries in the region, except for Haiti, are now considered middle-income. However, one person in four still lives in poverty, and the poor tend to be concentrated in rural areas. Eighty per cent of the region’s population is urban.

Among the poorest and most marginalized are women, indigenous peoples, and those of African descent. Some 15 million people live by farming a huge variety of crops; others inhabit expansive forests. However, traditional agricultural techniques are evolving in the face of economic and climate change.

Transforming rural communities

IFAD has been active in this remarkably diverse region, where we pioneered community-centric development, for four decades. By encouraging local people to identify projects that could enhance their prosperity, and then providing training and financial assistance to carry out those projects, we have helped to transform communities and demonstrate the benefits of bottom-up development strategies.

Working together, with and for the poor

IFAD partners with governments, NGOs and communities to draw up pro-poor policies that benefit rural areas, and to implement them in the most effective ways.

By the end of 2016, IFAD was working with 19 governments to deliver 37 ongoing programmes across the region, with a total investment of US$770 million.*

Our breadth of expertise and geographical reach enables us to promote knowledge-sharing between projects and regions. Partnerships are fundamental to our efforts to further expand policies that level the playing field for small farmers through policy dialogue and South-South cooperation.

Examples of our work include helping:

  • young people become entrepreneurs;
  • farmers understand and access markets; and
  • indigenous peoples manage irrigation systems more effectively.

Everywhere we work, we bring appropriate solutions that raise rural incomes and help people respond to climate change.

* This amount includes the contributions of the Spanish Trust Fund, managed by IFAD.

Learn more

Some of the most marginalized population groups can be found among the region’s 125 million rural people.

Over a quarter of the region’s population continues to live in poverty. In recent years, the absolute number of people living in poverty has increased.

Rural areas continue to experience inequality. In Bolivia, for example, poverty declined nationwide from 61 per cent in 2005 to 39 per cent in 2013. However, in rural areas, 60 per cent of the population lives in poverty and 39 per cent in extreme poverty.

Источник: https://www.ifad.org/en/web/operations/regions/lac

Have You Ever Just Been Like [Map of South America]?

Photo: Screenshot via Twitter

Picture this: You’re having a good time, chatting with someone. Things are going well, so you decide to shoot your shot and get a little flirty. Sure. But then, against all odds, the other person flirts back! Damn! And then you’re all like … [map of South America].

Maybe you’re not quite following me here. Allow this viral tweet from @is_meguca to explain.

Got it? No? You’re still confused, I see. That is understandable — feeling like [map of South America] is not the most relatable feeling in the world — although 22,000 Twitter users (and counting) saw fit to retweet this little one-act play.

Multiple people, including Intelligencer correspondent Madison Malone Kircher, suggested that this was a reference to “Come to Brazil,” the popular catchphrase of Brazilian stans on social media. That was a good guess, but then why include the other countries on the map? (No offense to the other countries of South America, you’re all fantastic.)

Vulture senior editor Jesse David Fox, who writes about comedy, told me, “God, I’m trying to look at this to be an optical illusion.” Not quite.

Editor Ben Williams suggested that it was the “first Dada meme. It’s meaninglessness is a satire of meme culture.” I do not know anything about art history or the Dada movement, so let’s say, “Potentially!”

Over Twitter DM, Laina Farthing, the woman who crafted this confounding post, gave me the answer. “I was just like,,, talking and flirting with someone and I was caught off guard when they did it back,” she wrote. “I had meant to put an entirely different image, one that actually made sense, but I clicked the wrong one and because I don’t proofread my tweets I just posted it as it was.”

She just posted the wrong image. Occam’s razor strikes again. Despite the lack of intent, the post has found a wide audience. This is, after all, a new world, in which the current most-liked Instagram post is a stock photo of an egg. Why can’t we find emotional resonance in a black-and-white map of South America?

Intelligencer editor Ezekiel Kweku explained it thusly: “When someone flirts back with them, they don’t know how to respond.” It’s not like we have a singular, all-encompassing term for that intangible feeling. Maybe the confusion of seeing unexpected South American cartography puts one in the same headspace as when your crush flirts back.

“That kind of very nonsensical humor is exactly my kind of humor, so I was laughing too much to actually delete it, and by the point I was done a bunch of people had already retweeted it,” Farthing said.

Some people enjoyed the nonsense of the post, others tried very hard to decipher it, and a “surprising amount thought it was a picture of Africa,” she said.

Another layer to this mystery is why anyone would have a continental map on their device in the first place. It turns out it was part of a geography game, “where I had my mutuals tell me a name of a country, and I would then put that name where I thought the country was, so I had separate pictures of each continent.” Mystery solved.

Farthing originally intended to attach a picture of Surprised Pikachu, a popular recent reaction image that is exactly what it sounds like. Here is an artist’s reconstruction of what the preconceived tweet might have looked like:

Photo: Brian Feldman

Hopefully, that provides you with some closure. Or maybe you still feel something nagging at you. Maybe you’re just a bit [map of South America].

Have You Ever Just Been Like [Map of South America]?Источник: https://nymag.com/intelligencer/2019/01/why-a-map-of-south-america-is-going-viral.html

Latin America and the Caribbean

Over the past years, the region of Latin America and the Caribbean has, on the whole, made great progress ‒ the economy is growing, democracy has been strengthened and many people have been able to escape the clutches of poverty. And yet the picture across the territory is still very mixed. Emerging countries such as Brazil and Mexico are becoming important global players, ambitious states such as Peru and Columbia are benefiting from sound budgetary policies and rising revenue from raw materials. Developing countries such as Honduras, Guatemala and Nicaragua are still battling weak statehood and widespread poverty. One element common to all the countries is that income and wealth are distributed very unevenly. Furthermore, all the countries on the continent are home to ecosystems and rare fauna and flora, which are of global importance for the climate and biodiversity.

Development cooperation with Latin America reflects the continent's changing role in the world and its diversity. KfW Development Bank, on behalf of the Federal Government, is focusing on protecting the environment and climate, as Latin America is an important partner in international climate policy matters. Renewable energy is promoted, the unique tropical forest is protected, climate-friendly means of transport are financed in growing cities, and the scarce resource of water is used more efficiently. KfW's projects contribute to generating more income and jobs for the population, providing clean drinking water and strengthening democracy, especially by means of promoting cities and districts. In 2019, KfW Development Bank made new commitments in the Latin America/Caribbean region amounting to around EUR 8.6 million.

Источник: https://www.kfw-entwicklungsbank.de/International-financing/KfW-Development-Bank/Local-presence/Latin-America-and-the-Caribbean/

GIGA Institute for Latin American Studies

The GIGA Institute for Latin American Studies is the only non‐university research institute in Germany that is dedicated to the analysis of political, social, and economic developments in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). GIGA's Latin America scholars research, among other topics, the quality of democratic institutions and participation; the challenges posed by violence and crime; the interaction of inequality and politics; social, health and gender policies; immigration and emigration; and regional integration, with publications in lead journals and active knowledge transfer efforts.

The GIGA Institute for Latin American Studies has a global reputation as one of the leading academic centres on LAC in Europe, and has a constant flow of doctoral and visiting researchers from LAC countries. GIGA's Latin America scholars have recently held leadership roles in organisations such as the German Latin American Studies Association (ADLAF), the Latin American Political Science Association (ALACIP), and the American Political Science Association (APSA). Moreover, the regional institute hosts the secretariat of the network “Red Euro‐Latinoamericana de Gobernabilidad para el Desarrollo” (RedGob), and co-edits, with Prof. Rossana Castiglioni from Universidad Diego Portales in Santiago de Chile, the Journal of Politics in Latin America, one of the four peer‐reviewed Open Access journals of the GIGA Journal Family. 

The GIGA Institute for Latin American Studies is also actively engaged in knowledge exchange with the policy community, both here in Germany and the European Union as well as in LAC, most recently as a co-organiser, with the German Foreign Office, of a high-level event at the EU-LAC Foreign Ministers’ conference in 2020.

In December 2021, the GIGA Institute for Latin American Studies will hold its inaugural Policy Challenges in Latin America conference. This event, which also counts on the co-operation of the EU-LAC Foundation, will bring together a group of top social scientists from institutions in Latin America, Europe and the United States. More information will be forthcoming soon!

Источник: https://www.giga-hamburg.de/en/institutes/giga-institute-for-latin-american-studies/

The Americas are home to almost a billion people, speaking over 450 indigenous and European languages. The history and diversity of Latin American, Caribbean and U.S. Latinx environments, cultures, and people continues impacting studies and policies on race, class, gender and human rights today. 

An Open Letter in Support of Black Lives Matter.

The Latin American, Caribbean, and Latinx Studies (LACLaS) at Bowdoin fosters a deeper understanding of the diverse cultures and complex historical and contemporary relationships of Mexico, Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Latinas and Latinos in the United States.

An Immersive Experience

The Latin American, Caribbean, and Latinx Studies (LACLaS) Program supports concerts, theme dinners, film screenings, symposia, service-learning projects, debates, and teach-ins organized by various student organizations, faculty, campus divisions, and neighborhood associations. Every semester speakers who are experts in a field related to the courses being offered—or who are directly involved with social, political, academic, or cultural activities in Latin America—are invited to campus.
Источник: https://www.bowdoin.edu/latin-american-studies/

Records of the office of Inter-American Affairs [OIAA]


(Record Group 229)
1937-51
812 cu. ft.

Overview of Records Locations

Table of Contents

  • 229.1 ADMINISTRATIVE HISTORY
  • 229.2 GENERAL RECORDS OF THE OFFICE OF INTER-AMERICAN AFFAIRS AND ITS PREDECESSORS 1940-46 227 lin. ft.
  • 229.3 RECORDS OF THE IMMEDIATE OFFICE OF THE COORDINATOR 1940-49 16 lin. ft.
  • 229.3.1 General records
  • 229.3.2 Records of the Office of General Counsel
  • 229.4 RECORDS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 1940-46 11 lin. ft.
  • 229.4.1 General records
  • 229.4.2 Records of the Commercial and Financial Division
  • 229.4.3 Records of the Research Division
  • 229.5 RECORDS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION 1940-47 129 lin. ft.
  • 229.5.1 General records
  • 229.5.2 Records of the Air Transportation Division
  • 229.5.3 Records of the Ocean Shipping Division
  • 229.5.4 Records of the Railway Transportation Division
  • 229.5.5 Records of the U.S. Railway Mission in Mexico
  • 229.6 RECORDS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION 1940-50 129 lin ft.
  • 229.6.1 Records of the Motion Picture Division
  • 229.6.2 Records of the Radio Division
  • 229.6.3 Records of the Education Division
  • 229.6.4 Records of the Regional Division
  • 229.7 RECORDS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF PRESS AND PUBLICATIONS 1940-46 12 lin. ft.
  • 229.7.1 General records
  • 229.7.2 Records of the Feature Division
  • 229.7.3 Records of the Graphics and Publications Division
  • 229.8 RECORDS OF THE DIVISION OF AGRICULTURE 1941-43 1 lin. ft.
  • 229.9 RECORDS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF BASIC ECONOMY 1937-51 96 lin. ft.
  • 229.9.1 General Records
  • 229.9.2 Records of the Division of Health and Sanitation
  • 229.9.3 Records of the Food Supply Division
  • 229.9.4 Records of the Emergency Rehabilitation Division
  • 229.10 RECORDS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF SPECIAL SERVICES 1941-46 1 lin. ft.
  • 229.11 CARTOGRAPHIC RECORDS (GENERAL)
  • 229.12 MOTION PICTURES (GENERAL)
  • 229.13 SOUND RECORDINGS (GENERAL)
  • 229.14 STILL PICTURES (GENERAL) 1942-45 3,386 images

229.1 ADMINISTRATIVE HISTORY

Established: In the Executive Office of the President (EOP) by EO 9532, March 23, 1945.

Predecessor Agencies:

  • Office for Coordination of Commercial and Cultural Relations Between the American Republics (OCCCRBAR), Council of National Defense, (1940-41)
  • Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs (OCIAA)
  • Office for Emergency Management, EOP (1941-45)

Functions: Promoted increased hemispheric solidarity and inter- American cooperation, especially in commercial and economic areas. Information function transferred to Interim International Information Service, Department of State, by EO 9608, August 31, 1945.

Abolished: By EO 9710, April 10, 1946, effective May 20, 1946.

Successor Agencies: Institute of Inter-American Affairs, Department of State.

Finding Aids: Edwin D. Anthony, comp., Inventory of the Records of the Office of Inter-American Affairs, Inv. 7 (1973).

Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Office of Inter-American Affairs in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government. General Records of the Department of State, RG 59.

229.2 GENERAL RECORDS OF THE OFFICE OF INTER-AMERICAN AFFAIRS AND
ITS PREDECESSORS
1940-46
227 lin. ft.

History: OCCCRBAR established by Council of National Defense order, August 16, 1940. Abolished by EO 8840, July 30, 1941, with functions transferred to OCIAA, established in Office for Emergency Management, EOP, by same order. OCIAA redesignated Office of Inter-American Affairs, 1945. SEE 229.1.

Textual Records: Central files, 1940-45. History of the office, 1946. Report on field activities, 1946. Administrative field manual, 1943. Register and index of projects, n.d. Register of contracts, n.d. Project authorizations, 1942-45. Project status reports, 1942-45.

229.3 RECORDS OF THE IMMEDIATE OFFICE OF THE COORDINATOR
1940-49
16 lin. ft.

229.3.1 General records

Textual Records: Minutes of committees on which the coordinator served, 1940-41. Weekly progress reports, September-December 1940.

229.3.2 Records of the Office of General Counsel

Textual Records: General records, 1941-44. Correspondence, 1942- 48. Records relating to subsidiary corporations and other organizations, 1942-49. Minutes of meetings of subsidiary corporations, 1942-48.

229.4 RECORDS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
1940-46
11 lin. ft.

229.4.1 General records

Textual Records: Project files, including the Mexican-American Commission for Economic Cooperation, 1940-45.

229.4.2 Records of the Commercial and Financial Division

Textual Records: General records, 1942-45. Records relating to the inland waterway survey, 1942-44; and to the Mexican-American Commission for Economic Cooperation, 1943-44.

229.4.3 Records of the Research Division

Textual Records: "Latin American Economic Newsletter," 1941-42. Weekly Economic Bulletin, 1943-45. Daily Information Bulletin, 1942-46. Reports, 1942.

229.5 RECORDS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
1940-47
129 lin. ft.

229.5.1 General records

Textual Records: Reports, correspondence, minutes, and other records, 1942-46. Project files, 1940-46. Communications sent, 1940-47. Records relating to the Institute of Inter-American Transportation, 1943-45; transportation missions and surveys, 1943-46; the Pan American Highway and the inland waterway survey, 1943-46; and the highway engineers training project, 1945-46. Commodities, subject, and country files relating to ocean shipping, 1940-45. Records relating to newsprint shipments, 1941- 45; the Mexican-American Commission for Economic Cooperation, 1943-44; tourism, 1943-45; and the Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals ("Black List"), 1945-46. Correspondence concerning visits to the United States by Latin American transportation officials, 1945-46. Reports and news clippings, 1943-46.

229.5.2 Records of the Air Transportation Division

Textual Records: General correspondence and miscellaneous records, 1941-46.

229.5.3 Records of the Ocean Shipping Division

Textual Records: General correspondence and information file, 1940-45. Records relating to exports, imports, and shipping, 1941-44. Records of the consultant, 1943-46.

Maps (55 items): Manuscript, blueprint, and published maps, mostly of South American countries and cities, n.d. SEE ALSO 229.11.

229.5.4 Records of the Railway Transportation Division

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1942-46. Records relating to railway missions and technicians, including U.S. mission to Mexico, 1942-47; and to export of materials for Mexican railroads, 1943-46. Communications sent relating to railway missions, 1942-46. Correspondence regarding orders for railway equipment, 1942-46. Correspondence with the chief of the mission in Mexico, 1942-45. Monthly progress reports of the mission in Mexico, 1942-46; and of the departments of the mission to the mission chief, 1943-46. Digests of progress reports, 1942- 43. Monthly progress graphs, 1943-45.

229.5.5 Records of the U.S. Railway Mission in Mexico

Textual Records: General records, 1943-46, with index. General correspondence, 1942-44. Records and correspondence of the chief, 1942-46. Records relating to activities of the mission departments, 1943-46. Records relating to surveys and rehabilitation projects, 1943-45; procurement of materials, ca. 1942-45; and Mexican trainees, 1944. Inventories of railroad cars, n.d. Locomotive repair records, 1944. Railroad profiles and repair schedules, 1943-44.

229.6 RECORDS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION
1940-50
129 lin ft.

229.6.1 Records of the Motion Picture Division

Textual Records: Project files, 1942-45. Records relating to the Motion Picture Society of the Americas, 1942-45.

Motion Pictures (45 reels): Travel and archaeology in Latin America, U.S. civilian and military wartime activities, Latin American contributions to the war effort, and visits of Latin American dignitaries to the United States, acquired by or produced for the OIAA for distribution in the United States and Latin America, 1940-45.

229.6.2 Records of the Radio Division

Textual Records: Report reviewing division operations, 1945. Radio reaction reports, ca. 1942. Miscellaneous reports and issuances, 1941-43. General records of the San Francisco office, 1942-46. Logs and schedules of the San Francisco office, 1942-46. Radio program scripts, 1941-45.

Sound Recordings (24 items): Radio broadcasts to Latin America, mostly in Spanish, of news reports and commentaries, speeches, and special ceremonies, 1941-47.

229.6.3 Records of the Education Division

Textual Records: Project files, 1941-50. Records relating to field operations, 1944-50; and to exhibits and related projects, 1941-43. Confidential program files, 1946-49. Reports and other records, 1940-42.

229.6.4 Records of the Regional Division

Textual Records: Minutes of the coordination committees (unpaid businessmen who provided guidance in adapting OIAA programs to local conditions and executed programs not appropriately handled by the embassy), 1942-45; and communications received from them, 1942-45, with register. Samples of local printing, 1943-45. Records of the coordination committees for Argentina, 1941-45; Brazil, 1941-46; Colombia, 1941-47; Costa Rica, 1942-45; Cuba, 1942-46; Dominican Republic, 1942-44; Ecuador, 1942-45; Guatemala, 1942-45; Haiti, 1942-45; Nicaragua, 1942-47; Panama, 1942-45; Peru, 1941-46; Uruguay, 1942-46; and Venezuela, 1942-46. Records of the regional subcommittee for Cartagena, 1942-45.

229.7 RECORDS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF PRESS AND PUBLICATIONS
1940-46
12 lin. ft.

229.7.1 General records

Textual Records: Correspondence, memorandums, reports, press clippings and other records, 1941-45. Press releases, 1940-43.

229.7.2 Records of the Feature Division

Textual Records: Weekly reports, 1942-46. Press clippings, 1942- 45.

229.7.3 Records of the Graphics and Publications Division

Textual Records: En Guardia, 1941-45, with indexes. The American Newsletter, 1941-43. The New York Times Overseas Weekly, 1943-45.

Posters and Drawings (79 images): Posters, drawings illustrating the common heritage of North and South America, images of Nazi rule in Poland, and drawings of 18th and 19th century Latin American leaders, 1941-45 (PG). SEE ALSO 229.14.

229.8 RECORDS OF THE DIVISION OF AGRICULTURE
1941-43
1 lin. ft.

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1941-43.

229.9 RECORDS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF BASIC ECONOMY
1937-51
96 lin. ft.

229.9.1 General Records

Textual Records: Special project files, 1941-51. Reports on future planning, 1948.

229.9.2 Records of the Division of Health and Sanitation

Textual Records: Correspondence, memorandums, and reports, 1942- 51. Training program subject files, 1942-51, and country files, 1943-48. Progress reports of field parties, 1942-51. Quarterly reports of the Servicio Especial de Saude Publica, 1944, 1946-50. Records of the cooperative health program in the Dominican Republic, 1943-48.

Architectural and Engineering Plans (660 items): Structures and equipment for health and sanitation projects, including plans for water supply, drainage and sewer systems, hospitals, schools, dispensaries, and types of machinery, 1937-51. SEE ALSO 229.11.

229.9.3 Records of the Food Supply Division

Textual Records: General records, 1943-49. Project files, 1942- 47. Records relating to motion pictures, 1943-47.

229.9.4 Records of the Emergency Rehabilitation Division

Textual Records: Project file, 1942-44. Correspondence relating to Coordination Committees, 1942-44. Records of the El Oro (Ecuador) technical mission, 1942-44. Reports, 1942.

229.10 RECORDS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF SPECIAL SERVICES
1941-46
1 lin. ft.

Textual Records: Records relating to minorities, 1941-43; and to exhibits and lectures, 1942-46. Miscellaneous records, 1941-42.

229.11 CARTOGRAPHIC RECORDS (GENERAL)

SEE Maps UNDER 229.5.3. SEE Architectural and Engineering Plans UNDER 229.9.2.

229.12 MOTION PICTURES (GENERAL)

SEE UNDER 229.6.1.

229.13 SOUND RECORDINGS (GENERAL)

SEE UNDER 229.6.2.

229.14 STILL PICTURES (GENERAL)
1942-45
3,386 images

Photographs: Military, industrial, agricultural, and social activities in Central and South American countries, and such notables as OCCCRBAR Chairman Nelson A. Rockefeller (Rockefeller Collection), 1942-45 (R, 3,000 images). Visits to the United States of Peruvian President Manuel Prado, May 1942 (PV, 120 images); Paraguayan President Higinio Morinigo, ca. June 1944 (MV, 57 images); and Gen. Enrico Gaspar Dutra, August-September 1943 (DV, 125 images). U.S. officials in Brazil, 1942-45 (AVB, 84 images).

SEE Posters and Drawings UNDER 229.7.3.

Источник: https://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/229.html

Comments

  1. TechnoAmol Hello Amol. Awesome video. Really very helpful than the official payzapp video.

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