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Midwest regional bank arnold mo


midwest regional bank arnold mo

Regional Missouri Bank is a locally-owned financial institution offering prompt, quality service to the communities they serve. As the bank has grown the. A complete listing of Midwest Regional Bank Office and Branch Locations. Every branch location has a map with Arnold, MO Location 1913 Richardson Road. Midwest Regional Bank in city_name, state_name - US Bank Profiles - Detailed Financial Reports, Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Aggregated Statistics.
midwest regional bank arnold mo

: Midwest regional bank arnold mo

What is the routing number for first interstate bank
Midwest regional bank arnold mo
Midwest regional bank arnold mo

ARNOLD

OFFICE DETAILS

Midwest Regional Bank Arnold branch is one of the 7 offices of the bank and has been serving the financial needs of their customers in Arnold, Jefferson county, Missouri for over 8 years. Arnold office is located at 1913 Richardson Road, Arnold. You can also contact the bank by calling the branch phone number at 636-232-0070

Midwest Regional Bank Arnold branch operates as a full service brick and mortar office. For lobby hours, drive-up hours and online banking services please visit the official website of the bank at www.mwrbank.com. You can edit branch details by clicking here if you believe the information is incomplete, incorrect, out of date or misleading.

BRANCH HOURS

  • ■ Monday:9:00am - 4:00pm

  • ■ Tuesday:9:00am - 4:00pm

  • ■ Wednesday:9:00am - 4:00pm

  • ■ Thursday:9:00am - 4:00pm

  • ■ Friday:9:00am - 6:00pm

  • ■ Saturday:Closed

  • ■ Sunday:Closed

Midwest Regional Bank Arnold is open Monday to Friday and closed on Saturdays and Sundays. The branch opens at 9:00am in the morning. Working hours for Arnold branch are listed on the table above. Note that this data is based on regular opening and closing hours of Midwest Regional Bank and may also be subject to changes. Please call the branch at 636-232-0070 to verify hours before visiting.

BANK INFORMATION

  • Bank Name:Midwest Regional Bank

  • Bank Type:Federal Reserve Non-member Bank

  • FDIC Insurance:Certificate #8889

  • Routing Number:N/A

  • Online Banking:mwrbank.com

  • Branch Count:7 Offices in Missouri

Источник: https://www.bankbranchlocator.com/midwest-regional-bank-arnold-branch.html

Midwest Regional Bank in Arnold #333356058

1 floor

completed

Object data change

name:

Midwest Regional Bank

address:

1913 Richardson Road

structural form:

low-rise building

floors (above ground):

1 floor

features:

drive-thru service

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Midwest Regional Bank

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Источник: https://cumaps.net/en/US/midwest-regional-bank-p1328157
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Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System

Federal Reserve System Organization

Congress designed the Federal Reserve System to give it a broad perspective on the economy and on economic activity in all parts of the nation. As such, the System is composed of a central, governmental agency—the Board of Governors—in Washington, D.C., and 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks. This section lists key officials across the System, including the Board of Governors, its officers, Federal Open Market Committee members, several System councils, and Federal Reserve Bank and Branch directors and officers for 2020.

Board of Governors

Members

The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System is composed of seven members, who are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The Chair and the Vice Chair of the Board are also named by the President from among the members and are confirmed by the Senate. This section lists Board members who served in 2020. For a full listing of Board members from 1914 through the present, visit www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/bios/board/boardmembership.htm.

Jerome H. Powell
Chair

Richard H. Clarida
Vice Chair

Randal K. Quarles
Vice Chair for Supervision

Michelle W. Bowman

Lael Brainard

Christopher J. Waller
(as of December 18, 2020)

Divisions and Officers

Fifteen divisions support and carry out the mission of the Board of Governors, which is based in Washington, D.C.

Office of Board Members

Michelle A. Smith
Assistant to the Board
and Director

Linda L. Robertson
Assistant to the Board

Lucretia M. Boyer
Assistant to the Board

David W. Skidmore
Assistant to the Board
(through February 1, 2020)

Jennifer C. Gallagher
Special Assistant to the Board
for Congressional Liaison

Jon Faust
Senior Special Adviser
to the Chair

Joshua H. Gallin
Special Adviser to the Chair

Legal Division

Mark E. Van Der Weide
General Counsel

Richard M. Ashton
Deputy General Counsel

Laurie S. Schaffer
Deputy General Counsel

Charles Gray
Senior Associate General Counsel
and Chief of Staff
(as of March 19, 2020)

Stephanie Martin
Senior Associate
General Counsel

Jean C. Anderson
Associate General Counsel

Benjamin W. McDonough
Associate General Counsel

Alvin Williams
Associate General Counsel
(as of August 31, 2020)

Alicia S. Foster
Deputy Associate
General Counsel

Alison M. Thro
Deputy Associate
General Counsel

Cary K. Williams
Deputy Associate
General Counsel

Patrick M. Bryan
Assistant General Counsel
(through January 25, 2020)

Jason A. Gonzalez
Assistant General Counsel
(as of August 16, 2020)

Office of the Secretary

Ann Misback
Secretary of the Board

Margaret M. Shanks
Deputy Secretary

Michele T. Fennell
Deputy Associate Secretary

Yao-Chin Chao
Assistant Secretary

Division of International Finance

Beth Anne Wilson
Director
(as of June 1, 2020)

Shaghil Ahmed
Deputy Director

Sally M. Davies
Deputy Director

Brian M. Doyle1
Deputy Director

Joseph W. Gruber
Deputy Director
(through May 2, 2020)

Carol Bertaut
Senior Associate Director

James A. Dahl
Associate Director

Paul Wood
Associate Director

Ricardo Correa
Deputy Associate Director

Stephanie E. Curcuru
Deputy Associate Director

Matteo Iacoviello
Deputy Associate Director

Andrea Raffo
Deputy Associate Director

Daniel Beltran
Assistant Director
(as of June 21, 2020)

Viktors Stebunovs
Assistant Director
(as of June 21, 2020)

Robert Vigfusson
Assistant Director

Brett Berger
Senior Adviser

Steven B. Kamin
Senior Adviser
(through June 1, 2020)

John H. Rogers
Senior Adviser

Division of Financial Stability

Andreas W. Lehnert
Director

Michael T. Kiley
Deputy Director

William F. Bassett
Senior Associate Director

Elizabeth Klee
Senior Associate Director

John W. Schindler
Senior Associate Director

Luca Guerrieri
Deputy Associate Director

Kent C. Hiteshew
Deputy Associate Director
(as of March 25, 2020)

Namirembe Mukasa
Deputy Associate and
Chief of Staff

Chiara Scotti2
Deputy Associate Director

Skander J. Van den Heuvel
Deputy Associate Director

David Arseneau
Assistant Director
(as of November 8, 2020)

Andrew M. Cohen
Assistant Director

Ceyhun Durdu
Assistant Director
(as of November 8, 2020)

Uzma Wahhab
Special Adviser

Division of Monetary Affairs

Thomas Laubach
Director
(through September 2, 2020)

Trevor A. Reeve
Director
(as of September 3, 2020)

James A. Clouse
Deputy Director

Rochelle M. Edge
Deputy Director

David H. Bowman
Senior Associate Director

Gretchen C. Weinbach
Senior Associate Director

Margaret G. DeBoer
Associate Director

Mary T. Hoffman
Associate Director

J. David Lopez-Salido
Associate Director

Matthew M. Luecke
Associate Director

Katherine Tom
Associate Director
(through October 11, 2020)

Min Wei
Associate Director

Eric C. Engstrom3
Deputy Associate Director

Christopher J. Gust
Deputy Associate Director

Brian Bonis
Assistant Director
(as of March 29, 2020)

Karen Brooks
Assistant Director

Michiel De Pooter
Assistant Director

Giovanni Favara
Assistant Director

Etienne Gagnon
Assistant Director

Dan Li
Assistant Director

Laura Lipscomb
Assistant Director

Elizabeth Marx
Assistant Director
(as of March 29, 2020)

Zeynep Senyuz
Assistant Director

Rebecca Zarutskie
Assistant Director

Antulio Bomfim4
Senior Adviser

Jane E. Ihrig
Senior Adviser

Don H. Kim
Senior Adviser

Ellen E. Meade
Senior Adviser

Edward M. Nelson
Senior Adviser

Robert J. Tetlow
Senior Adviser

Egon Zakrajsek
Senior Adviser

Division of Research and Statistics

Stacey Tevlin
Director

Jeffrey C. Campione
Deputy Director

Daniel M. Covitz
Deputy Director

William L. Wascher III
Deputy Director

Nicole Bennett
Senior Associate Director
(as of March 30, 2020)

Eric M. Engen
Senior Associate Director

Joshua H. Gallin
Senior Associate Director

Diana Hancock
Senior Associate Director

David E. Lebow
Senior Associate Director

Michael G. Palumbo
Senior Associate Director

John J. Stevens
Senior Associate Director

Glenn R. Follette
Associate Director

Elizabeth K. Kiser
Associate Director

Timothy A. Mullen
Associate Director

Burcu Duygan-Bump
Deputy Associate Director

Eric C. Engstrom5
Deputy Associate Director

J. Andrew Figura
Deputy Associate Director

Erik A. Heitfield
Deputy Associate Director

Patrick E. McCabe
Deputy Associate Director

Norman J. Morin
Deputy Associate Director

Karen M. Pence
Deputy Associate Director

John M. Roberts
Deputy Associate Director

Shane M. Sherlund
Deputy Associate Director

Lillian Shewmaker
Deputy Associate Director

Paul A. Smith
Deputy Associate Director

Gianni Amisano
Assistant Director and Chief

Matthias Paustian
Assistant Director and Chief

Paul Lengermann
Assistant Director

Geng Li
Assistant Director and Chief

Byron Lutz
Assistant Director

Raven Molloy
Assistant Director

Gustavo Suarez
Assistant Director

Clara Vega
Assistant Director

S. Wayne Passmore
Senior Adviser

Robin A. Prager
Senior Adviser
(through April 1, 2020)

Jeremy Rudd
Senior Adviser

Steven A. Sharpe
Senior Adviser

Charles Fleischman
Adviser

Division of Supervision and Regulation

Michael S. Gibson
Director

Jennifer Burns
Deputy Director

Arthur W. Lindo
Deputy Director

James Price
Deputy Director

Mary L. Aiken
Senior Associate Director

Barbara J. Bouchard
Senior Adviser

Richard N. Ragan
Senior Associate Director

Lisa Ryu
Senior Associate Director

Todd Vermilyea
Senior Associate Director

Kevin M. Bertsch
Associate Director

Nida Davis
Associate Director

Christopher Finger
Associate Director

Jeffery Gunther
Associate Director

Anna L. Hewko
Associate Director

Michael J. Hsu
Associate Director

John Kolb
Associate Director
(through April 1, 2020)

Molly Mahar
Associate Director

Richard A. Naylor II
Associate Director

Thomas R. Sullivan
Associate Director

John Beebe
Deputy Associate Director

James Ray Diggs
Deputy Associate Director

Mona Elliot
Deputy Associate Director

Constance Horsley
Deputy Associate Director

Kavita Jain
Deputy Associate Director
(as of June 29, 2020)

Kathleen Johnson
Deputy Associate Director

Ryan P. Lordos
Deputy Associate Director

Lara Lylozian
Deputy Associate Director/
Chief Accountant

David K. Lynch
Deputy Associate Director

Susan Motyka
Deputy Associate Director

T. Kirk Odegard
Deputy Associate Director

Catherine Piche
Deputy Associate Director
(through March 1, 2020)

Laurie Priest
Deputy Associate Director
(through July 1, 2020)

Steven Spurry
Deputy Associate Director

Catherine A. Tilford
Deputy Associate Director

Joanne Wakim
Deputy Associate Director
(through July 1, 2020)

Donna Webb
Deputy Associate Director

Suzanne L. Williams
Deputy Associate Director

Dana Burnett
Assistant Director
(as of October 25, 2020)

Karen Caplan
Assistant Director

Juan Climent
Assistant Director
(as of June 7, 2020)

Keith Coughlin
Assistant Director

Christine Graham
Assistant Director

Eric L. Kennedy
Assistant Director
(as of April 26, 2020)

Keith A. Ligon
Assistant Director
(through June 1, 2020)

Ann McKeehan
Assistant Director

Brent Richards
Assistant Director

Vaishali Sack
Assistant Director

Emily Wells
Assistant Director
(as of November 8, 2020)

Robert Sarama
Assistant Director

Norah M. Barger
Senior Adviser

Robert T. Ashman
Adviser
(through October 1, 2020)

Fang Du
Adviser

William F. Treacy
Adviser

Division of Consumer and Community Affairs

Eric S. Belsky
Director

V. Nicole Bynum
Deputy Director

Anna Alvarez Boyd
Senior Associate Director

Suzanne G. Killian
Senior Associate Director
(through December 1, 2020)

Carol A. Evans
Associate Director

Joseph A. Firschein
Associate Director

Phyllis L. Harwell
Associate Director

Marisa A. Reid
Associate Director

David E. Buchholz
Deputy Associate Director

Angelyque Campbell
Assistant Director

Amy B. Henderson
Assistant Director

Minh-Duc T. Le
Assistant Director

Caterina Petrucco-Littleton
Assistant Director

Allen Fishbein
Senior Adviser
(through June 1, 2020)

Division of Reserve Bank Operations and Payment Systems

Matthew J. Eichner
Director

Marta E. Chaffee
Senior Associate Director

Gregory L. Evans
Senior Associate Director

Susan V. Foley
Senior Associate Director

Lawrence E. Mize
Senior Associate Director

Michael J. Lambert
Associate Director
(through November 1, 2020)

Jennifer K. Liu
Associate Director

Jennifer A. Lucier
Associate Director

David C. Mills
Associate Director

Timothy W. Maas
Deputy Associate Director

Stuart E. Sperry
Deputy Associate Director

Jeffrey Walker
Deputy Associate Director

Casey Clark
Assistant Director

Sonja Danburg
Assistant Director and Manager

Caio Peixoto
Assistant Director and Manager
(as of May 24, 2020)

Jason Hinkle
Assistant Director

Brian Lawler
Assistant Director

Mark Manuszak
Assistant Director

Travis D. Nesmith
Assistant Director and Chief

Mark J. Olechowski
Assistant Director

Rebecca L. Royer
Assistant Director

Nick Trotta
Assistant Director and Manager

Office of the Chief Operating Officer

Patrick J. McClanahan
Chief Operating Officer

Michael J. Kraemer
Chief Data Officer
(through May 1, 2020)

Katherine Tom
Chief Data Officer
(as of October 11, 2020)

Sheila Clark
Diversity and Inclusion
Programs Director

Andrew Leonard
Associate Director

Phillip C. Daher
Assistant Director

Jeffrey A. Monica
Assistant Director
(through July 1, 2020)

Steven Miranda
Adviser

Michell Clark
Senior Adviser
(through February 1, 2020)

Division of Financial Management

Ricardo Aguilera
Director and Chief
Financial Officer

Stephen J. Bernard
Deputy Director

Monica Y. Manning
Associate Director
(as of November 9, 2020)

Thomas Murphy
Deputy Associate Director
service credit union branches near me of March 2, 2020)

Jeffrey R. Peirce
Associate Director

Karen L. Vassallo
Associate Director

Kimberly Briggs
Assistant Director

Division discover online banking bonus Management

Winona Varnon
Director

Tara Tinsley-Pelitere
Senior Associate Director

Tameika L. Pope
Senior Associate Director
and CTO

Curtis B. Eldridge
Senior Associate Director
and Chief

Ann Buckingham
Associate Director

Donna J. Butler
Deputy Associate Director and Chief of Staff (as of January 21, 2020)

Kendra Gastright
Associate Director

Timothy E. Markey
Deputy Associate Director

Reginald V. Roach
Deputy Associate Director

Katherine Perez-Grines
Deputy Associate Director
and Assistant Chief

Keith F. Bates
Assistant Director

Catherine Jack
Assistant Director

Tim Ly
Assistant Director

Jeffrey A. Martin
Assistant Director
(through April 22, 2020)

Stephen E. Pearson
Assistant Director

Jacqueline Raia
Assistant Director
(through August 29, 2020)

Division of Information Technology

Sharon L. Mowry
Director

Lisa M. Bell
Deputy Director

Raymond Romero
Deputy Director

Kofi A. Sapong
Deputy Director

Glenn S. Eskow
Senior Associate Director

Stephen Olden
Senior Associate Director
(as of October 26, 2020)

Sheryl Lynn Warren
Senior Associate Director

Rajasekhar R. Yelisetty
Senior Associate Director

Charles B. Young
Associate Director

William K. Dennison
Deputy Associate Director

Deborah Prespare
Deputy Associate Director

Jonathan F. Shrier
Deputy Associate Director

Eric C. Turner
Deputy Associate Director

Virginia M. Wall
Deputy Associate Director

Brian Lester
Assistant Director

Amy Kelley
Assistant Director
(as of August 16, 2020)

Scott Meyerle
Assistant Director

Can Xuan Nguyen
Assistant Director

Langston Shaw
Assistant Director

Edgar Wang
Assistant Director

Ivan K. Wun
Assistant Director

Marietta Murphy
Adviser
(through August 1, 2020)

Theresa C. Palya
Adviser

Office of Inspector General

Mark Bialek
Inspector General

Fred Gibson
Deputy Inspector General

Gerald Maye
Associate Inspector General
(through May 1, 2020)

Peter Sheridan
Associate Inspector General

Michael VanHuysen
Associate Inspector General

Stephen Carroll
Deputy Associate
Inspector General

Cynthia Gray
Assistant Inspector General
(as of August 30, 2020)

Jacqueline M. Becker
Senior Adviser

Federal Open Market Committee

The Federal Open Market Committee is made up of the seven members of the Board of Governors; the president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York; and four of the remaining eleven Federal Reserve Bank presidents, who serve one-year terms on a rotating basis. During 2020, the Federal Open Market Committee held midwest regional bank arnold mo regularly scheduled and two unscheduled meetings (see appendix B, "Minutes of Federal Open Market Committee Meetings").

Members

Jerome H. Powell
Chair, Board of Governors

John C. Williams
Vice Chairman, President,
Federal Reserve Bank of New York

Michelle W. Bowman
Member, Board of Governors

Lael Brainard
Member, Board of Governors

Richard H. Clarida
Member, Board of Governors

Patrick T. Harker
President, Federal Reserve
Bank of Philadelphia

Robert S. Kaplan
President, Federal Reserve
Bank of Dallas

Neel Kashkari
President, Federal Reserve
Bank of Minneapolis

Loretta J. Mester
President, Federal Reserve
Bank of Cleveland

Randal K. Quarles
Member, Board of Governors

Alternate Members

Thomas Barkin
President, Federal Reserve
Bank of Richmond

Raphael W. Bostic
President, Federal Reserve
Bank of Atlanta

Mary C. Daly
President, Federal Reserve
Bank of San Francisco

Charles L. Evans
President, Federal Reserve
Bank of Chicago

Helen E. Mucciolo
First Vice President, Federal Reserve
Bank of New York
(as of November 11, 2020)

Michael Strine
First Vice President, Federal Reserve
Bank of New York
(through November 10, 2020)

Officers

James A. Clouse
Secretary

Matthew M. Luecke
Deputy Secretary

Michelle A. Smith
Assistant Secretary

Mark E. Van Der Weide
General Counsel

Michael A. Held
Deputy General Counsel

Richard M. Ashton
Assistant General Counsel

Thomas Laubach
Economist
(through September 1, 2020)

Trevor A. Reeve
Economist
(as of October 1, 2020)

Stacey Tevlin
Economist

Beth Anne Wilson
Economist

Shaghil Ahmed
Associate Economist

Michael Dotsey
Associate Economist

Rochelle M. Edge
Associate Economist
(as of October 1, 2020)

Marc P. Giannoni
Associate Economist

Joseph W. Gruber
Associate Economist

Beverly Hirtle
Associate Economist

David E. Lebow
Associate Economist

Ellis W. Tallman
Associate Economist

William L. Wascher
Associate Economist

Mark L.J. Wright
Associate Economist

Lorie K. Logan
Manager, System Open
Market Account

Board of Governors Advisory Councils

The Federal Reserve Board uses advisory committees in carrying out its varied responsibilities. To learn more, visit https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/advisorydefault.htm.

Federal Advisory Council

The Federal Advisory Council—a statutory body established under the Federal Reserve Act—consults with and advises the Board of Governors on all matters within the Board's jurisdiction. It is composed of one representative from each Federal Reserve District, chosen by the Reserve Bank in that District. The president and vice president of the council are selected from amongst council members. The Federal Reserve Act requires the council to meet in Washington, D.C., at least four times a year. In 2020, the council met on February 5–6, May 7–8, September 16–17, and December 2–3. The council met with the Board on February 6, May 7, September 17, and December 3, 2020.

Members
District 1

John R. Ciulla
President and Chief Executive Officer, Webster Financial Corporation and Webster Bank, Waterbury, CT

District 2

Rene F. Jones
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, M&T Bank Corporation, Buffalo, NY

District 3

Jeffrey M. Schweitzer
Chief Executive Officer, Univest Bank and Trust Co., Souderton, PA

District 4

William S. Demchak
Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, PNC Financial Services Group, Pittsburgh, PA

District 5

Brian T. Moynihan
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Bank of America, Charlotte, NC

District 6

Rajinder P. Singh
Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, BankUnited, Inc., Miami Lakes, FL

District 7

Jeffrey J. Brown
Chief Executive Officer, Ally Financial Inc., Detroit, MI

District 8

D. Bryan Jordan
Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, First Horizon National Corporation, Memphis, TN

District 9

Kevin P. Riley
President and Chief Executive Officer, First Interstate BancSystem, Inc., Billings, MT

District 10

John B. Dicus
President and Chief Executive Officer, Capitol Federal Financial, Inc., Topeka, KS

District 11

Phillip D. Green
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Cullen/Frost Bankers Inc., San Antonio, TX

District 12

James H. Herbert, II
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, First Republic Bank, San Francisco, CA

Officers

Brian T. Moynihan
President

Jeffrey J. Brown
Vice President

Herb Taylor
Secretary

Community Depository Institutions Advisory Council

The Community Depository Institutions Advisory Council advises the Board of Governors on the economy, lending conditions, and other issues of interest to community depository institutions. Members are selected from among representatives of banks, thrift institutions, and credit unions who are serving on local advisory councils at the 12 Federal Reserve Banks. One member of each of the Reserve Bank councils serves on the Community Depository Institutions Advisory Council. The president and vice president are selected from amongst council members. The council usually meets with the Board twice a year in Washington, D.C. In 2020, the council met on April 1 and November 19.

Members
District 1

Dorothy A. Savarese
Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, Cape Cod 5, Orleans, MA

District 2

Faheem A. Masood
President and Chief Executive Officer, ESL Federal Credit Union,
Rochester, NY

District 3

Jeane M. Vidoni
President and Chief Executive Officer, Penn Community Bank, Perkasie, PA

District 4

T. Michael Price
President and Chief Executive Officer, First Commonwealth Financial Corp., Indiana, PA

District 5

Dabney T.P. Gilliam, Jr.
President and Chief Executive Officer, The Bank of Charlotte County, Phenix, VA

District 6

David R. Melville III
President and Chief Executive Officer, b1Bank, Baton Rouge, LA

District 7

Douglas S. Gordon
President and Chief Executive Officer, WaterStone Bank, SSB, Wauwatosa, WI

District 8

Marnie Older
Chief Executive Officer and Director, Stone Bank, Little Rock, AR

District 9

Shari Laven
Chief Executive Officer, Viking Bank, Alexandria, MN

District 10

Brad Koehn
Regional President, Midwest Bank, Lincoln, NE

District 11

Erik Beguin
Founder and Chief Executive Officer, Austin Capital Bank, Austin, TX

District 12

Andrew J. Ryback
President and Chief Executive Officer, Plumas Bank, Quincy, CA

Officers

Dorothy A. Savarese
President

T. Michael Price
Vice President

The Community Advisory Council was formed in 2015 to advise the Board of Governors on the economic circumstances and financial services needs of consumers and communities, with a particular focus on the concerns of low- and moderate-income populations. The council is composed of a diverse group of experts and representatives of consumer and community development organizations and interests, including from such fields as affordable housing, community and economic development, employment and labor, financial services and technology, small business, and asset and wealth building. One member of the council serves as its chair. The council first met with the Board in November 2015, and meets with the Board twice each year. In 2020, the council met with the Board on for a special meeting on COVID-19 on April 13 and held their regular meetings on May 14 and October 1.

Members

Juan Bonilla
Deputy Director, Lawrence Community Works, Lawrence, MA

Dr. Susan Bradbury
Professor, Community and Regional Planning, Iowa State University, Ames, IA

Tawney Brunsch
Executive Director, Lakota Funds, Kyle, SD

Adrian M. Brooks
CEO, Memorial Community Development Corporation, Evansville, IN

Joshua Downey
President, Denver Area Labor Federation, AFL-CIO, Denver, CO

Donald Hinkle-Brown
President and CEO, Reinvestment Fund, Philadelphia, PA

Barb Lau
Executive Director, Association of Women Contractors, St. Paul, MN

Stephanie Mackay
Chief Innovation Officer, Columbus Community Center, Salt Lake City, UT

Andreanecia Morris
Executive Director, HousingNOLA, New Orleans, LA

Marc Norman
Associate Professor of Practice, University of Michigan, Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning, Ann Arbor, MI

Jonny Price
Director of Business Development, Wefunder, San Francisco, CA

Bethany Sanchez
Fair Lending Director, Metropolitan Milwaukee Fair Housing Council, Milwaukee, WI

Bill Schlesinger
Co-Director, Project Vida, El Paso, TX

Lora Smith
Executive Director, Appalachian Impact Fund, Hazard, KY

Jesse Van Tol
CEO, National Community Reinvestment Coalition, Washington, DC

Officers

Donald Hinkle-Brown
Chair

Marc Norman
Vice Chair

Model Validation Council

The Model Validation Council was established in 2012 by the Board of Governors to provide expert and independent advice on its process to rigorously assess the models used in stress tests of banking institutions. The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act required the Federal Reserve to conduct annual stress tests of large bank holding companies and systemically important, nonbank financial institutions supervised by the Board. The Model Validation Council provides input on the Board's efforts to assess the effectiveness of the models used in the stress tests. The council is intended to improve the quality of the Federal Reserve's model assessment program and to strengthen the confidence in the integrity and independence of the program.

Members

Andrew Atkeson
Professor, University of California, Los Angeles

Paul Glasserman
Professor, Columbia University

Victoria Ivashina
Professor, Harvard Business School

Stijn Van Nieuwerburgh
Professor, Columbia University

Andrew Patton
Professor, Duke University

Federal Reserve Banks and Branches

To carry out the day-to-day operations of the Federal Reserve System, the nation has been divided into 12 Federal Reserve Districts, each with a Reserve Bank. The majority of Reserve Banks also have at least one Branch.

As required by the Federal Reserve Act, each Federal Reserve Bank is supervised by a nine-member board with three different classes of three directors each: Class A directors, who are nominated and elected by the member banks in that District to represent the stockholding banks; Class B directors, who are nominated and elected by the member banks to represent the public; and Class C directors, who are appointed by the Board of Governors to represent the public. Class B and Class C directors are selected with due, but not exclusive, consideration to the interests of agriculture, commerce, industry, services, labor, and consumers. Each Federal Reserve Bank Branch also has a board with either five or seven directors. A majority of the directors on each Branch board are appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank, with the remaining directors appointed by the Board of Governors.

For more information on Reserve Bank and Branch directors, see https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/directors/about.htm.

Reserve Bank and Branch directors are listed below. For each director, the class of directorship, the director's principal place of business, and the expiration date of the director's current term are shown. Also shown are maps that identify Federal Reserve Districts by their official number, city, and letter designation. For more information on the Federal Reserve indicator letters, see https://www.uscurrency.gov/denominations/bank-note-identifiers.

District 1–Boston

Covers the states of Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont; and all but Fairfield County in Connecticut.

For more information on this District and to learn more about the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston's operations, visit https://www.bostonfed.org/. Information on economic conditions for this District can be found in the Federal Reserve System's Beige Book at https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/beigebook2020.htm. Also find the Reserve Bank's financial statements for 2020 at https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/files/bostonfinstmt2020.pdf.

Class A

Michael E. Tucker, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Greenfield Cooperative Bank, Greenfield, MA

Chandler Howard, 2021
Retired President and Chief Executive Officer, Liberty Bank, Middletown, CT

Bruce Van Saun, 2022
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Citizens Financial Group, Providence, RI

Class B

Kimberly Sherman Stamler, 2020, President, Related Beal, Boston, MA

Roger W. Crandall, 2021
Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer, MassMutual Financial Group, Springfield, MA

Lizanne Kindler, 2022
Chief Executive Officer, Talbots, Hingham, MA

Class C

Kathleen E. Walsh, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA

Phillip L. Clay, 2021
Professor Emeritus of City Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA

Christina Hull Paxson, 2022
President, Brown University, Providence, RI

District 2–New York

Covers the state of New York; Fairfield County in Connecticut; and 12 counties in northern New Jersey, and serves the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

For more information on this District and to learn more about the Federal Reserve Bank of New York's operations, visit https://www.newyorkfed.org/. Information on economic conditions for this District can be found in the Federal Reserve System's Beige Book at https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/beigebook2020.htm. Also find the Reserve Bank's financial statements for 2020 at https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/files/newyorkfinstmt2020.pdf.

Class A

Paul P. Mello, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Solvay Bank, Solvay, NY

James P. Gorman, 2021
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Morgan Stanley, New York, NY

Douglas L. Kennedy, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Peapack-Gladstone Bank, Bedminster, NJ

Class B

Vacancy, 2020

Glenn H. Hutchins, 2021
Chairman, North Island, and Co-Founder, Silver Lake, New York, NY

Adena T. Friedman, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Nasdaq, New York, NY

Class C

Rosa Gil, 2020
Founder, President, and Chief Executive Officer, Comunilife, Inc., New York, NY

Vincent Alvarez, 2021
President, New York City Central Labor Council, AFL-CIO, New York, NY

Denise Scott, 2022
Executive Vice President, Local Initiatives Support Corporation, New York, NY

District 3–Philadelphia

Covers the state of Delaware; nine counties in southern New Jersey; and 48 counties in the eastern two-thirds of Pennsylvania.

For more information on this District and to learn more about the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia's operations, visit https://www.philadelphiafed.org/. Information on economic conditions for this District can be found in the Federal Reserve System's Beige Book at https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/beigebook2020.htm. Also find the Reserve Bank's financial statements for 2020 at https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/files/philadelphiafinstmt2020.pdf.

Class A

Jon S. Evans, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Atlantic Community Bankers Bank, Camp Hill, PA

Timothy Snyder, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Fleetwood Bank, Fleetwood, PA

Christopher D. Maher, 2022
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, OceansFirst Bank, N.A., Toms River, NJ

Class B

Patricia Hasson, 2020
Retired President and Executive Director, Clarifi, Philadelphia, PA

Julia H. Klein, 2021
Chairwoman and Chief Executive Officer, C. H. Briggs Company, Reading, PA

John Fry, 2022
President, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA

Class C

Madeline Bell, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia–CHOP, Philadelphia, PA

Vacancy, 2021

Anthony Ibarguen, 2022
Chief Executive Officer, Quench USA, Inc., King of Prussia, PA

District 4–Cleveland

Covers the state of Ohio; 56 counties in eastern Kentucky; 19 counties in western Pennsylvania; and 6 counties in northern West Virginia.

For more information on this District and to learn more about the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland's operations, visit https://www.clevelandfed.org/. Information on economic conditions for this District can be found in the Federal Reserve System's Beige Book at https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/beigebook2020.htm. Also find the Reserve Bank's financial statements for 2020 at https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/files/clevelandfinstmt2020.pdf.

Class A

Dean J. Miller, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, First National Bank of Bellevue, Bellevue, OH

Eddie L. Steiner, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, CSB Bancorp, Inc., Millersburg, OH

Amy G. Brady, 2022
Chief Information Officer and Executive Vice President, KeyBank, Cleveland, OH

Class B

Charles H. Brown, 2020
Retired Executive Adviser, Toyota Motor North America, Erlanger, KY

Valarie L. Sheppard, 2021
Controller, Treasurer, and Executive Vice President-Company Transition Leader, The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH

David Megenhardt, 2022
Executive Director, United Labor Agency, Cleveland, OH

Class C

Doris Carson Williams, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, African American Chamber of Commerce of Western Pennsylvania,
Pittsburgh, PA

Dawne S. Hickton, 2021
Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer, Critical Mission, Jacobs, Pittsburgh, PA

Dwight E. Smith, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Sophisticated Systems, Inc., Columbus, OH

Cincinnati Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Alfonso Cornejo, 2020
President, Hispanic Chamber Cincinnati USA, Cincinnati, OH

David C. Evans, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, TESSEC LLC, Dayton, OH

Tucker Ballinger, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Forcht Bank, N.A., Lexington, KY

Darin C. Hall, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Civitas Development Group, Cincinnati, OH

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Jenell R. Ross, 2020
President, Bob Ross Auto Group, Centerville, OH

Rachid Abdallah, 2021
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Jedson Engineering, Cincinnati, OH

Holly B. Wiedemann, 2022
Founder and President, AU Associates, Inc., Lexington, KY

Pittsburgh Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Audrey Dunning, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, AMP Growth Advisors, LLC, Cranberry Township, PA

Robert I. Glimcher, 2020
President, Glimcher Group Inc., Pittsburgh, PA

Vera Krekanova, 2021
Chief Strategy and Research Officer, Allegheny Conference on Community Development, Pittsburgh, PA

Shelley L. Fant, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, FCG Solutions, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Suzanne Mellon, 2020
President, Carlow University, Pittsburgh, PA

Dmitri D. Shiry, 2021
Retired Partner Deloitte-Pittsburgh, Deloitte LLP, Pittsburgh, PA

Kathryn Z. Klaber, 2022
Managing Partner, The Klaber Group, Sewickley, PA

District 5–Richmond

Covers the states of Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; 49 counties constituting most of West Virginia; and the District of Columbia.

For more information on this District and to learn more about the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond's operations, visit https://www.richmondfed.org/. Information on economic conditions for this District can be found in the Federal Reserve System's Beige Book at https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/beigebook2020.htm. Also find the Reserve Bank's financial statements for 2020 at https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/files/richmondfinstmt2020.pdf.

Class A

Robert R. Hill, Jr., 2020
Chief Executive Officer, South State Corporation, Columbia, SC

James H. Sills, III, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Mechanics and Farmers Bank, Durham, NC

William A. Loving, Jr., 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Pendleton Community Bank, Franklin, WV

Class B

Thomas C. Nelson, 2020
Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer, National Gypsum Company, Charlotte, NC

Catherine A. Meloy, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Goodwill of Greater Washington/Goodwill Excel Center, Washington, DC

Wayne A. I. Frederick, MD, 2022, President, Howard University,
Washington, DC

Class C

Kathy J. Warden, 2020
Chief Executive Officer and President, Northrop Grumman Corporation, Falls Church, VA

Eugene A. Woods, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Atrium Health, Charlotte, NC

Jodie McLean, 2022
Chief Executive Officer, EDENS, Washington, DC

Baltimore Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Richard Lloyd Willey, 2020
President, Perdue Agribusiness, LLC, Salisbury, MD

Laura L. Gamble, 2021
Regional President Greater Maryland, PNC, Baltimore, MD

Tom Geddes, 2021
Partner and Portfolio Manager, Brown Advisory, Baltimore, MD

Cecilia A. Hodges, 2022
Regional President Greater Washington and Virginia, M&T Bank, Falls Church, VA

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Susan J. Ganz, 2020
Chief Executive Officer, Lion Brothers Company, Inc., Owings Mills, MD

Kenneth R. Banks, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Banks Contracting Company, Greenbelt, MD

William J. McCarthy, 2022
Executive Director, Catholic Charities of Baltimore, Baltimore, MD

Charlotte Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Sepideh Saidi, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Meghan king edmonds ex husband Inc., Raleigh, NC

Michael D. Garcia, 2021
President, Pulp and Paper Division, Domtar Corp., Fort Mill, SC

Jerry L. Ocheltree, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, United Bank, Lincolnton, NC

Michael C. Crapps, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, First Community Bank, Lexington, SC

Appointed by the Board of Governors

R. Glenn Sherrill, Jr., 2020
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, SteelFab Inc., Charlotte, NC

Bernette William Mazyck, 2021, President and Chief Executive Officer, South Carolina Association for Community Economic Development, Charleston, SC

Vacancy, 2022

District 6–Atlanta

Covers the states of Alabama, Florida, and Georgia; 74 counties in the eastern two-thirds of Tennessee; 38 parishes of southern Louisiana; and 43 counties of southern Mississippi.

For more information on this District and to learn more about the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta's operations, visit https://www.frbatlanta.org/. Information on economic conditions for this District can be found in the Federal Reserve System's Beige Book at https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/beigebook2020.htm. Also find the Reserve Bank's financial statements for 2020 at https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/files/atlantafinstmt2020.pdf.

Class A

Kessel D. Stelling, Jr., 2020
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Synovus Financial Corporation, Columbus, GA

Claire W. Tucker, 2021
Chief Executive Officer, CapStar Financial Holdings, Inc., Nashville, TN

Robert W. Dumas, 2022
Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer, AuburnBank, Auburn, AL

Class B

Jonathan T.M. Reckford, 2020
Chief Executive Officer, Habitat for Humanity International, Atlanta, GA

Michael Russell, 2021
Chief Executive Officer, H.J. Russell and Company, Atlanta, GA

Mary A. Laschinger, 2022
Former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Veritiv Corporation, Atlanta, GA

Class C

Myron A. Gray, 2020
Retired President, U.S. Operations, United Parcel Service, Inc., Atlanta, GA

Claire Lewis Arnold, 2021
Chief Executive Officer, Leapfrog Services, Inc., Atlanta, GA

Elizabeth A. Smith, 2022
Former Executive Chair, Bloomin' Brands, Inc., Tampa, FL

Birmingham Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Herschell L. Hamilton, 2020
Chief Strategic Officer, BLOC Global Group, Birmingham, AL

David M. Benck, 2021
Vice President and General Counsel, Hibbett Sports, Birmingham, AL

David L. Nast, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Progress Bank, Huntsville, AL

Brian C. Hamilton, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Trillion Communications Corp., Bessemer, AL

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Nancy C. Goedecke, 2020
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Mayer Electric Supply Company, Inc., Birmingham, AL

Christy Thomas, 2021
Chief Financial Officer, Milo's Tea Company, Inc., Bessemer, AL

Merrill H. Stewart, Jr., 2022
President, The Stewart/Perry Company, Inc., Birmingham, AL

Jacksonville Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

William O. West, 2020
Chief Executive Officer, The Bank of Tampa, Tampa, FL

John Hirabayashi, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Community First Credit Union of Florida, Jacksonville, FL

Dawn Lockhart, 2021
Director of Strategic Partnerships, Office of the Mayor, City of Jacksonville, Jacksonville, FL

Paul G. Boynton, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Rayonier Advanced Materials, Inc., Jacksonville, FL

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Troy D. Taylor, 2020
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Coca-Cola Beverages Florida, LLC, Tampa, FL

Timothy P. Cost, 2021
President, Jacksonville University, Jacksonville, FL

Nicole B. Thomas, 2022
Hospital President, Baptist Medical Center South, Jacksonville, FL

Miami Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

N. Maria Menendez, 2020
Chief Financial Officer, GL Homes of Florida Holding, Sunrise, FL

Victoria E. Villalba, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Victoria & Associates Career Services, Inc., Miami, FL

Abel L. Iglesias, 2021
President and Chief Operating Officer, Professional Bank, Coral Gables, FL

Eduardo Arriola, 2022
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Apollo Bank, Miami, FL

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Keith T. Koenig, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, City Furniture, Tamarac, FL

Michael A. Wynn, 2021
Board Chairman and President, Sunshine Ace Hardware, Bonita Springs, FL

Ana M. Menendez, 2022
Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer, Watsco, Inc., Miami, FL

Nashville Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

John W. Garratt, 2020
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Dollar General, Goodlettsville, TN

Beth R. Chase, 2021
Former Senior Managing Director, Ankura Consulting Group, Nashville, TN

Leif M. Murphy, 2021
Chief Executive Officer, TeamHealth Holdings, Inc., Knoxville, TN

Amber W. Krupacs, 2022
Chief Financial Officer and Executive Vice President, Clayton Homes, Maryville, TN

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Amanda Mathis, 2020
Chief Financial Officer, Bridgestone Americas, Inc., Nashville, TN

Thomas Zacharia, 2021
Laboratory Director/ President and Chief Executive Officer, Oak Ridge National Laboratory/ UT-Battelle, LLC, Oak Ridge, TN

Matthew S. Bourlakas, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Goodwill Industries of Middle Tennessee, Inc., Nashville, TN

New Orleans Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Lampkin Butts, 2020
President and Chief Operating Officer, Sanderson Farms, Inc., Laurel, MS

Katherine A. Mb financial salaries, 2021
Board Chair, Fidelity Bank, New Orleans, LA

David T. Darragh, 2021
Operating Partner, LongueVue Capital, Metairie, LA

Toni D. Cooley, 2022
Chief Executive Officer, Systems Companies, Jackson, MS

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Michael E. Hicks, Jr., 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Hixardt Technologies, Inc., Pensacola, FL

Art E. Favre, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Performance Contractors, Inc., Baton Rouge, LA

G. Janelle Frost, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, AMERISAFE, Inc., DeRidder, LA

District 7–Chicago

Covers the state of Iowa; 68 counties of northern Indiana; 50 counties of northern Illinois; 68 counties of southern Michigan; and 46 counties of southern Wisconsin.

For more information on this District and to learn more about the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago's operations, visit https://www.chicagofed.org/. Information on economic conditions for this District can be found in the Federal Reserve System's Beige Book at https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/beigebook2020.htm. Also find the Reserve Bank's financial statements for 2020 at https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/files/chicagofinstmt2020.pdf.

Class A

Michael O'Grady, 2020
Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer, Northern Trust, Chicago, IL

Christopher J. Murphy III, 2021
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, 1st Source Bank, South Bend, IN

Susan Whitson, 2022
Chief Executive Officer, First National Bank, and President, First of Waverly Corporation, Waverly, IA

Class B

David Cyril Habiger, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, J.D. Power, Troy, MI

Susan M. Collins, 2021
Interim Provost and Executive Vice President for Academic Affairs, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

Linda Jojo, 2022
Executive Vice President, Technology and Chief Digital Officer, United Airlines, Inc., Chicago, IL

Class C

E. Scott Santi, 2020
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Illinois Tool Works Inc., Glenview, IL

Wright L. Lassiter III, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI

Helene D. Gayle, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, The Chicago Community Trust, Chicago IL

Detroit Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Sandy K. Baruah, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Detroit Regional Chamber, Detroit, MI

Sandra E. Pierce, 2020
Chairman & Senior Executive Vice President, Private Client Group and Regional Banking Director, Huntington Michigan, Southfield, MI

Rip Rapson, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, The Kresge Foundation, Troy, MI

Ronald E. Hall, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Bridgewater Interiors, LLC, Detroit, MI

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Joseph B. Anderson, Jr., 2020
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, TAG Holdings, LLC, Wixom, MI

James M. Nicholson, 2021
Co-Chairman, PVS Chemicals, Inc., Detroit, MI

Linda P. Hubbard, 2022
President and Chief Operating Officer, Carhartt, Inc., Dearborn, MI

District 8–St. Louis

Covers the state of Arkansas; 44 counties in southern Illinois; 24 counties in southern Indiana; 64 counties in western Kentucky; 39 counties in northern Mississippi; 71 counties in central and eastern Missouri; the city of St. Louis; and 21 counties in western Tennessee.

For more information on this District and to learn more about the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis's operations, visit https://www.stlouisfed.org/. Information on economic conditions for this District can be found in the Federal Reserve System's Beige Book at https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/beigebook2020.htm. Also find the Reserve Bank's financial statements for 2020 at https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/files/stlouisfinstmt2020.pdf.

Class A

Elizabeth G. McCoy, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Planters Bank, Hopkinsville, KY

Patricia L. Clarke, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, First National Bank of Raymond, Raymond, IL

C. Mitchell Waycaster, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Renassant Bank, Tupelo, MS

Class B

John N. Roberts III, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, J.B. Hunt Transport Services, Inc., Lowell, AR

Alice K. Houston, 2021
Chief Executive Officer, HJI Supply Chain Solutions, Louisville, KY

Penelope Pennington, 2022
Managing Partner, Edward Jones, St. Louis, MO

Class C

James M. McKelvey, Jr., 2020
Chief Executive Officer, Invisibly, Inc., St. Louis, MO

Suzanne Sitherwood, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Spire Inc., St. Louis, MO

Carolyn Chism Hardy, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Chism Hardy Investments, LLC, Collierville, TN

Little Rock Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Keith Glover, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Producers Rice Mill, Inc., Stuttgart, AR

Karama Neal, 2020
President, Southern Bancorp Community Partners, Little Rock, AR

Jeff Lynch, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Eagle Bank and Trust, Little Rock, AR

R. Andrew Clyde, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Murphy USA Inc., El Dorado, AR

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Vickie D. Judy, 2020
Chief Financial Officer and Vice President, America's Car-Mart, Inc, Bentonville, AR

Jamie Henry, 2021
Vice President Finance, Emerging Payments, Walmart Inc., Bentonville, AR

Millie A. Ward, 2022
President, Stone Ward, Little Rock, AR

Louisville Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Tara England Barney, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Southwest Indiana Chamber of Commerce, Evansville, IN

Blake B. Willoughby, 2020
President, First Breckinridge Bancshares, Inc., Irvington, KY

Ben Reno-Weber, 2021
Project Director, Greater Louisville Project, Louisville, KY

Patrick J. Glotzbach, 2022
Director, New Independent Bancshares, Inc., Charlestown, IN

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Sadiqa N. Reynolds, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Louisville Urban League, Louisville, KY

Emerson M. Goodwin, 2021
Midwest regional bank arnold mo President of Operations, ARcare d/b/a KentuckyCare, Paducah, KY

David Tatman, 2022
Director of Engineering, Bendix Spicer Foundation Brake, LLC, Bowling Green, KY

Memphis Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Michael E. Cary, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Carroll Bank and Trust, Huntingdon, TN

Michael Ugwueke, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Methodist Le Bonheur Healthcare, Memphis, TN

Beverly Crossen, 2021
Owner, Farmhouse Tupelo, Tupelo, MS

R. Davy Carter, 2022
Regional President, Home BancShares, Inc., Jonesboro, AR

Appointed by the Board of Governors

David T. Cochran, Jr., 2020
Partner, CoCo Planting Co., Avon, MS

Eric D. Robertson, 2021
President, Community LIFT Corporation, Memphis, TN

Katherine Buckman Gibson, 2022, Chief Executive Officer, KBG Technologies, LLC, Memphis, TN

District 9–Minneapolis

Covers the states of Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota; the Upper Peninsula of Michigan; and 26 counties in northern Wisconsin.

For more information on this District and to learn more about the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis's operations, visit https://www.minneapolisfed.org/. Information on economic conditions for this District can be found in the Federal Reserve System's Beige Book at https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/beigebook2020.htm. Also find the Reserve Bank's financial statements for 2020 at https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/files/minneapolisfinstmt2020.pdf.

Class A

Thomas W. Armstrong, 2020
Senior Vice President/Market President, Forward Bank, Park Falls, WI

Jeanne H. Crain, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Bremer Financial Corporation, St. Paul, MN

Brenda K. Foster, 2022
Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer, First Western Bank and Trust, Minot, ND

Class B

Kathleen Neset, 2020
President, Neset Consulting Service, Tioga, ND

Sarah Walsh, 2021
Chief Operating Officer, PayneWest Insurance, Helena, MT

David R. Emery, 2022
Executive Chairman, Retired, Black Hills Corporation, Rapid City, South Dakota

Class C

Srilata Zaheer, 2020
Dean, Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN

Harry D. Melander, 2021
President, Minnesota Building and Construction Trades Council, St. Paul, MN

Christopher M. Hilger, 2022
Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer, Securian Financial, St. Paul, MN

Helena Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

William E. Coffee, 2020
Chief Executive Officer, Stockman Financial Corporation, Billings, MT

Jason Adams, 2021
Chief Financial Officer, Energy Keepers, Inc., Polson, MT

Mary Rutherford, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Montana Community Foundation, Helena, MT

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Norma Nickerson, 2020
Director, Institute for Tourism & Recreation Research, University of Montana, Missoula, MT

Bobbi Wolstein, 2021
Chief Financial Officer, LHC, Inc., Kalispell, MT

District 10–Kansas City

Covers the states of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and Wyoming; 43 counties in western Missouri; and 14 counties in northern New Mexico.

For more information on this District and to learn more about the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City's operations, visit https://www.kansascityfed.org/. Information on economic conditions for this District can be found in the Federal Reserve System's Beige Book at https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/beigebook2020.htm. Also find the Reserve Bank's financial statements for 2020 at https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/files/kansascityfinstmt2020.pdf.

Class A

Patricia J. Minard, 2020
Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer, Southwest National Bank, Wichita, KS

Kyle Heckman, 2021
Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer, Flatirons Bank, Boulder, CO

Gregory Hohl, 2022
Chairman and President, Wahoo State Bank, Wahoo, NE

Class B

Lilly Marks, 2020
Vice President for Midwest regional bank arnold mo Affairs, University of Colorado and Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO

Brent A. Stewart, Sr., 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, United Way of Greater Kansas City, Kansas City, MO

Douglas J. Stussi, 2022
Executive Vice President and Managing Director, Love Family Office, Oklahoma City, OK

Class C

James C. Farrell, 2020
President, Farrell Growth Group LLC, Omaha, NE

Edmond Johnson, 2021
President and Owner, Premier Manufacturing, Inc., Frederick, CO

Patrick A. Dujakovich, 2022
President, Greater Kansas City AFL-CIO, Kansas City, MO

Denver Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Ashley J. Burt, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, The Gunnison Ordering checks pnc bank and Trust Company, Gunnison, CO

Nicole Glaros, 2021
Chief Investment Strategy Officer, Techstars, Boulder, CO

Chris Wright, 2021
Chief Executive Officer, Liberty Oilfield Services, Denver, CO

Jeffrey C. Wallace, 2022
Chief Executive Officer, Wyoming Bank & Trust, Cheyenne, WY

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Navin Dimond, 2020
Chief Executive Officer, Stonebridge Companies, Denver, CO

Jacqueline Baca, 2021
President, Bueno Foods, Albuquerque, NM

Taryn Christison, 2022
Owner, Zimmerman Aarp chase credit card address, Denver, CO

Oklahoma City Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Brady Sidwell, 2020
Owner and Principal, Sidwell Strategies, LLC, Enid, OK

J. Walter Duncan IV, 2021
President, Duncan Oil Properties, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK

Susan Chapman Plumb, 2022
Board Chair and Chief Executive Officer, Bank of Cherokee County, Tahlequah, OK

Christopher C. Turner, 2022
President and Chief Financial Officer, The First State Bank, Oklahoma City, OK

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Katrina Washington, 2020
Owner, Stratos Realty Group, Oklahoma City, OK

Tina Patel, 2021
Chief Financial Officer, Promise Hotels, Inc., Tulsa, OK

Dana S. Weber, 2022
Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board, Webco Industries, Inc., Sand Springs, OK

Omaha Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Dwayne W. Sieck, 2020
President, Middle Market Banking, CIT, Omaha, NE

Thomas J. Henning, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Cash-Wa Distributing Co., Kearney, NE

Zac Karpf, 2021
Chief Operating Officer, Platte Valley Bank, Scottsbluff, NE

Annette Hamilton, 2022
Chief Operating Officer, Ho-Chunk, Inc., Winnebago, NE

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Eric L. Butler, 2020
Retired Executive Vice President and Chief Administrative Officer, Union Pacific Railroad, Omaha, NE

Kimberly A. Russel, 2021
Chief Executive Officer, Russel Advisors, Lincoln, NE

L. Javier Fernandez, 2022
Chief Financial Officer, Omaha Public Power District, Omaha, NE

District 11–Dallas

Covers the state of Texas; 26 parishes in northern Louisiana; and 18 counties in southern New Mexico.

For more information on this District and to learn more about the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas's operations, visit https://www.dallasfed.org/. Information on economic conditions for this District can be found in the Federal Reserve System's Beige Book at https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/beigebook2020.htm. Also find the Reserve Bank's financial statements for 2020 at https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/files/dallasfinstmt2020.pdf.

Class A

Christopher C. Doyle, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Texas First Bank, Texas City, TX

Kelly A. Barclay, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Ozona National Bank, Wimberly, TX

Joe Quiroga, 2022
President, Texas National Bank, Edinburg, TX

Class B

Gerald B. Smith, 2020
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Smith, Graham & Company Investment Advisors, L.P., Houston, TX

Renard U. Johnson, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Management & Engineering Technologies International, Inc., El Paso, TX

Cynthia Taylor, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Oil States International Inc., Houston, TX

Class C

Claudia Aguirre, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, BakerRipley, Houston, TX

Greg L. Armstrong, 2021
Retired Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Plains All American Pipeline L.P., Houston, TX

Thomas J. Falk, midwest regional bank arnold mo Retired Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Kimberly-Clark Corporation, Dallas, TX

El Paso Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Sally A. Hurt-Deitch, 2020
Group CEO Mid-South, Memphis Market CEO, and St. Francis Hospital CEO, Tenet Healthcare, El Paso, TX

Teresa O. Molina, 2020
President, First New Mexico Bank, Deming, NM

William Serrata, 2021
President, El Paso Community College, El Paso, TX

Von C. Washington, Sr., 2022
President, IDA Technology, El Paso, TX

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Richard D. Folger, 2020
Managing General Partner, Colbridge Partners Ltd., Midland, TX

Tracy J. Yellen, 2021
Chief Executive Officer, Paso del Norte Community Foundation and Paso Del Norte Health Foundation, El Paso, TX

Julio Chiu, 2022
Founder and Chief Executive Officer, Seisa Group, El Paso, TX

Houston Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Albert Chao, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Westlake Chemical Corporation and Westlake Chemical Partners GP LLC, Houston, TX

Gina Luna, 2020
Chief Executive Officer, Luna Strategies, LLC, Houston, TX

David Zalman, 2021
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Prosperity Bancshares, Houston, TX

Gary R. Petersen, 2022
Managing Partner and Founder, EnCap Investments L.P., Houston, TX

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Ruth J. Simmons, 2020
President, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX

Janiece Longoria, 2021
Vice Chairman, UT Board of Regents, and Former Chairman, Port of Houston Authority, Houston, TX

Darryl L. Wilson, 2022
President and Founder, The Wilson Collective, Excel mortgage payment calculator formula, TX

San Antonio Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Robert L. Lozano, 2020
President, F&P Brands, Pharr, TX

Tyson Tuttle, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Silicon Labs, Austin, TX

Alfred B. Jones, 2021
Director, American Bank Holding Corp., Corpus Christi, TX

Charles E. Amato, 2022
Chairman and Co-Founder, Southwest Business Corp., San Antonio, TX

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Paula Gold-Williams, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, CPS Energy, San Antonio, TX

Jesús Garza, 2021
Retired President and Chief Executive Officer, Seton Healthcare Family, Austin, TX

Denise M. Trauth, 2022
President, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX

District 12–San Francisco

Covers the states of Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Washington, and serves American Samoa, Guam, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

For more information on this District and to learn how to activate walmart prepaid debit card about the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco's operations, visit http://www.frbsf.org/. Information on economic conditions for this District can be found in the Federal Reserve System's Beige Book at https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/beigebook2020.htm. Also find the Reserve Bank's financial statements for 2020 at https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/files/sanfranciscofinstmt2020.pdf.

Class A

S. Randolph Compton, 2020
Chief Executive Officer and Co-Chair of the Board, Pioneer Trust Bank, N.A., Salem, OR

Greg Becker, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, SVB Financial Group, Chief Executive Officer, Silicon Valley Bank,
Santa Clara, CA

Richard M. Sanborn, 2022
Retired President and Chief Executive Officer, Seacoast Commerce Bank, San Diego, CA

Class B

Tamara L. Lundgren, 2020
Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer, Schnitzer Steel Industries, Inc., Portland, OR

Arthur F. Oppenheimer, 2021
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Oppenheimer Companies, Inc., President, Oppenheimer Development Corporation, Boise, ID

Sanford L. Michelman, 2022
Chairman, Michelman & Robinson, LLP, Los Angeles, CA

Class C

Rosemary Turner, 2020
Retired President, North California District, United Parcel Service, Inc., Oakland, CA

David P. White, 2021
National Executive Director, SAG-AFTRA, Los Angeles, CA

Barry M. Meyer, 2022
Retired Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Warner Bros., Founder and Chairman, North Ten Mile Associates,
Los Angeles, CA

Los Angeles Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Carl J.P. Chang, 2020
Chief Executive Officer, Redwood-Kairos Real Estate Partners and Pieology Pizzeria, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA

Maritza Diaz, 2021
Chief Executive Officer, iTjuana, San Marcos, CA

Luis Faura, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, C&F Foods, Inc., City of Industry, CA

Steven W. Streit, 2022
Chief Innovation Officer, Green Dot Bank and Green Dot Corporation, Pasadena, CA

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Robert H. Gleason, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Evans Hotels, San Diego, CA

Anita V. Pramoda, 2021
Chief Executive Officer, Owned Outcomes, Las Vegas, NV

Vacancy, 2022

Portland Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Hilary K. Krane, 2020
Executive Vice President, Chief Administrative Officer, and General Counsel, Nike, Inc., Beaverton, OR

Cheryl R. Nester Wolfe, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Salem Health Hospital and Clinics, Salem, OR

Stacey M.L. Dodson, 2021
Market President, Portland and Southwest Washington, U.S. Bank, Portland, OR

Maria Pope, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Portland General Electric Company, Portland, OR

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Charles A. Wilhoite, 2020
Managing Director, Willamette Management Associates, Portland, OR

Gale Castillo, 2021
President, Cascade Centers, Inc., Portland, OR

Anne C. Kubisch, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, The Ford Family Foundation, Roseburg, OR

Salt Lake City Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Jas Krdzalic, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Bodybuilding.com, Boise, ID

Park Price, 2020
Chief Executive Officer Emeritus and Chairman, Bank of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID

O. Randall Woodbury, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Woodbury Corporation, Salt Lake City, UT

Deneece Huftalin, 2022
President, Salt Lake Community College, Tayorsville, UT

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Patricia R. Richards, 2020
Retired President and Chief Executive Officer, SelectHealth, Inc., Murray, UT

Thomas K. Corrick, 2021
Chief Executive Officer, Boise Cascade Company, Boise, ID

Russell A. Childs, 2022
Chief Executive Officer and President, SkyWest, Inc., St. George, UT

Seattle Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Carol United mileage credit card login, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Cook Inlet Housing Authority, Anchorage, AK

Laura Lee Stewart, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Sound Community How to activate walmart prepaid debit card and Sound Financial Bancorporation, Seattle, WA

Cheryl B. Fambles, 2021
Chief Executive Officer, Pacific Mountain Workforce Development Council, Tumwater, WA

Robert C. Donegan, 2022
President, Ivar's Inc., Seattle, WA

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Elaine S. Couture, 2020
Executive Vice President and Chief Executive Officer, Washington and Montana Region, Providence St. Joseph Health, Spokane, WA

West Mathison, 2021
President, Stemilt Growers, LLC, Wenatchee, WA

Craig Dawson, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Retail Lockbox, Inc., Seattle, WA

Reserve Bank and Branch Leadership

Each year, the Board of Governors designates one Class C director to serve as chair, and one Class C director to serve as deputy chair, of each Reserve Bank board. Reserve Banks also have a president and first vice president who are appointed by the Bank's Class C, and certain Class B, directors, subject to approval by the Board of Governors. Each Reserve Bank selects a chair for every Branch in its District from among the directors on the Branch board who were appointed by the Board of Governors. For each Branch, an officer from its Reserve Bank is also charged with the oversight of Branch operations.

Boston

Phillip L. Clay, Chair

Christina Hull Paxson, Deputy Chair

Eric S. Rosengren, President and Chief Executive Officer

Kenneth C. Montgomery, First Vice President and Chief Operating Officer

New York

Denise Scott, Chair

Rosa Gil, Deputy Chair

John C. Williams, President and Chief Executive Officer

Helen Mucciolo, Acting First Vice President

Additional office at East Rutherford, NJ

Philadelphia

Madeline Bell, Chair

Anthony Ibarguen, Deputy Chair

Patrick T. Harker, President and Chief Executive Officer

James D. Narron, First Vice President and Chief Operating Officer

Cleveland

Dawne S. Hickton, Chair

Dwight E. Smith, Deputy Chair

Loretta J. Mester, President and Chief Executive Officer

Gregory L. Stefani, First Vice President and Chief Operating Officer

Cincinnati

Jenell R. Ross, Chair

Rick Kaglic, Vice President and Senior Regional Officer

Pittsburgh

Dmitri D. Shiry, Chair

Mekael Teshome, Vice President and Senior Regional Officer

Richmond

Kathy J. Warden, Chair

Eugene A. Woods, Deputy Chair

Thomas I. Barkin, President and Chief Executive Officer

Becky Bareford, First Vice President and Chief Operating Officer

Baltimore

Susan J. Ganz, Chair

Andy Bauer, Vice President and Baltimore Regional Executive

Charlotte

R. Glenn Sherrill, Jr, Chair

Matthew A. Martin, Senior Vice President and Charlotte Regional Executive

Atlanta

Myron A. Gray, Chair

Elizabeth A. Smith, Deputy Chair

Raphael W. Bostic, President and Chief Executive Officer

André Anderson, First Vice President and Chief Operating Officer

Birmingham

Merrill H. Stewart, Jr., Chair

Anoop Mishra, Vice President and Regional Executive

Jacksonville

Troy D. Taylor, Chair

Christopher L. Oakley, Vice President and Regional Executive

Miami

Keith T. Koenig, Chair

Karen Gilmore, Vice President and Regional Executive

Nashville

Thomas Zacharia, Chair

Laurel Graefe, Vice President and Regional Executive

New Orleans

Michael E. Hicks, Jr., Chair

Adrienne C. Slack, Vice President and Regional Executive

Chicago

E. Scott Santi, Chair

Wright L. Lassiter, III, Deputy Chair

Charles L. Evans, President and Chief Executive Officer

Ellen Bromagen, First Vice President and First national bank severna park Operating Officer

Additional office at Des Moines, IA

Detroit

Joseph B. Anderson, Jr., Chair

Rick Mattoon, Vice President and Regional Executive

St. Louis

Suzanne Sitherwood, Chair

James M. McKelvey, Jr., Deputy Chair

James B. Bullard, President and Chief Executive Officer

Kathy O. Paese, First Vice President and Chief Operating Officer

Little Rock

Vickie D. Judy, Chair

Robert Hopkins, Senior Vice President and Regional Executive

Louisville

Emerson M. Goodwin, Chair

Nikki R. Lanier, Senior Vice President and Regional Executive

Memphis

David T. Cochran, Jr., Chair

Douglas G. Scarboro, Senior Vice President and Regional Executive

Minneapolis

Srilata Zaheer, Chair

Harry D. Melander, Deputy Chair

Neel Kashkari, President and Chief Executive Officer

Ron Feldman, First Vice President

Helena

Norma Nickerson, Chair

Kansas City

James C. Farrell, Chair

Edmond Johnson, Deputy Chair

Esther L. George, President and Chief Executive Officer

Kelly J. Dubbert, First Vice President and Chief Operating Officer

Denver

Taryn Christison, Chair

Nicholas Sly, Assistant Vice President and Branch Executive

Oklahoma City

Tina Patel, Chair

Chad R. Wilkerson, Vice President and Branch Executive

Omaha

Kimberly A. Russel, Chair

Nathan Kauffman, Assistant Vice President and Branch Executive

Dallas

Greg L. Armstrong, Chair

Thomas J. Falk, Deputy Chair

Robert S. Kaplan, President and Chief Executive Officer

Meredith N. Black, First Vice President and Chief Operating Officer

El Paso

Richard D. Folger, Chair

Roberto A. Coronado, Senior Vice President in Charge

Houston

Darryl L. Wilson, Chair

Daron D. Peschel, Senior Vice President in Charge

San Antonio

Jesús Garza, Chair

Blake Hastings, Senior Vice President in Charge

San Francisco

Barry M. Meyer, Chair

Rosemary Turner, Deputy Chair

Mary C. Daly, President and Chief Executive Officer

Mark A. Gould, First Vice President and Chief Operating Officer

Additional office at Phoenix, AZ

Los Angeles

Anita V. Pramoda, Chair

Roger W. Replogle, Executive Vice President and Regional Executive

Portland

Charles A. Wilhoite, Chair

Lynn Jorgensen, Vice President and Regional Executive

Salt Lake City

Russell A. Childs, Chair

Becky Potts, Vice President and Regional Executive

Seattle

Craig Dawson, Chair

Darlene Wilczynski, Vice President and Regional Executive

Leadership Conferences

Conference of Chairs

The chairs of the Federal Reserve Banks are organized into the Conference of Chairs, which meets to consider matters of common interest and to consult with and advise the Board of Governors. Such meetings, also attended by the deputy chairs, were held in Washington, D.C., on May 6, 2020, October 6 and 9, 2020, and November 10, 2020. The conference's executive committee members for 2020 are listed below.6

Conference of Chairs Executive Committee—2020

Dawne S. Hickton, Chair, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland

Phillip L. Clay, Vice Chair, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston

Greg L. Armstrong, Member, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas

Conference of Presidents

The presidents of the Federal Reserve Banks are organized into the Conference of Presidents, which meets periodically to identify, define, and deliberate issues of strategic significance to the Federal Reserve System; to consider matters of common interest; and to consult with and advise the Board of Governors. The chief executive officer of each Reserve Bank was originally labeled governor and did not receive the title of president until the passage of the Banking Act of 1935. Consequently, when the Conference was first established in 1914, it was known as the Conference of Governors. Conference officers for 2020 are listed below.

Conference of Presidents—2020

Charles L. Evans, Chair, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago

James B. Bullard, Vice Chair, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Keri Trolson, Secretary, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago

Douglas Scarboro, Assistant Secretary, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Conference of First Vice Presidents

The Conference of First Vice Presidents of the Federal Reserve Banks was organized in 1969 to meet periodically for the consideration of operations and other matters. Conference officers for 2020 are listed below.7

Conference of First Vice Presidents—2020

Kelly J. Dubbert, Chair, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City

Michael Strine, Vice Chair, Federal Reserve Bank of New York

Laura Forman, Secretary, Federal Reserve Bank of New York

Joshua Silverstein, Assistant Secretary, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia

Footnotes
Источник: https://www.federalreserve.gov/publications/2020-ar-frs-organization.htm

St. Louis

This article is about the U.S. city. For other uses, see Saint Louis (disambiguation).

Independent city in Missouri, United States

Independent city in Missouri, United States

St. Louis

City of St. Louis
From top to bottom, left to right: The Jewel Box, train at St. Louis Lambert International Airport, the Apotheosis of St. Louis, Gateway Arch and the Downtown St. Louis skyline, Busch Stadium, and the Saint Louis Zoo

From top to bottom, left to right: The Jewel Box, train at St. Louis Lambert International Airport, the Apotheosis of St. Louis, Gateway Arch and the Downtown St. Louis skyline, Busch Stadium, and the Saint Louis Zoo

Nickname(s): 

"Gateway to the West",[1] The Gateway City,[1] Mound City,[2] The Lou,[3] Rome of the West,[4] River City, The STL, Saint Lou

Interactive map of St. Louis

Coordinates: 38°37′38″N90°11′52″W / 38.62722°N 90.19778°W / 38.62722; -90.19778Coordinates: 38°37′38″N90°11′52″W / 38.62722°N 90.19778°W / 38.62722; -90.19778
Country United States
State Missouri
CSASt. Louis–St. Charles–Farmington, MO–IL
MetroSt. Louis, MO-IL
FoundedFebruary 14, 1764
Incorporated1822
Named forLouis IX of France
 • TypeMayor–council
 • BodyBoard of Aldermen
 • MayorTishaura Jones (D)
 • President, Board of AldermenLewis E. Reed (D)
 • TreasurerAdam Layne
 • ComptrollerDarlene Green (D)
 • Congressional representativeCori Bush (D)
 • Independent city65.99 sq mi (170.92 km2)
 • Land61.74 sq mi (159.92 km2)
 • Water4.25 sq mi (11.00 km2)
 • Urban923.6 sq mi (2,392 km2)
 • Metro8,458 sq mi (21,910 km2)
Elevation

[6]

466 ft (142 m)
Highest elevation

[7]

614 ft (187 m)
 • Independent city301,578
 • RankUS: 69th
Midwest: 11th
Missouri: 2nd
 • Density4,885.0/sq mi (1,887.19/km2)
 • Urban2,150,706 (US: 20th)
 • Metro2,807,338 (US: 20th)
 • CSA2,911,945 (US: 19th)
Demonym(s)St. Louisan
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP Codes

List

  • 63101–63141
    63143–63147
    63150–63151
    63155–63158
    63160
    63163–63164
    63166–63167
    63169
    63171
    63177–63180
    63182
    63188
    63190
    63195
    63197–63199
Area code314
FIPS code29-65000
InterstatesI-44 (MO).svgI-55 (MO).svgI-64 (MO).svgI-70 (MO).svgI-270.svg
Light railSt Louis MetroLink Logo.svg
Primary airportSt. Louis Lambert International Airport
WaterwaysMississippi River
Missouri River
GDP$160 billion (2017)
Websitestlouis-mo.gov

St. Louis ()[9] is the second-largest city in Missouri, United States. It sits near the confluence of the Mississippi and the Missouri Rivers. As of 2020, the city proper had a population of around 301,500,[8] while the bi-state metropolitan area, which extends into Illinois, had an estimated population of over 2.8 million, making it the largest metropolitan area in Missouri, the second-largest in Illinois, the seventh-largest in the Great Lakes Megalopolis, and the 20th-largest in the United States.

Before European settlement, the area was a regional center of Native AmericanMississippian culture. St. Louis was founded on February 14, 1764, by French fur tradersGilbert Antoine de St. Maxent,[10]Pierre Laclède and Auguste Chouteau, who named it for Louis IX of France. In 1764, following France's defeat in the Seven Years' War, the area was ceded to Spain. In 1800, it was retroceded to France, which sold it three years later to the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase;[11] the city was then the point of embarkation for the Corps of Discovery on the Lewis and Clark Expedition. In the 19th century, St. Louis became a major port on the Mississippi River; from 1870 until the 1920 census, it was the fourth-largest city in the country. It separated from St. Louis County in 1877, becoming an independent city and limiting its own political boundaries. St. Louis had a brief run as a world-class city in the early 20th century.[12] In 1904, it hosted the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and the Summer Olympics.

A "Gamma" global city with a metropolitan GDP of more than $160 billion in 2017,[13] metropolitan St. Louis has a diverse economy with strengths in the service, manufacturing, trade, transportation, and tourism industries. It is home to nine of the ten Fortune 500 companies based in Missouri. Major companies headquartered or with significant operations in the city include Ameren Corporation, Peabody Energy, Nestlé Purina Midwest regional bank arnold mo, Anheuser-Busch, Wells Fargo Advisors, Stifel Financial, Spire, Inc., MilliporeSigma, FleishmanHillard, Square, Inc., U.S. Bank, Anthem BlueCross and Blue Shield, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Centene Corporation, and Express Scripts.

Major research universities include Saint Louis University and Washington University in St. Louis. The Washington University Medical Center in the Central West End neighborhood hosts an agglomeration of medical and pharmaceutical institutions, including Barnes-Jewish Hospital.

St. Louis has three professional sports teams: the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball, the St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League, and the St. Louis BattleHawks of the newly formed XFL. In 2019, the city was awarded a Major League Soccer franchise, St. Louis City SC, which is expected to begin play upon the completion of a 22,500-seat stadium in the city's Downtown West neighborhood in 2023. Among the city's notable sights is the 630-foot (192 m) Gateway Arch in the downtown area. St. Louis is also home to the St. Louis Zoo and the Missouri Botanical Garden, which has the second-largest herbarium in North America.[14][15]

History

Main articles: History of St. Louis and Timeline of St. Louis

Mississippian culture and European exploration

Main article: History of St. Louis before 1762

The area that would become St. Louis was a center of the Native AmericanMississippian culture, which built numerous temple and residential earthworkmounds on both sides of the Mississippi River. Their major regional center was at Cahokia Mounds, active from 900 to 1500. Due to numerous major earthworks within St. Louis boundaries, the city was nicknamed as the "Mound City". These mounds were mostly demolished during the city's development. Historic Native American tribes in the area included the Siouan-speaking Osage people, whose territory extended west, and the Illiniwek.

European exploration of the area was first recorded in 1673, when French explorers Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette traveled through the Mississippi River valley. Five years later, La Salle claimed the region for France as part of Louisiana.

The earliest European settlements in the area were built in the Illinois Country (also known as Upper Louisiana) on the east side of the Mississippi River during the 1690s and early 1700s at Cahokia, Kaskaskia, and Fort de Chartres. Migrants from the French villages on the opposite side of the Mississippi River (e.g. Kaskaskia) founded Ste. Genevieve in the 1730s.

In 1764, after France lost the Seven Years' War, Pierre Laclède and his stepson Auguste Chouteau founded what was to become the city of St. Louis.[16] (French lands east of the Mississippi had been ceded to Great Britain and the lands west of the Mississippi to Spain; France and Spain were 18th-century allies. Louis XV of France and Charles III of Spain were cousins, both from the House of Bourbon.[17][circular reference]) The French families built the city's economy on the fur trade with the Osage, as well as with more distant tribes along the Missouri River. The Chouteau brothers gained a monopoly from Spain on the fur trade with Santa Fe. French colonists used African slaves as domestic servants and workers in the city.

France, alarmed that Britain would demand French possessions west of the Mississippi and the Missouri River basin after losing New France to them in 1759–1760, transferred these to Spain as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. These areas remained in Spanish possession until 1803. In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War, St. Louis was attacked by British forces, mostly Native American allies, in the Battle of St. Louis.[18]

City founding

Main article: History of St. Louis (1763–1803)

The founding of St. Louis was preceded by a trading business between Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent and Pierre Laclède (Liguest) in the fall of 1763. St. Maxent invested in a Mississippi River expedition led by Laclède, who searched for a location to base the company's fur trading operations. Though Ste. Genevieve was already established as a trading center, he sought a place less prone to flooding. He found an elevated area overlooking the flood plain of the Mississippi River, not far south from its confluence with the Missouri and Illinois rivers. In addition to having an advantageous natural drainage system, there were nearby forested areas to supply timber and grasslands which could easily be converted for agricultural purposes. This place, declared Laclède, “might become, hereafter, one of the finest cities in America.” He dispatched his 14-year-old stepson, Auguste Chouteau, to the site, with the support of 30 settlers in February 1764.[19]

Laclède arrived at the future town site two months later and produced a plan for St. Louis based on the New Orleans street plan. The default block size was 240 by 300 feet, with just three long avenues running parallel to the west bank of the Mississippi. He established a public corridor of 300 feet fronting the river, but later this area was released for private development.[19]

Photograph of a mural entitled Indian Attack on the Village of St. Louis, 1780, depicting the Battle of St. Louis.
In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War, St. Louis was attacked by British forces, mostly Native American allies, in the Battle of St. Louis.

For the first few years of St. Louis's existence, the city was not recognized by any of the governments. Although the settlement was thought to be under the control of the Spanish government, no one asserted any authority over it, and thus St. Louis had no local government. This vacuum led Laclède to assume civil control, and all problems were disposed in public settings, such as communal meetings. In addition, Laclède granted new settlers lots in town and the surrounding countryside. In hindsight, many of these original settlers thought of these first few years as "the golden age of St. Louis".[20]

By 1765, the city began receiving visits from representatives of the English, French, and Spanish governments. The Indians in the area expressed dissatisfaction at being under the control of British forces. One of the great Ottawa chieftains, Pontiac, was angered by the change of power and the potential for the British to come into their lands. He desired to fight against them but many of the St. Louis inhabitants refused.

St. Louis was transferred to the French First Republic in 1800 (although all of the colonial lands continued to be administered by Spanish officials), then sold by the French to the U.S. in 1803 as part of the Louisiana Purchase. St. Louis became the capital of, and gateway to, the new territory. Shortly after the official transfer of authority was made, the Lewis city bank lubbock texas phone number Clark Expedition was commissioned by President Thomas Jefferson. The expedition departed from St. Louis in May 1804 along the Missouri River to explore the vast territory. There were hopes of finding a water route to the Pacific Ocean, but the party had to go overland in the Upper West. They reached the Pacific Ocean via the Columbia River in summer 1805. They returned, reaching St. Louis on September 23, 1806. Both Lewis and Clark lived in St. Louis after the expedition. Many other explorers, settlers, and trappers (such as Ashley's Hundred) would later take a similar route to the West.

19th century

Main articles: History of St. Louis (1804–1865) and History of St. Louis (1866–1904)

White men pose, 104 Locust Street, St. Louis, Missouri, in 1852 at Lynch's slave market.

The city elected its first municipal legislators (called trustees) in 1808. Steamboats first arrived in St. Louis in 1817, improving connections with New Orleans and eastern markets. Missouri was admitted as a state in 1821. St. Louis was incorporated as a city in 1822, and continued to develop largely due to its busy port and trade connections.

City of St. Louis and Riverfront, 1874
South Broadway after a May 27, 1896, tornado

Immigrants from Ireland and Germany arrived in St. Louis in significant numbers starting in the 1840s, and the population of St. Louis grew from less than 20,000 inhabitants in 1840, to 77,860 in 1850, to more than 160,000 by 1860. By the mid-1800s, St. Louis had a greater population than New Orleans.

Settled by many Southerners in a slave state, the city was split in political sympathies and became polarized during the American Civil War. In 1861, 28 civilians were killed in a clash with Union troops. The war hurt St. Louis economically, due to the Union blockade of river traffic to the south on the Mississippi River. The St. Louis Arsenal constructed ironclads for the Union Navy.

Slaves worked in many jobs on the waterfront as well as on the riverboats. Given the city's location close to the free state of Illinois and others, some slaves escaped to freedom. Others, especially women with children, sued in court in freedom suits, and several prominent local attorneys aided slaves in these suits. About half the slaves achieved freedom in hundreds of suits before the American Civil War. The printing press of abolitionist Elijah Parish Lovejoy was destroyed for the third time by townsfolk. He was murdered the next year in nearby Alton, Illinois.

After the war, St. Louis profited via trade with the West, aided by the 1874 completion of the Eads Bridge, named for its design engineer. Industrial developments on both banks of the river were linked by the bridge, the second in the Midwest over the Mississippi River after the Hennepin Avenue Bridge in Minneapolis. The bridge connects St. Louis, Missouri to East St. Louis, Illinois. The Eads Bridge became a symbolic image of the city of St. Louis, from the time of its erection until 1965 when the Gateway Arch Bridge was constructed. The bridge crosses the St. Louis riverfront between Laclede's Landing, to the north, and the grounds of the Gateway Arch, to the south. Today the road deck has been restored, allowing vehicular and pedestrian traffic to cross the river. The St. Louis MetroLink light rail system has used the rail deck since 1993. An estimated 8,500 vehicles pass through it daily.

On August 22, 1876, the city of St. Louis voted to secede from St. Louis County and become an independent city, and, following a recount of the votes in November, officially did so in March 1877.[21] Industrial production continued to increase during the late 19th century. Major corporations such as the Anheuser-Busch brewery and Ralston Purina company were established. St. Louis also was home to Midwest regional bank arnold mo Consolidated Lead Company and several brass era automobile companies, including the Success Automobile Manufacturing Company;[22] St. Louis is the site of the Wainwright Building, a skyscraper designed in 1892 by architect Louis Sullivan.

20th century

Main article: History of St. Louis (1905–1980)

In 1904, the city hosted the World's Fair and the Olympics, becoming the first non-European city to host the games.[23] Permanent facilities and structures remaining from the fair are located in Forest Park, and other notable structures within the park's boundaries include the St. Louis Art Museum, the St. Louis Zoo and the Missouri History Museum, as well as Tower Grove Park and the Botanical Gardens.

After the Civil War, social and racial discrimination in housing and employment were common in St. Louis. In 1916, during the Jim Crow Era, St. Louis passed a residential segregation ordinance[24] saying that if 75% of the residents of a neighborhood were of a certain race, no one from a different race was allowed to move in.[25] That ordinance was struck down in a court challenge by the NAACP,[26] so racists invented racial covenants, which prevented the sale of houses in certain neighborhoods to "persons not of Caucasian race". Again, St. Louisans offered a lawsuit in challenge, and such covenants were ruled unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1948 in Shelley v. Kraemer.[27]

In the first half of the 20th century, St. Louis was a destination in the Great Migration of African Americans from the rural South seeking better opportunities. During World War II, the NAACP campaigned to integrate war factories. In 1964, civil rights activists protested at the construction of the Gateway Arch to publicize their effort to gain entry for African Americans into the skilled trade unions, where they were underrepresented. The Department of Justice filed the first suit against the unions under the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

In the first part of the century, St. Louis had some of the worst air pollution in the United States. In April 1940, the city banned the use of soft coal mined in nearby states. The city hired inspectors to ensure that only anthracite was burned. By 1946, the city had reduced air pollution by about 75%.[28]

View of the Arch(completed 1965) from Laclede's Landing, the remaining section of St. Louis's commercial riverfront

De jure educational segregation continued into the 1950s, and de facto segregation continued into the 1970s, leading to a court challenge and interdistrict desegregation agreement. Students have been bused mostly from the city to county school districts to have opportunities for integrated classes, although the city has created magnet schools to attract students.[29]

St. Louis, like many Midwestern cities, expanded in the early 20th century due to industrialization, which provided jobs to new generations of immigrants and migrants from the South. It reached its peak population of 856,796 at the 1950 census.[30]Suburbanization from the 1950s through the 1990s dramatically reduced the city's population, as did restructuring of industry and loss of jobs. The effects of suburbanization were exacerbated by the small geographical size of St. Louis due to its earlier decision to become an independent city, and it lost much of its tax base. During the 19th and 20th century, most major cities aggressively annexed surrounding areas as residential development occurred away from the central city; however, St. Louis was unable to do so.

Several urban renewal projects were built in the 1950s, as the city worked to replace old and substandard housing. Some of these were poorly designed and resulted in problems. One prominent example, Pruitt–Igoe, became a symbol of failure in public midwest regional bank arnold mo, and was torn down less than two decades after it was built.

Since the 1980s, several revitalization efforts have focused on downtown St. Louis.

21st century

Main article: History of St. Louis (1981–present)

Urban revitalization continued in the new century. Gentrification has taken place in the Washington Avenue Historic District, Central West End and Forest Park Southeast neighborhoods.[31] This helped St. Louis win the World Leadership Award for urban renewal in 2006.[32] In 2017 the US Census Bureau estimated that St. Louis had a population of 308,826 which is down from a population of 319,371 in 2010.[33]

In the 21st century, the city of St. Louis contains 11% of the total metropolitan population. (The top 20 U.S. metro areas have an average of 24% of their populations in their central cities.) St. Louis grew slightly during the early 2000s, but lost population from 2000 to 2010. Immigration has continued, with the city attracting Vietnamese, Latin Americans predominantly from Mexico, and Bosnians, who make up the largest Bosnian community outside of Bosnia.

Geography

Main article: Geography of St. Louis

Cityscape

Westward view of St. Louis, September 2008

Landmarks

Further information: Landmarks of St. Louis

Name Description Photo
Gateway ArchAt 630 feet (190 m), it is the world's tallest arch and tallest man-made monument in the Western Hemisphere.[34] Built as a monument to the westward expansion of the United States, it is the centerpiece of Gateway Arch National Park which was known as the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial until 2018. St Louis night expblend cropped.jpg
St. Louis Art MuseumBuilt for the 1904 World's Fair, with a building designed by Cass Gilbert, the museum houses paintings, sculptures, and cultural objects. The museum is located in Forest Park, and admission is free. St. Louis Art Museum.JPG
Missouri Botanical GardenFounded in 1859, the Missouri Botanical Garden is one of the oldest botanical institutions in the United States and a National Historic Landmark. It spans 79 acres in the Shaw neighborhood, including a 14-acre (5.7 ha) Japanese garden and the Climatron geodesic dome conservatory. Climatron, Missouri Botanical Gardens.jpg
Cathedral Basilica of St. LouisDedicated in 1914, it is the mother church of the Archdiocese of St. Louis and the seat of its archbishop. The church is known for its large mosaic installation (which is one of the largest in the Western Hemisphere with 41.5 million pieces), burial crypts, and its outdoor sculpture. Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis.JPG
City HallLocated in Downtown West, City Hall was designed by Harvey Ellis in 1892 in the Renaissance Revival style. It is reminiscent of the Hôtel de Ville, Paris. St Louis MO City Hall 20150905-100.jpg
Central LibraryCompleted in 1912, the Central Library building was designed by Cass Gilbert. It serves as the main location for the St. Louis Public Library. STLCentrallibrary.jpg
City MuseumCity Museum is a play house museum, consisting largely of repurposed architectural and industrial objects, housed in the former International Shoe building in the Washington Avenue Loft District. City Museum outdoor structures.jpg
Old CourthouseBuilt in the 19th century, it served as a federal and state courthouse. The Scott v. Sandford case (resulting in the Dred Scott decision) was tried at the courthouse in 1846. The Old Courthouse, Saint Louis, Missouri.JPG
St. Louis Science CenterFounded in 1963, it includes a science museum and a planetarium, and is situated in Forest Park. Admission is free. It is one of two science centers in the United States which offers free general admission. McDonnellPlanetarium.jpg
St. Louis SymphonyFounded in 1880, the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra is the second oldest symphony orchestra in the United States, preceded by the New York Philharmonic. Its principal concert venue is Powell Symphony Hall. 782px-Powell Symphony Hall.jpg
Union StationBuilt in 1888, it was the city's main passenger intercity train terminal. Once the world's largest and busiest train station, it was converted in the 1980s into a hotel, shopping center, and entertainment complex. Today, it also continues to serve local rail (MetroLink) transit passengers, with Amtrak service nearby. On December 25, 2019, the St. Louis Aquarium opened inside Union Station. The St. Louis Wheel, a 200ft 42 gondola ferris wheel, is also located at Union Station. St. Louis Union Station (17577826564).jpg
St. Louis ZooBuilt for the 1904 World's Fair, it is recognized as a leading zoo in animal management, research, conservation, and education. It is located in Forest Park, and admission is free. Monkey House at Forest Park. St. Louis. Mo (63214).jpg

Architecture

Further information: Architecture of St. Louis and List of tallest buildings in St. Louis

An aerial view of many skyscrapers and other buildings, with a dark blue river cutting down through the upper half.
A cluster of skyscrapers is located just west of the Gateway Arch and the Mississippi River.
Many houses in Lafayette Squareare built with a blending of Greek Revival, Federal and Italianate styles.

The architecture of St. Louis exhibits a variety of commercial, residential, and monumental architecture. St. Louis is known for the Gateway Arch, the tallest monument constructed in the United States at 630 feet (190 m).[35] The Arch pays homage to Thomas Jefferson and St. Louis's position as the gateway to the West. Architectural influences reflected in the area include French Colonial, German, early American, and modern architectural styles.

Some notable post-modern commercial skyscrapers were built downtown in the 1970s and 1980s, including the One US Bank Plaza (1976), the AT&T Center (1986), and One Metropolitan Square (1989), which is the tallest building in St. Louis. One US Bank Plaza, the local headquarters for US What is the routing number for first interstate bank, was constructed for the Mercantile Bancorporation in the Structural expressionist style, emphasizing the steel structure of the building.

During the 1990s, St. Louis saw the construction of the largest United States courthouse by area, the Thomas F. Eagleton United States Courthouse (completed in 2000). The Eagleton Courthouse is home to the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri and the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit. The most recent high-rise buildings in St. Louis include two residential towers: the Park East Tower in the Central West End and the Roberts Tower located downtown.

Several examples of religious structures are extant from the pre-Civil War period, and most reflect the common residential styles of the time. Among the earliest is the Basilica of St. Louis, King of France ( referred to as the Old Cathedral). The Basilica was built between 1831 and 1834 in the Federal style. Other religious buildings from the period include SS. Cyril and Methodius Church (1857) in the Romanesque Revival style and Christ Church Cathedral (completed in 1867, designed in 1859) in the Gothic Revival style.

A few civic buildings were constructed during the early 19th century. The original St. Louis courthouse was built in 1826 and featured a Federal style stone facade with a rounded portico. However, this courthouse was replaced during renovation and expansion of the building in the 1850s. The Old St. Louis County Courthouse (known as the Old Courthouse) was completed in 1864 and was notable for having a cast iron dome and for being the tallest structure in Missouri until 1894. Finally, a customs house was constructed in the Greek Revival style in 1852, but was demolished and replaced in 1873 by the U.S. Customhouse and Post Office.

Because much of the city's commercial and industrial development was centered along the riverfront, many pre-Civil War buildings were demolished during construction of the Gateway Arch. The city's remaining architectural heritage of the era includes a multi-block district of cobblestone streets and brick and cast-iron warehouses called Laclede's Landing. Now popular for its restaurants and nightclubs, the district is located north of Gateway Arch along the riverfront. Other industrial buildings from the era include some portions of the Anheuser-Busch Brewery, which date to the 1860s.

St. Louis saw a vast expansion in variety and number of religious buildings during the late 19th century and early 20th century. The largest and most ornate of these is the Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis, designed by Thomas P. Barnett and constructed between city bank lubbock texas phone number and 1914 in the Neo-Byzantine style. The St. Louis Cathedral, as it is known, has one of the largest mosaic collections in the world. Another landmark in religious architecture of St. Louis is the St. Stanislaus Kostka, which is an example of the Polish Cathedral style. Among the other major designs of the period were St. Alphonsus Liguori (known as The Rock Church) (1867) in the Gothic Revival and Second Presbyterian Church of St. Louis (1900) in Richardsonian Romanesque.

By the 1900 census, St. Louis was the fourth largest city in the country. In 1904, the city hosted a world's fair at Forest Park called the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Its architectural legacy is somewhat scattered. Among the fair-related cultural institutions in the park are the St. Louis Art Museum designed by Cass Gilbert, part of the remaining lagoon at the foot of Art Hill, and the Flight Cage at the St. Louis Zoo. The Missouri History Museum was built afterward, with the profit from the fair. But 1904 left other assets to the city, like Theodore Link's 1894 St. Louis Union Station, and an improved Forest Park.

Neighborhoods

Further information: Neighborhoods of St. Louis

The city is divided into 79 government-designated neighborhoods.[36] The neighborhood divisions have no legal standing, although some neighborhood associations administer grants or hold veto power over historic-district development.

Several neighborhoods are lumped together in categories such as "North City", "South City", and "The Central West End".

Topography

Rivers in the St. Louis area

According to the United States Census Bureau, St. Louis has a total area of 66 square miles (170 km2), of which 62 square miles (160 km2) is land and 4.1 square miles (11 km2) (6.2%) is water.[37] The city is built on bluffs and terraces that rise 100–200 feet above the western banks of the Mississippi River, in the Midwestern United States just south of the Missouri-Mississippi confluence. Much of the area is a fertile and gently rolling prairie that features low hills and broad, shallow valleys. Both the Mississippi River and the Missouri River have cut large valleys with wide flood plains.

Limestone and dolomite of the Mississippianepoch underlie the area, and parts of the city are karst in nature. This is particularly true of the area south of downtown, which has numerous sinkholes and caves. Most of the caves in the city have been sealed, but many springs are visible along the riverfront. Coal, brick clay, and millerite ore were once mined in the city. The predominant surface rock, known as St. Louis limestone, is used as dimension stone and rubble for construction.

Near the southern boundary of the city of St. Louis (separating it from St. Louis County) is the River des Peres, practically the only river or stream within the city limits that is not entirely underground.[38] Most of River des Peres was confined to a channel or put underground in the 1920s and early 1930s. The lower section of the river was the site of some of the worst flooding of the Great Flood of 1993.

The city's eastern boundary is the Mississippi River, which separates Missouri from Illinois. The Missouri River forms the northern line of St. Louis County, except for a few areas where the river has changed its course. The Meramec River forms most of its southern line.

Climate

Further information: Geography of St. Louis § Climate

The Captains' Return statue inundated by the Mississippi River, 2010.

The urban area of St. Sears customer service number in spanish has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa); however, its metropolitan region even to the south may present a hot-summer humid continental climate (Dfa), which shows the effect of the urban heat island in the city. The city experiences hot, humid summers and chilly to cold winters. It is subject to both cold Arctic air and hot, humid tropical air from the Gulf of Mexico. The average annual temperature recorded at nearby Lambert–St. Louis International Airport, is 57.4 °F (14.1 °C). 100 and 0 °F (38 and −18 °C) temperatures can be seen on an average 3 and 1 days per year, respectively. Precipitation averages 41.70 inches (1,100 mm), but has ranged from 20.59 in (523 mm) in 1953 to 61.24 in (1,555 mm) in 2015. The highest recorded temperature in St. Louis was 115 °F (46 °C) on July 14, 1954 and the lowest was −22 °F (−30 °C) on January 5, 1884.

St. Louis experiences thunderstorms 48 days a year on average.[39] Especially in the spring, these storms can often be severe, with high winds, large hail and tornadoes. Lying within the hotbed of Tornado Alley, St. Louis is one of the most frequently tornado-struck metropolitan areas in the U.S. and has an extensive history of damaging tornadoes. Severe flooding, such as the Great Flood of 1993, may occur in spring and summer; the (often rapid) melting of thick snow cover upstream on the Missouri or Mississippi Rivers can contribute to springtime flooding.

Climate data for St. Louis, Missouri (Lambert–St. Louis Int'l), 1991−2020 normals,[a] extremes 1874−present[b]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 77
(25)
85
(29)
92
(33)
93
(34)
98
(37)
108
(42)
115
(46)
110
(43)
104
(40)
94
(34)
86
(30)
76
(24)
115
(46)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 64.7
(18.2)
71.0
(21.7)
79.4
(26.3)
86.4
(30.2)
90.4
(32.4)
95.5
(35.3)
99.2
(37.3)
99.1
(37.3)
92.4
(33.6)
87.0
(30.6)
75.5
(24.2)
66.9
(19.4)
100.7
(38.2)
Average high °F (°C) 40.4
(4.7)
45.8
(7.7)
56.6
(13.7)
68.0
(20.0)
77.1
(25.1)
85.9
(29.9)
89.6
(32.0)
88.3
(31.3)
81.1
(27.3)
69.2
(20.7)
55.5
(13.1)
44.5
(6.9)
66.8
(19.3)
Daily mean °F (°C) 32.1
(0.1)
36.7
(2.6)
46.6
(8.1)
57.5
(14.2)
67.5
(19.7)
76.5
(24.7)
80.4
(26.9)
78.8
(26.0)
71.0
(21.7)
59.1
(15.1)
46.5
(8.1)
36.5
(2.5)
57.4
(14.1)
Average low °F (°C) 23.8
(−4.6)
27.6
(−2.4)
36.7
(2.6)
47.0
(8.3)
57.9
(14.4)
67.2
(19.6)
71.1
(21.7)
69.3
(20.7)
60.9
(16.1)
49.1
(9.5)
37.4
(3.0)
28.5
(−1.9)
48.0
(8.9)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 4.4
(−15.3)
9.6
(−12.4)
17.8
(−7.9)
32.2
(0.1)
43.5
(6.4)
55.5
(13.1)
61.4
(16.3)
60.1
(15.6) wachovia bank customer service
33.6
(0.9)
22.0
(−5.6)
11.0
(−11.7)
1.2
(−17.1)
Record low °F (°C) −22
(−30)
−18
(−28)
−5
(−21)
20
(−7)
31
(−1)
43
(6)
51
(11)
47
(8)
32
(0)
21
(−6)
1
(−17)
−16
(−27)
−22
(−30)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.59
(66)
2.23
(57)
3.50
(89)
4.73
(120)
4.82
(122)
4.49
(114)
3.93
(100)
3.38
(86)
2.96
(75)
3.15
(80)
3.42
(87)
2.50
(64)
41.70
(1,059)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 5.7
(14)
4.3
(11)
2.3
(5.8)
0.2
(0.51)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.9
(2.3)
3.2
(8.1)
16.6
(42)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)9.3 8.7 10.8 11.5 12.6 9.8 8.9 8.4 7.3 8.5 9.0 9.0 113.8
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)4.7 3.9 1.7 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 3.2 14.5
Average relative humidity (%) 73.0 72.0 68.3 63.5 66.5 67.1 68.0 70.0 71.6 68.7 72.2 75.8 69.7
Average dew point °F (°C) 20.1
(−6.6)
24.1
(−4.4)
33.1
(0.6)
42.3
(5.7)
52.9
(11.6)
62.1
(16.7)
66.6
(19.2)
65.1
(18.4)
58.6
(14.8)
46.0
(7.8)
36.0
(2.2)
25.5
(−3.6)
44.4
(6.9)
Mean monthly sunshine hours161.2 158.3 198.3 223.5 266.5 291.9 308.9 269.8 236.1 208.4 140.9 129.9 2,593.7
Percent possible sunshine53 53 53 56 60 66 68 64 63 60 47 44 58
Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961−1990)[41][42][43]

Flora and fauna

Before the founding of the city, the area was mostly prairie and open forest. Native Americans maintained this environment, good for hunting, by burning underbrush. Trees are mainly oak, maple, and hickory, similar to the forests of the nearby Ozarks; common understory trees include eastern redbud, serviceberry, and flowering dogwood. Riparian areas are forested with mainly American sycamore.

Most of the residential areas of the city are planted with large native shade trees. The largest native forest area is found in Forest Park. In autumn, the changing color of the trees is notable. Most species here are typical of the eastern woodland, although numerous decorative non-native species are found. The most notable invasive species is Japanese honeysuckle, which officials are trying to manage because of its damage to native trees. It is removed from some parks.

Large mammals found in the city include urbanized coyotes and white-tailed deer. Eastern gray squirrel, cottontail rabbit, and other rodents are abundant, as well as the nocturnal Virginia opossum. Large bird species are abundant in parks and include Canada goose, mallard duck, as well as shorebirds, including the great egret and great blue heron. Gulls are common along the Mississippi River; these species follow barge traffic.

Winter populations of bald eagles are found along the Mississippi River around the Chain of Rocks Bridge. The city is on the Mississippi Flyway, used by migrating birds, and has a large variety of small bird species, common to the eastern US. The Eurasian tree sparrow, an introduced species, is limited in North America to the counties surrounding St. Louis. The city has special sites for birdwatching of migratory species, including Tower Grove Park.

Frogs are found in the springtime, especially after extensive wet periods. Common species include the American toad and species of chorus frogs called spring peepers, which are found in nearly every pond. Some years have outbreaks of cicadas or ladybugs. Mosquitoes, no-see-ums, and houseflies are common insect nuisances, especially in July and August; because of this, windows are almost always fitted with screens. Invasive populations of honeybees have declined in recent years. Numerous native species of pollinator insects have recovered to fill their ecological niche, and armadillos are seen throughout the St. Louis area.[44]

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
18101,600
18304,977
184016,469230.9%
185077,860372.8%
1860160,773106.5%
1870310,86493.4%
1880350,51812.8%
1890451,77028.9%
1900575,23827.3%
1910687,02919.4%
1920772,89712.5%
1930821,9606.3%
1940816,048−0.7%
1950856,7965.0%
1960750,026−12.5%
1970622,236−17.0%
1980453,805−27.1%
1990396,685−12.6%
2000348,189−12.2%
2010319,294−8.3%
2020301,578−5.5%
U.S. Decennial Census[45]
Map of racial distribution in St. Louis, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanicor Other(yellow)
Pruitt–Igoewas a large housing project constructed in 1954, which became infamous for poverty, crime and segregation. It was demolished in 1972.

St. Louis grew slowly until the American Civil War, when industrialization and immigration sparked a boom. Mid-19th century immigrants included many Irish and Germans; later there were immigrants from southern and eastern Europe. In the early 20th century, African American and white migrants came from the South; the former as part of the Great Migration out of rural areas of the Deep South. Many came from Mississippi and Arkansas.

After years of immigration, migration, and expansion, the city reached its peak population in 1950. That year, the Census Bureau reported St. Louis's population as 82% White and 17.9% African American.[46] After World War II, St. Louis began losing population to the suburbs, first because of increased demand for new housing, unhappiness with city services, ease of commuting by highways, and later, white flight.[47] St. Louis's population decline has resulted in a significant increase of abandoned residential housing units and vacant lots throughout the city proper; this blight has attracted much wildlife (such as deer and coyotes) to the many abandoned overgrown lots.

St. Louis has lost 64.0% of its population since the 1950 United States Census, the highest percent of any city that had a population of 100,000 or more at the time of the 1950 Census. Detroit, Michigan, and Youngstown, Ohio, are the only other cities that have had population declines of at least 60% in the same time frame. The population of the city of St. Louis has been in decline since the 1950 census; during this period the population of the St. Louis Metropolitan Area, which includes more than one county, has grown every year and continues to do so. A big factor in the decline has been the rapid increase in suburbanization.

According to the 2010 United States Census, St. Louis had 319,294 people living in 142,057 households, of which 67,488 households were families. The population density was 5,158.2 people per square mile (1,990.6/km2). About 24% of the population was 19 or younger, 9% were 20 to 24, 31% were 25 to 44, 25% were 45 to 64, and 11% were 65 or older. The median age was about 34 years.

The African-American population is concentrated in the north side of the city (the area north of Delmar Boulevard is 94.0% black, compared with 35.0% in the central corridor and 26.0% in the south side of St. Louis[48]). Among the Asian-American population in the city, the largest ethnic group is Vietnamese (0.9%), followed by Chinese (0.6%) and Indians (0.5%). The Vietnamese community has concentrated in the Dutchtown neighborhood of south St. Louis; Chinese are concentrated in the Central West End.[49] People of Mexican descent are the largest Latino group, and make up 2.2% of St. Louis's population. They have the highest concentration in the Dutchtown, Benton Park West (Cherokee Street), and Gravois Park neighborhoods.[50] People of Italian descent are concentrated in The Hill.

In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $29,156, and the median income for a family was $32,585. Males had a median income of $31,106; females, $26,987. Per capita income was $18,108.

Some 19% of the city's housing units were vacant, and slightly less than half of these were vacant structures not for sale or rent.

In 2010, St. Louis's per-capita rates of online charitable donations and volunteerism were among the highest among major U.S. cities.[51]

As of 2010[update], midwest regional bank arnold mo (270,934) of St. Louis city residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 2.86% (8,516) spoke Spanish, 0.91% (2,713) Serbo-Croat, 0.74% (2,200) Vietnamese, 0.50% (1,495) African languages, 0.50% (1,481) Chinese, and French was spoken as a main language by 0.45% (1,341) of the population over the age of five. In total, 8.95% (26,628) of St. Louis's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.[52]

Bosnian population

See also: History of the Bosnians in St. Louis

About fifteen families from Bosnia settled in St. Louis between 1960 and 1970. After the Bosnian War started in 1992, more Bosnian refugees began arriving and by 2000, tens of thousands of Bosnian refugees settled in St. Louis with the help of Catholic aid societies. Many of them were professionals and skilled workers who had to take any job opportunity to be able to support their families. Most Bosnian refugees are Muslim, ethnically Bosniaks (87%); they have settled primarily in south St. Louis and South County. Bosnian-Americans are well integrated into the city, developing many businesses and ethnic/cultural organizations.[58]

An estimated 70,000 Bosnians live in the metro area, the largest population of Bosnians in the United States and the largest Bosnian population outside their homeland. The highest concentration of Bosnians is in the neighborhood of Bevo Mill and in Affton, Mehlville, and Oakville of south St. Louis County.[59]

Crime

Main article: Crime in St. Louis

Since 2014 the city of St. Louis has had, as of April 2017[update], the highest murder rate, per capita, in the United States,[60] with 188 homicides in 2015 (59.3 homicides per 100,000)[61][62] and ranks No. 13 of the most dangerous cities in the world by homicide rate. Detroit, Flint, Memphis, Birmingham, and Baltimore have higher overall violent crime rates than St. Louis, when comparing other crimes such as rape, robbery, and aggravated assault.[61][63] Despite these high crime rates relative to other American cities, St. Louis index crime rates have declined almost every year since the peak in 1993 (16,648), to the 2014 level of 7,931 (which is the sum of violent crimes and property crimes) per 100,000. In 2015, the index crime rate reversed the 2005–2014 decline to a level of 8,204. Between 2005 and 2014, violent crime has declined by 20%, although rates of violent crime remains 6 times higher than the United States national average and property crime in the city remains 2 1⁄2 times the national average.[64] St. Louis has a higher homicide rate than the rest of the U.S. for both whites and blacks and a higher meijer mastercard customer service committed by males. As of October 2016[update], 7 of the homicide suspects were white, 95 black, 0 Hispanic, 0 Asian and 1 female out of the 102 suspects. In 2016, St. Louis was the most dangerous city in the United States with populations of 100,000 or more, ranking 1st in violent crime and 2nd in property crime. It was also ranked 6th of the most dangerous of all establishments in the United States, and East St. Louis, a suburb of the city itself, was ranked 1st.[65][66] The St. Louis Police Department at the end of 2016 reported a total of 188 murders service credit union branches near me the year, the same number of homicides that had occurred in the city in 2015.[67] According to the STLP At the end of 2017, St. Louis had 205 murders but the city recorded only 159 inside St. Louis city limits.[68][69] The new Chief of Police, John Hayden said two-thirds (67%) of all the murders and one-half of all the assaults are concentrated in a triangular area in the North part of the city.[68]

Yet another factor when comparing the murder rates of St. Louis and other cities is the manner of drawing municipal boundaries. While many other municipalities have annexed many suburbs, St. Louis has not annexed as much suburban area as most American cities. According to the 2018 Census, the St. Louis metro area included about 3 million residents and the city included about 300,000 residents. Therefore, the city contains about ten percent of the metro population, a low ratio indicating that the municipal boundaries include only a small part of the metro population.[70]

Economy

Main article: Economy of St. Louis

The gross domestic product of the St. Louis metro area was $160 billion in 2016, up from $155 billion the previous year. The gross metropolitan product of Greater St. Louis was $146 billion in 2014, the 21st-highest in the country, up from $144 billion in 2013, $138.4 billion in 2012, and $133.1 billion in 2011. The St. Louis metropolitan area had a per-capita GDP of $48,738 in 2014, up 1.6% from pokemon ex cards worth money previous year.[71] In 2007, manufacturing in the city conducted nearly $11 billion in business, followed by the health care and social service industry with $3.5 billion; professional or technical services with $3.1 billion; and the retail trade with $2.5 billion. The health care sector was the area's biggest employer with 34,000 workers, followed by administrative and support jobs, 24,000; manufacturing, 21,000, and food service, 20,000.[72]

Major companies and institutions

As of 2018[update], the St. Louis Metropolitan Area is home to ten Fortune 500 companies, the 7th-most among U.S. cities. They include Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Monsanto, Reinsurance Group of America, Centene, Graybar Electric, and Edward Jones Investments.[73]

Other notable corporations headquartered in the region include Arch Coal, Bunge Limited, Wells Fargo Advisors (formerly A.G. Edwards), Energizer Holdings, Patriot Coal, Post Foods, United Van Lines, and Mayflower Transit, Post Holdings, Olin, and Enterprise Holdings (a parent company of several car rental companies). Notable corporations with operations in St. Louis include Cassidy Turley, Kerry Group, Mastercard, TD Ameritrade, and BMO Harris Bank.

Health care and biotechnology institutions with operations in St. Louis include Pfizer, the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, the Solae Company, Sigma-Aldrich, and Multidata Systems International. General Motors manufactures automobiles in Wentzville, while an earlier plant, known as the St. Louis Truck Assembly, built GMC automobiles from 1920 until 1987. Chrysler closed its St. Louis Assembly production facility in nearby Fenton, Missouri and Ford closed the St. Louis Assembly Plant in Hazelwood.

Several once-independent pillars of the local economy have been purchased by other corporations. Among them are Anheuser-Busch, purchased by Belgium-based InBev; Missouri Pacific Railroad, which was headquartered in St. Louis, merged with the Omaha, Nebraska-based Union Pacific Railroad in 1982;[74]McDonnell Douglas, whose operations are now part of Boeing Defense, Space & Security;[75]Trans World Airlines, which was headquartered in the city for its last decade of existence, prior to being acquired by American Airlines; Mallinckrodt, purchased by Tyco International; and Ralston Purina, now a wholly owned subsidiary of Nestlé.[76] The May Department Stores Company (which owned Famous-Barr and Marshall Field's stores) was purchased by Federated Department Stores, which has its regional headquarters in the area. The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis in downtown is one of two federal reserve banks in Missouri.[77] Most of the assets of Furniture Brands International were sold to Heritage Home Group in 2013, which moved to North Carolina.[78][79]

St. Louis is a center of medicine and biotechnology.[80] The Washington University School of Medicine is affiliated with Barnes-Jewish Hospital, the fifth largest hospital in the world. Both institutions operate the Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center.[81] The School of Medicine also is affiliated with St. Louis Children's Hospital, one of the country's top pediatric hospitals.[82] Midwest regional bank arnold mo hospitals are owned by BJC HealthCare. The McDonnell Genome Institute at Washington University played a major role in the Human Genome Project.[83]Saint Louis University Medical School is affiliated with SSM Health's Cardinal Glennon Children's Hospital and Saint Louis University Hospital. It also has a cancer center, vaccine research center, geriatric center, and a bioethics institute. Several different organizations operate hospitals in the area, including BJC HealthCare, Mercy, SSM Health Care, and Tenet.

Cortex Innovation Community in Midtown neighborhood is the largest innovation hub in the midwest. Cortex is home to offices of Square, Microsoft, Aon, Boeing, and Centene. Cortex has generated 3,800 tech jobs in 14 years. Once built out, projections are for it to make $2 billion in development and create 13,000 jobs for the region.[84][85]

Boeing employs nearly 15,000 people in its north St. Louis campus, headquarters to its defense unit. In 2013, the company said it would move about 600 jobs from Seattle, where labor costs have risen, to a new IT center in St. Louis.[86][87] Other companies, such as LaunchCode and LockerDome, think the city could become the next major tech hub.[88] Programs such as Arch Grants are attracting new startups to the region.[89]

According to the St. Louis Business Journal, the top employers in the St. Louis metropolitan area as of 1 May 2017[update], are:[90]

According to St. Louis's 2017 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report (June 30),[91][92] the top employers in the city only, as of 30 June 2016[update] are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 BJC Health Care18,354
2 Washington University in St. Louis16,174
3 Saint Louis University10,078
4 City of St. Louis  8,765
5 Defense Finance and Accounting Service 6,508
6 Wells Fargo (A. G. Edwards)  5,418
7 St. Louis Board of Education 4,940
8 US Postal Service 4,577
9 State of Missouri 4,070
10 SSM Health 4,070

Arts and culture

Main article: Culture of St. Louis

See also: St. Louis cuisine

With its French past and waves of Catholic immigrants in the 19th and 20th centuries, from Ireland, Germany and Italy, St. Louis is a major center of Roman Catholicism in the United States. St. Louis also boasts the largest Ethical Culture Society in the United States and is one of the most generous cities in the United States, ranking ninth in 2013.[93] Several places of worship in the city are noteworthy, such as the Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis, home of the world's largest mosaic installation.[94]

Other notable churches include the Basilica of St. Louis, King of France, the oldest Roman Catholic cathedral west of the Mississippi River and the oldest church in St. Louis; the St. Louis Abbey, whose distinctive architectural style garnered multiple awards at the time of its completion in 1962; and St. Francis de Sales Oratory, a neo-Gothic church completed in 1908 in South St. Louis and the second largest church in the city.

The city is identified with music and the performing arts, especially its association with blues, jazz, and ragtime. St. Louis is home to the St. Louis Symphony, the second oldest symphony orchestra in the United States. Until 2010, it was also home to KFUO-FM, one of the oldest classical music FM radio stations west of the Mississippi River.[95]Opera Theatre of St. Louis has been called "one of America's best summer festivals" by the Washington Post. Former general director Timothy O'Leary was known for drawing the community into discussions of challenging operas. John Adams's "The Death of Klinghoffer", which touched off protests and controversy when performed by the Metropolitan Opera in 2014, had no such problems in St. Louis three years before, because the company fostered a citywide discussion, with interfaith dialogues addressing the tough issues of terrorism, religion and the nature of evil that the opera brings up. St. Louis's Jewish Community Relations Council gave O'Leary an award. Under O'Leary, the company — always known for innovative work — gave second chances to other major American operas, such as John Corigliano's "The Ghosts of Versailles", presented in 2009 in a smaller-scale version.[96]

The Gateway Arch anchors downtown St. Louis and a historic center that includes: the Federal courthouse where the Dred Scott case was first argued, an expanded public library, major churches and businesses, and retail. An increasing downtown residential population has taken to adapted office buildings and other historic structures. In nearby University City is the Delmar Loop, ranked by the American Planning Association as a "great American street" for its variety of shops and restaurants, and the Tivoli Theater, all within walking distance.

Unique city and regional cuisine reflecting various immigrant groups include toasted ravioli, gooey butter cake, provel cheese, the slinger, the Gerber sandwich, and the St. Paul sandwich. Some St. Louis chefs have begun emphasizing use of local produce, meats and fish, and neighborhood farmers' markets have become more popular. Artisan bakeries, salumeria, and chocolatiers also operate in the city.

St. Louis-style pizza has thin crust, provel cheese, and is cut in small squares.[97] Frozen-custard purveyor Ted Drewes offers its "Concrete": frozen custard blended with any combination of dozens of ingredients into a mixture so thick that a spoon inserted into the custard does not fall if the cup is inverted.[98]

Sports

See also: Sports in St. Louis and Soccer in St. Louis

St. Louis is home to the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball and the St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League. In 2019, it became the ninth North American city to have won titles in all four major leagues (MLB, NBA, NFL, and NHL) when bank of america raise atm limit Blues won the Stanley Cup championship. It also has notable and collegiate-level soccer teams and is one of three American credit one bank us customer service to have hosted an Olympic Games.

A third major team, the St. Louis City SC of Major League Soccer, is slated to begin play in 2023.

Professional sports

Pro teams in the St. Louis area include:

Busch Stadium in downtown St. Louis

The St. Louis Cardinals are one of the most successful franchises in Major League Baseball. The Cardinals have won 19 National League (NL) titles (the most pennants for the league franchise in one city) and 11 World Series titles (second to the New York Yankees and the most by any NL franchise), recently in 2011. They play at Busch Stadium. Previously, the St. Louis Browns played in the American League (AL) from 1902 to 1953, before moving to Baltimore, Maryland to become the current incarnation of the Orioles. The 1944 World Series was an all-St. Louis World Series, matching up the St. Louis Cardinals and St. Louis Browns at Sportsman's Park, won by the Cardinals in six games. It was the third and final time that the teams shared a home field. St. Louis also was home to the St. Louis Stars (baseball), also known as the St. Louis Giants from 1906 to 1921, who played in the Negro league baseball from 1920 to 1931 and won championships in 1928, 1930, and 1931, and the St. Louis Maroons who played in both the Union Association in 1884 and the National League from 1885 to 1889. In 1884, The St. Louis Maroons won the Union Association pennant and started the season with 20 straight wins, a feat that wasn't surpassed by any major professional sports team in America until the 2015-16 Golden State Warriors season when they started their NBA season with 24 straight wins.

The St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League (NHL) play at the Enterprise Center. They were one of the six teams added to the NHL in the 1967 expansion. The Blues went to the Stanley Cup finals in their first three years, but got swept every time. Although they were the first 1967 expansion team to make the Stanley Cup Finals, they were also the last of the 1967 expansion teams to win the Stanley Cup. They finally won their first Stanley Cup in 2019 after beating the Boston Bruins in the final. This championship made St. Louis the eighth city to win a championship in each of the four major U.S. sports. Prior to the Blues, the city was home to the St. Louis Eagles. The team played in the 1934–35 season.

St. Louis has been home to four National Football League (NFL) teams. The St. Louis All-Stars played in the city in 1923, the St. Louis Gunners in 1934, the St. Louis Cardinals from 1960 to 1987, and the St. Louis Rams from 1995 to 2015. The football Cardinals advanced to the NFL playoffs

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Louis

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St. Louis

This article is about the U.S. city. For other uses, see Saint Louis (disambiguation).

Independent city in Missouri, United States

Independent city in Missouri, United States

St. Louis

City of St. Louis
From top to bottom, left to right: The Jewel Box, train at St. Louis Lambert International Airport, the Apotheosis of St. Louis, Gateway Arch and the Downtown St. Louis skyline, Busch Stadium, and the Saint Louis Zoo

From top to bottom, left to right: The Jewel Box, train at St. Louis Lambert International Airport, the Apotheosis of St. Louis, Gateway Arch and the Downtown St. Louis skyline, Busch Stadium, and the Saint Louis Zoo

Nickname(s): 

"Gateway to the West",[1] The Gateway City,[1] Mound City,[2] The Lou,[3] Rome of the West,[4] River City, The STL, Saint Lou

Interactive map of St. Louis

Coordinates: 38°37′38″N90°11′52″W / 38.62722°N 90.19778°W / 38.62722; -90.19778Coordinates: 38°37′38″N90°11′52″W / 38.62722°N 90.19778°W / 38.62722; -90.19778
Country United States
State Missouri
CSASt. Louis–St. Charles–Farmington, MO–IL
MetroSt. Louis, MO-IL
FoundedFebruary 14, 1764
Incorporated1822
Named forLouis IX of France
 • TypeMayor–council
 • BodyBoard of Aldermen
 • MayorTishaura Jones (D)
 • President, Board of AldermenLewis E. Reed (D)
 • TreasurerAdam Layne
 • ComptrollerDarlene Green (D)
 • Congressional representativeCori Bush (D)
 • Independent city65.99 sq mi (170.92 km2)
 • Land61.74 sq mi (159.92 km2)
 • Water4.25 sq mi (11.00 km2)
 • Urban923.6 sq mi (2,392 km2)
 • Metro8,458 sq mi (21,910 km2)
Elevation

[6]

466 ft (142 m)
Highest elevation

[7]

614 ft (187 m)
 • Independent city301,578
 • RankUS: 69th
Midwest: 11th
Missouri: 2nd
 • Density4,885.0/sq mi (1,887.19/km2)
 • Urban2,150,706 (US: 20th)
 • Metro2,807,338 (US: 20th)
 • CSA2,911,945 (US: 19th)
Demonym(s)St. Louisan
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP Codes

List

  • 63101–63141
    63143–63147
    63150–63151
    63155–63158
    63160
    63163–63164
    63166–63167
    63169
    63171
    63177–63180
    63182
    63188
    63190
    63195
    63197–63199
Area code314
FIPS code29-65000
InterstatesI-44 (MO).svgI-55 (MO).svgI-64 (MO).svgI-70 (MO).svgI-270.svg
Light railSt Louis MetroLink Logo.svg
Primary airportSt. Louis Lambert International Airport
WaterwaysMississippi River
Missouri River
GDP$160 billion (2017)
Websitestlouis-mo.gov

St. Louis ()[9] is the second-largest city in Missouri, United States. It sits near the confluence of the Mississippi and the Missouri Rivers. As of 2020, the city proper had a population of around 301,500,[8] while the bi-state metropolitan area, which extends into Illinois, had an estimated population of over 2.8 million, making it the largest metropolitan area in Missouri, the second-largest in Illinois, the seventh-largest in the Great Lakes Megalopolis, and the 20th-largest in the United States.

Before European settlement, the area was a regional center of Native AmericanMississippian culture. St. Louis was founded on February 14, 1764, by French fur tradersGilbert Antoine de St. Maxent,[10]Pierre Laclède and Auguste Chouteau, who named it for Louis IX of France. In 1764, following France's defeat in the Seven Years' War, the area was ceded to Spain. In 1800, it was retroceded to France, which sold it three years later to the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase;[11] the city was then the point of embarkation for the Corps of Discovery on the Lewis and Clark Expedition. In the 19th century, St. Louis became a major port on the Mississippi River; from 1870 until the 1920 census, it was the fourth-largest city in the country. It separated from St. Louis County in 1877, becoming an independent city and limiting its own political boundaries. St. Louis had a brief run as a world-class city in the early 20th century.[12] In 1904, it hosted the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and the Summer Olympics.

A "Gamma" global city with a metropolitan GDP of more than $160 billion in 2017,[13] metropolitan St. Louis has a diverse economy with strengths in the service, manufacturing, trade, transportation, and tourism industries. It is home to nine of the ten Fortune 500 companies based in Missouri. Major companies headquartered or with significant operations in the city include Ameren Corporation, Peabody Energy, Nestlé Purina PetCare, Anheuser-Busch, Wells Fargo Advisors, Stifel Financial, Spire, Inc., MilliporeSigma, FleishmanHillard, Square, Inc., U.S. Bank, Anthem BlueCross and Blue Shield, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Centene Corporation, and Express Scripts.

Major research universities include Saint Louis University and Washington University in St. Louis. The Washington University Medical Center in the Central West End neighborhood hosts an agglomeration of medical and pharmaceutical institutions, including Barnes-Jewish Hospital.

St. Louis has three professional sports teams: the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball, the St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League, and the St. Louis BattleHawks of the newly formed XFL. In 2019, the city was awarded a Major League Soccer franchise, St. Louis City SC, which is expected to begin play upon the completion of a 22,500-seat stadium in the city's Downtown West neighborhood in 2023. Among the city's notable sights is the 630-foot (192 m) Gateway Arch in the downtown area. St. Louis is also home to the St. Louis Zoo and the Missouri Botanical Garden, which has the second-largest herbarium in North America.[14][15]

History

Main articles: History of St. Louis and Timeline of St. Louis

Mississippian culture and European exploration

Main article: History of St. Louis before 1762

The area that would become St. Louis was a center of the Native AmericanMississippian culture, which built numerous temple and residential earthworkmounds on both sides of the Mississippi River. Their major regional center was at Cahokia Mounds, active from 900 to 1500. Due to numerous major earthworks within St. Louis boundaries, the city was nicknamed as the "Mound City". These mounds were mostly demolished during the city's development. Historic Native American tribes in the area included the Siouan-speaking Osage people, whose territory extended west, and the Illiniwek.

European exploration of the area was first recorded in 1673, when French explorers Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette traveled through the Mississippi River valley. Five years later, La Salle claimed the region for France as part of Louisiana.

The earliest European settlements in the area were built in the Illinois Country (also known as Upper Louisiana) on the east side of the Mississippi River during the 1690s and early 1700s at Cahokia, Kaskaskia, and Fort de Chartres. Migrants from the French villages on the opposite side of the Mississippi River (e.g. Kaskaskia) founded Ste. Genevieve in the 1730s.

In 1764, after France lost the Seven Years' War, Pierre Laclède and his stepson Auguste Chouteau founded what was to become the city of St. Louis.[16] (French lands east of the Mississippi had been ceded to Great Britain and the lands west of the Mississippi to Spain; France and Spain were 18th-century allies. Louis XV of France and Charles III of Spain were cousins, both from the House of Bourbon.[17][circular reference]) The French families built the city's economy on the fur trade with the Osage, as well as with more distant tribes along the Missouri River. The Chouteau brothers gained a monopoly from Spain on the fur trade with Santa Fe. French colonists used African slaves as domestic servants and workers in the city.

France, alarmed that Britain would demand French possessions west of the Mississippi and the Missouri River basin after losing New France to them in 1759–1760, transferred these to Spain as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. These areas remained in Spanish possession until 1803. In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War, St. Louis was attacked by British forces, mostly Native American allies, in the Battle of St. Louis.[18]

City founding

Main article: History of St. Louis (1763–1803)

The founding of St. Louis was preceded by a trading business between Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent and Pierre Laclède (Liguest) in the fall of 1763. St. Maxent invested in a Mississippi River expedition led by Laclède, who searched for a location to base the company's fur trading operations. Though Ste. Genevieve was already established as a trading center, he sought a place less prone to flooding. He found an elevated area overlooking the flood plain of the Mississippi River, not far south from its confluence with the Missouri and Illinois rivers. In addition to having an advantageous natural drainage system, there were nearby forested areas to supply timber and grasslands which could easily be converted for agricultural purposes. This place, declared Laclède, “might become, hereafter, one of the finest cities in America.” He dispatched his 14-year-old stepson, Auguste Chouteau, to the site, with the support of 30 settlers in February 1764.[19]

Laclède arrived at the future town site two months later and produced a plan for St. Louis based on the New Orleans street plan. The default block size was 240 by 300 feet, with just three long avenues running parallel to the west bank of the Mississippi. He established a public corridor of 300 feet fronting the river, but later this area was released for private development.[19]

Photograph of a mural entitled Indian Attack on the Village of St. Louis, 1780, depicting the Battle of St. Louis.
In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War, St. Louis was attacked by British forces, mostly Native American allies, in the Battle of St. Louis.

For the first few years of St. Louis's existence, the city was not recognized by any of the governments. Although the settlement was thought to be under the control of the Spanish government, no one asserted any authority over it, and thus St. Louis had no local government. This vacuum led Laclède to assume civil control, and all problems were disposed in public settings, such as communal meetings. In addition, Laclède granted new settlers lots in town and the surrounding countryside. In hindsight, many of these original settlers thought of these first few years as "the golden age of St. Louis".[20]

By 1765, the city began receiving visits from representatives of the English, French, and Spanish governments. The Indians in the area expressed dissatisfaction at being under the control of British forces. One of the great Ottawa chieftains, Pontiac, was angered by the change of power and the potential for the British to come into their lands. He desired to fight against them but many of the St. Louis inhabitants refused.

St. Louis was transferred to the French First Republic in 1800 (although all of the colonial lands continued to be administered by Spanish officials), then sold by the French to the U.S. in 1803 as part of the Louisiana Purchase. St. Louis became the capital of, and gateway to, the new territory. Shortly after the official transfer of authority was made, the Lewis and Clark Expedition was commissioned by President Thomas Jefferson. The expedition departed from St. Louis in May 1804 along the Missouri River to explore the vast territory. There were hopes of finding a water route to the Pacific Ocean, but the party had to go overland in the Upper West. They reached the Pacific Ocean via the Columbia River in summer 1805. They returned, reaching St. Louis on September 23, 1806. Both Lewis and Clark lived in St. Louis after the expedition. Many other explorers, settlers, and trappers (such as Ashley's Hundred) would later take a similar route to the West.

19th century

Main articles: History of St. Louis (1804–1865) and History of St. Louis (1866–1904)

White men pose, 104 Locust Street, St. Louis, Missouri, in 1852 at Lynch's slave market.

The city elected its first municipal legislators (called trustees) in 1808. Steamboats first arrived in St. Louis in 1817, improving connections with New Orleans and eastern markets. Missouri was admitted as a state in 1821. St. Louis was incorporated as a city in 1822, and continued to develop largely due to its busy port and trade connections.

City of St. Louis and Riverfront, 1874
South Broadway after a May 27, 1896, tornado

Immigrants from Ireland and Germany arrived in St. Louis in significant numbers starting in the 1840s, and the population of St. Louis grew from less than 20,000 inhabitants in 1840, to 77,860 in 1850, to more than 160,000 by 1860. By the mid-1800s, St. Louis had a greater population than New Orleans.

Settled by many Southerners in a slave state, the city was split in political sympathies and became polarized during the American Civil War. In 1861, 28 civilians were killed in a clash with Union troops. The war hurt St. Louis economically, due to the Union blockade of river traffic to the south on the Mississippi River. The St. Louis Arsenal constructed ironclads for the Union Navy.

Slaves worked in many jobs on the waterfront as well as on the riverboats. Given the city's location close to the free state of Illinois and others, some slaves escaped to freedom. Others, especially women with children, sued in court in freedom suits, and several prominent local attorneys aided slaves in these suits. About half the slaves achieved freedom in hundreds of suits before the American Civil War. The printing press of abolitionist Elijah Parish Lovejoy was destroyed for the third time by townsfolk. He was murdered the next year in nearby Alton, Illinois.

After the war, St. Louis profited via trade with the West, aided by the 1874 completion of the Eads Bridge, named for its design engineer. Industrial developments on both banks of the river were linked by the bridge, the second in the Midwest over the Mississippi River after the Hennepin Avenue Bridge in Minneapolis. The bridge connects St. Louis, Missouri to East St. Louis, Illinois. The Eads Bridge became a symbolic image of the city of St. Louis, from the time of its erection until 1965 when the Gateway Arch Bridge was constructed. The bridge crosses the St. Louis riverfront between Laclede's Landing, to the north, and the grounds of the Gateway Arch, to the south. Today the road deck has been restored, allowing vehicular and pedestrian traffic to cross the river. The St. Louis MetroLink light rail system has used the rail deck since 1993. An estimated 8,500 vehicles pass through it daily.

On August 22, 1876, the city of St. Louis voted to secede from St. Louis County and become an independent city, and, following a recount of the votes in November, officially did so in March 1877.[21] Industrial production continued to increase during the late 19th century. Major corporations such as the Anheuser-Busch brewery and Ralston Purina company were established. St. Louis also was home to Desloge Consolidated Lead Company and several brass era automobile companies, including the Success Automobile Manufacturing Company;[22] St. Louis is the site of the Wainwright Building, a skyscraper designed in 1892 by architect Louis Sullivan.

20th century

Main article: History of St. Louis (1905–1980)

In 1904, the city hosted the World's Fair and the Olympics, becoming the first non-European city to host the games.[23] Permanent facilities and structures remaining from the fair are located in Forest Park, and other notable structures within the park's boundaries include the St. Louis Art Museum, the St. Louis Zoo and the Missouri History Museum, as well as Tower Grove Park and the Botanical Gardens.

After the Civil War, social and racial discrimination in housing and employment were common in St. Louis. In 1916, during the Jim Crow Era, St. Louis passed a residential segregation ordinance[24] saying that if 75% of the residents of a neighborhood were of a certain race, no one from a different race was allowed to move in.[25] That ordinance was struck down in a court challenge by the NAACP,[26] so racists invented racial covenants, which prevented the sale of houses in certain neighborhoods to "persons not of Caucasian race". Again, St. Louisans offered a lawsuit in challenge, and such covenants were ruled unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1948 in Shelley v. Kraemer.[27]

In the first half of the 20th century, St. Louis was a destination in the Great Migration of African Americans from the rural South seeking better opportunities. During World War II, the NAACP campaigned to integrate war factories. In 1964, civil rights activists protested at the construction of the Gateway Arch to publicize their effort to gain entry for African Americans into the skilled trade unions, where they were underrepresented. The Department of Justice filed the first suit against the unions under the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

In the first part of the century, St. Louis had some of the worst air pollution in the United States. In April 1940, the city banned the use of soft coal mined in nearby states. The city hired inspectors to ensure that only anthracite was burned. By 1946, the city had reduced air pollution by about 75%.[28]

View of the Arch(completed 1965) from Laclede's Landing, the remaining section of St. Louis's commercial riverfront

De jure educational segregation continued into the 1950s, and de facto segregation continued into the 1970s, leading to a court challenge and interdistrict desegregation agreement. Students have been bused mostly from the city to county school districts to have opportunities for integrated classes, although the city has created magnet schools to attract students.[29]

St. Louis, like many Midwestern cities, expanded in the early 20th century due to industrialization, which provided jobs to new generations of immigrants and migrants from the South. It reached its peak population of 856,796 at the 1950 census.[30]Suburbanization from the 1950s through the 1990s dramatically reduced the city's population, as did restructuring of industry and loss of jobs. The effects of suburbanization were exacerbated by the small geographical size of St. Louis due to its earlier decision to become an independent city, and it lost much of its tax base. During the 19th and 20th century, most major cities aggressively annexed surrounding areas as residential development occurred away from the central city; however, St. Louis was unable to do so.

Several urban renewal projects were built in the 1950s, as the city worked to replace old and substandard housing. Some of these were poorly designed and resulted in problems. One prominent example, Pruitt–Igoe, became a symbol of failure in public housing, and was torn down less than two decades after it was built.

Since the 1980s, several revitalization efforts have focused on downtown St. Louis.

21st century

Main article: History of St. Louis (1981–present)

Urban revitalization continued in the new century. Gentrification has taken place in the Washington Avenue Historic District, Central West End and Forest Park Southeast neighborhoods.[31] This helped St. Louis win the World Leadership Award for urban renewal in 2006.[32] In 2017 the US Census Bureau estimated that St. Louis had a population of 308,826 which is down from a population of 319,371 in 2010.[33]

In the 21st century, the city of St. Louis contains 11% of the total metropolitan population. (The top 20 U.S. metro areas have an average of 24% of their populations in their central cities.) St. Louis grew slightly during the early 2000s, but lost population from 2000 to 2010. Immigration has continued, with the city attracting Vietnamese, Latin Americans predominantly from Mexico, and Bosnians, who make up the largest Bosnian community outside of Bosnia.

Geography

Main article: Geography of St. Louis

Cityscape

Westward view of St. Louis, September 2008

Landmarks

Further information: Landmarks of St. Louis

Name Description Photo
Gateway ArchAt 630 feet (190 m), it is the world's tallest arch and tallest man-made monument in the Western Hemisphere.[34] Built as a monument to the westward expansion of the United States, it is the centerpiece of Gateway Arch National Park which was known as the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial until 2018. St Louis night expblend cropped.jpg
St. Louis Art MuseumBuilt for the 1904 World's Fair, with a building designed by Cass Gilbert, the museum houses paintings, sculptures, and cultural objects. The museum is located in Forest Park, and admission is free. St. Louis Art Museum.JPG
Missouri Botanical GardenFounded in 1859, the Missouri Botanical Garden is one of the oldest botanical institutions in the United States and a National Historic Landmark. It spans 79 acres in the Shaw neighborhood, including a 14-acre (5.7 ha) Japanese garden and the Climatron geodesic dome conservatory. Climatron, Missouri Botanical Gardens.jpg
Cathedral Basilica of St. LouisDedicated in 1914, it is the mother church of the Archdiocese of St. Louis and the seat of its archbishop. The church is known for its large mosaic installation (which is one of the largest in the Western Hemisphere with 41.5 million pieces), burial crypts, and its outdoor sculpture. Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis.JPG
City HallLocated in Downtown West, City Hall was designed by Harvey Ellis in 1892 in the Renaissance Revival style. It is reminiscent of the Hôtel de Ville, Paris. St Louis MO City Hall 20150905-100.jpg
Central LibraryCompleted in 1912, the Central Library building was designed by Cass Gilbert. It serves as the main location for the St. Louis Public Library. STLCentrallibrary.jpg
City MuseumCity Museum is a play house museum, consisting largely of repurposed architectural and industrial objects, housed in the former International Shoe building in the Washington Avenue Loft District. City Museum outdoor structures.jpg
Old CourthouseBuilt in the 19th century, it served as a federal and state courthouse. The Scott v. Sandford case (resulting in the Dred Scott decision) was tried at the courthouse in 1846. The Old Courthouse, Saint Louis, Missouri.JPG
St. Louis Science CenterFounded in 1963, it includes a science museum and a planetarium, and is situated in Forest Park. Admission is free. It is one of two science centers in the United States which offers free general admission. McDonnellPlanetarium.jpg
St. Louis SymphonyFounded in 1880, the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra is the second oldest symphony orchestra in the United States, preceded by the New York Philharmonic. Its principal concert venue is Powell Symphony Hall. 782px-Powell Symphony Hall.jpg
Union StationBuilt in 1888, it was the city's main passenger intercity train terminal. Once the world's largest and busiest train station, it was converted in the 1980s into a hotel, shopping center, and entertainment complex. Today, it also continues to serve local rail (MetroLink) transit passengers, with Amtrak service nearby. On December 25, 2019, the St. Louis Aquarium opened inside Union Station. The St. Louis Wheel, a 200ft 42 gondola ferris wheel, is also located at Union Station. St. Louis Union Station (17577826564).jpg
St. Louis ZooBuilt for the 1904 World's Fair, it is recognized as a leading zoo in animal management, research, conservation, and education. It is located in Forest Park, and admission is free. Monkey House at Forest Park. St. Louis. Mo (63214).jpg

Architecture

Further information: Architecture of St. Louis and List of tallest buildings in St. Louis

An aerial view of many skyscrapers and other buildings, with a dark blue river cutting down through the upper half.
A cluster of skyscrapers is located just west of the Gateway Arch and the Mississippi River.
Many houses in Lafayette Squareare built with a blending of Greek Revival, Federal and Italianate styles.

The architecture of St. Louis exhibits a variety of commercial, residential, and monumental architecture. St. Louis is known for the Gateway Arch, the tallest monument constructed in the United States at 630 feet (190 m).[35] The Arch pays homage to Thomas Jefferson and St. Louis's position as the gateway to the West. Architectural influences reflected in the area include French Colonial, German, early American, and modern architectural styles.

Some notable post-modern commercial skyscrapers were built downtown in the 1970s and 1980s, including the One US Bank Plaza (1976), the AT&T Center (1986), and One Metropolitan Square (1989), which is the tallest building in St. Louis. One US Bank Plaza, the local headquarters for US Bancorp, was constructed for the Mercantile Bancorporation in the Structural expressionist style, emphasizing the steel structure of the building.

During the 1990s, St. Louis saw the construction of the largest United States courthouse by area, the Thomas F. Eagleton United States Courthouse (completed in 2000). The Eagleton Courthouse is home to the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri and the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit. The most recent high-rise buildings in St. Louis include two residential towers: the Park East Tower in the Central West End and the Roberts Tower located downtown.

Several examples of religious structures are extant from the pre-Civil War period, and most reflect the common residential styles of the time. Among the earliest is the Basilica of St. Louis, King of France ( referred to as the Old Cathedral). The Basilica was built between 1831 and 1834 in the Federal style. Other religious buildings from the period include SS. Cyril and Methodius Church (1857) in the Romanesque Revival style and Christ Church Cathedral (completed in 1867, designed in 1859) in the Gothic Revival style.

A few civic buildings were constructed during the early 19th century. The original St. Louis courthouse was built in 1826 and featured a Federal style stone facade with a rounded portico. However, this courthouse was replaced during renovation and expansion of the building in the 1850s. The Old St. Louis County Courthouse (known as the Old Courthouse) was completed in 1864 and was notable for having a cast iron dome and for being the tallest structure in Missouri until 1894. Finally, a customs house was constructed in the Greek Revival style in 1852, but was demolished and replaced in 1873 by the U.S. Customhouse and Post Office.

Because much of the city's commercial and industrial development was centered along the riverfront, many pre-Civil War buildings were demolished during construction of the Gateway Arch. The city's remaining architectural heritage of the era includes a multi-block district of cobblestone streets and brick and cast-iron warehouses called Laclede's Landing. Now popular for its restaurants and nightclubs, the district is located north of Gateway Arch along the riverfront. Other industrial buildings from the era include some portions of the Anheuser-Busch Brewery, which date to the 1860s.

St. Louis saw a vast expansion in variety and number of religious buildings during the late 19th century and early 20th century. The largest and most ornate of these is the Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis, designed by Thomas P. Barnett and constructed between 1907 and 1914 in the Neo-Byzantine style. The St. Louis Cathedral, as it is known, has one of the largest mosaic collections in the world. Another landmark in religious architecture of St. Louis is the St. Stanislaus Kostka, which is an example of the Polish Cathedral style. Among the other major designs of the period were St. Alphonsus Liguori (known as The Rock Church) (1867) in the Gothic Revival and Second Presbyterian Church of St. Louis (1900) in Richardsonian Romanesque.

By the 1900 census, St. Louis was the fourth largest city in the country. In 1904, the city hosted a world's fair at Forest Park called the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Its architectural legacy is somewhat scattered. Among the fair-related cultural institutions in the park are the St. Louis Art Museum designed by Cass Gilbert, part of the remaining lagoon at the foot of Art Hill, and the Flight Cage at the St. Louis Zoo. The Missouri History Museum was built afterward, with the profit from the fair. But 1904 left other assets to the city, like Theodore Link's 1894 St. Louis Union Station, and an improved Forest Park.

Neighborhoods

Further information: Neighborhoods of St. Louis

The city is divided into 79 government-designated neighborhoods.[36] The neighborhood divisions have no legal standing, although some neighborhood associations administer grants or hold veto power over historic-district development.

Several neighborhoods are lumped together in categories such as "North City", "South City", and "The Central West End".

Topography

Rivers in the St. Louis area

According to the United States Census Bureau, St. Louis has a total area of 66 square miles (170 km2), of which 62 square miles (160 km2) is land and 4.1 square miles (11 km2) (6.2%) is water.[37] The city is built on bluffs and terraces that rise 100–200 feet above the western banks of the Mississippi River, in the Midwestern United States just south of the Missouri-Mississippi confluence. Much of the area is a fertile and gently rolling prairie that features low hills and broad, shallow valleys. Both the Mississippi River and the Missouri River have cut large valleys with wide flood plains.

Limestone and dolomite of the Mississippianepoch underlie the area, and parts of the city are karst in nature. This is particularly true of the area south of downtown, which has numerous sinkholes and caves. Most of the caves in the city have been sealed, but many springs are visible along the riverfront. Coal, brick clay, and millerite ore were once mined in the city. The predominant surface rock, known as St. Louis limestone, is used as dimension stone and rubble for construction.

Near the southern boundary of the city of St. Louis (separating it from St. Louis County) is the River des Peres, practically the only river or stream within the city limits that is not entirely underground.[38] Most of River des Peres was confined to a channel or put underground in the 1920s and early 1930s. The lower section of the river was the site of some of the worst flooding of the Great Flood of 1993.

The city's eastern boundary is the Mississippi River, which separates Missouri from Illinois. The Missouri River forms the northern line of St. Louis County, except for a few areas where the river has changed its course. The Meramec River forms most of its southern line.

Climate

Further information: Geography of St. Louis § Climate

The Captains' Return statue inundated by the Mississippi River, 2010.

The urban area of St. Louis has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa); however, its metropolitan region even to the south may present a hot-summer humid continental climate (Dfa), which shows the effect of the urban heat island in the city. The city experiences hot, humid summers and chilly to cold winters. It is subject to both cold Arctic air and hot, humid tropical air from the Gulf of Mexico. The average annual temperature recorded at nearby Lambert–St. Louis International Airport, is 57.4 °F (14.1 °C). 100 and 0 °F (38 and −18 °C) temperatures can be seen on an average 3 and 1 days per year, respectively. Precipitation averages 41.70 inches (1,100 mm), but has ranged from 20.59 in (523 mm) in 1953 to 61.24 in (1,555 mm) in 2015. The highest recorded temperature in St. Louis was 115 °F (46 °C) on July 14, 1954 and the lowest was −22 °F (−30 °C) on January 5, 1884.

St. Louis experiences thunderstorms 48 days a year on average.[39] Especially in the spring, these storms can often be severe, with high winds, large hail and tornadoes. Lying within the hotbed of Tornado Alley, St. Louis is one of the most frequently tornado-struck metropolitan areas in the U.S. and has an extensive history of damaging tornadoes. Severe flooding, such as the Great Flood of 1993, may occur in spring and summer; the (often rapid) melting of thick snow cover upstream on the Missouri or Mississippi Rivers can contribute to springtime flooding.

Climate data for St. Louis, Missouri (Lambert–St. Louis Int'l), 1991−2020 normals,[a] extremes 1874−present[b]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 77
(25)
85
(29)
92
(33)
93
(34)
98
(37)
108
(42)
115
(46)
110
(43)
104
(40)
94
(34)
86
(30)
76
(24)
115
(46)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 64.7
(18.2)
71.0
(21.7)
79.4
(26.3)
86.4
(30.2)
90.4
(32.4)
95.5
(35.3)
99.2
(37.3)
99.1
(37.3)
92.4
(33.6)
87.0
(30.6)
75.5
(24.2)
66.9
(19.4)
100.7
(38.2)
Average high °F (°C) 40.4
(4.7)
45.8
(7.7)
56.6
(13.7)
68.0
(20.0)
77.1
(25.1)
85.9
(29.9)
89.6
(32.0)
88.3
(31.3)
81.1
(27.3)
69.2
(20.7)
55.5
(13.1)
44.5
(6.9)
66.8
(19.3)
Daily mean °F (°C) 32.1
(0.1)
36.7
(2.6)
46.6
(8.1)
57.5
(14.2)
67.5
(19.7)
76.5
(24.7)
80.4
(26.9)
78.8
(26.0)
71.0
(21.7)
59.1
(15.1)
46.5
(8.1)
36.5
(2.5)
57.4
(14.1)
Average low °F (°C) 23.8
(−4.6)
27.6
(−2.4)
36.7
(2.6)
47.0
(8.3)
57.9
(14.4)
67.2
(19.6)
71.1
(21.7)
69.3
(20.7)
60.9
(16.1)
49.1
(9.5)
37.4
(3.0)
28.5
(−1.9)
48.0
(8.9)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 4.4
(−15.3)
9.6
(−12.4)
17.8
(−7.9)
32.2
(0.1)
43.5
(6.4)
55.5
(13.1)
61.4
(16.3)
60.1
(15.6)
47.1
(8.4)
33.6
(0.9)
22.0
(−5.6)
11.0
(−11.7)
1.2
(−17.1)
Record low °F (°C) −22
(−30)
−18
(−28)
−5
(−21)
20
(−7)
31
(−1)
43
(6)
51
(11)
47
(8)
32
(0)
21
(−6)
1
(−17)
−16
(−27)
−22
(−30)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.59
(66)
2.23
(57)
3.50
(89)
4.73
(120)
4.82
(122)
4.49
(114)
3.93
(100)
3.38
(86)
2.96
(75)
3.15
(80)
3.42
(87)
2.50
(64)
41.70
(1,059)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 5.7
(14)
4.3
(11)
2.3
(5.8)
0.2
(0.51)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.9
(2.3)
3.2
(8.1)
16.6
(42)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)9.3 8.7 10.8 11.5 12.6 9.8 8.9 8.4 7.3 8.5 9.0 9.0 113.8
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)4.7 3.9 1.7 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 3.2 14.5
Average relative humidity (%) 73.0 72.0 68.3 63.5 66.5 67.1 68.0 70.0 71.6 68.7 72.2 75.8 69.7
Average dew point °F (°C) 20.1
(−6.6)
24.1
(−4.4)
33.1
(0.6)
42.3
(5.7)
52.9
(11.6)
62.1
(16.7)
66.6
(19.2)
65.1
(18.4)
58.6
(14.8)
46.0
(7.8)
36.0
(2.2)
25.5
(−3.6)
44.4
(6.9)
Mean monthly sunshine hours161.2 158.3 198.3 223.5 266.5 291.9 308.9 269.8 236.1 208.4 140.9 129.9 2,593.7
Percent possible sunshine53 53 53 56 60 66 68 64 63 60 47 44 58
Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961−1990)[41][42][43]

Flora and fauna

Before the founding of the city, the area was mostly prairie and open forest. Native Americans maintained this environment, good for hunting, by burning underbrush. Trees are mainly oak, maple, and hickory, similar to the forests of the nearby Ozarks; common understory trees include eastern redbud, serviceberry, and flowering dogwood. Riparian areas are forested with mainly American sycamore.

Most of the residential areas of the city are planted with large native shade trees. The largest native forest area is found in Forest Park. In autumn, the changing color of the trees is notable. Most species here are typical of the eastern woodland, although numerous decorative non-native species are found. The most notable invasive species is Japanese honeysuckle, which officials are trying to manage because of its damage to native trees. It is removed from some parks.

Large mammals found in the city include urbanized coyotes and white-tailed deer. Eastern gray squirrel, cottontail rabbit, and other rodents are abundant, as well as the nocturnal Virginia opossum. Large bird species are abundant in parks and include Canada goose, mallard duck, as well as shorebirds, including the great egret and great blue heron. Gulls are common along the Mississippi River; these species follow barge traffic.

Winter populations of bald eagles are found along the Mississippi River around the Chain of Rocks Bridge. The city is on the Mississippi Flyway, used by migrating birds, and has a large variety of small bird species, common to the eastern US. The Eurasian tree sparrow, an introduced species, is limited in North America to the counties surrounding St. Louis. The city has special sites for birdwatching of migratory species, including Tower Grove Park.

Frogs are found in the springtime, especially after extensive wet periods. Common species include the American toad and species of chorus frogs called spring peepers, which are found in nearly every pond. Some years have outbreaks of cicadas or ladybugs. Mosquitoes, no-see-ums, and houseflies are common insect nuisances, especially in July and August; because of this, windows are almost always fitted with screens. Invasive populations of honeybees have declined in recent years. Numerous native species of pollinator insects have recovered to fill their ecological niche, and armadillos are seen throughout the St. Louis area.[44]

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
18101,600
18304,977
184016,469230.9%
185077,860372.8%
1860160,773106.5%
1870310,86493.4%
1880350,51812.8%
1890451,77028.9%
1900575,23827.3%
1910687,02919.4%
1920772,89712.5%
1930821,9606.3%
1940816,048−0.7%
1950856,7965.0%
1960750,026−12.5%
1970622,236−17.0%
1980453,805−27.1%
1990396,685−12.6%
2000348,189−12.2%
2010319,294−8.3%
2020301,578−5.5%
U.S. Decennial Census[45]
Map of racial distribution in St. Louis, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanicor Other(yellow)
Pruitt–Igoewas a large housing project constructed in 1954, which became infamous for poverty, crime and segregation. It was demolished in 1972.

St. Louis grew slowly until the American Civil War, when industrialization and immigration sparked a boom. Mid-19th century immigrants included many Irish and Germans; later there were immigrants from southern and eastern Europe. In the early 20th century, African American and white migrants came from the South; the former as part of the Great Migration out of rural areas of the Deep South. Many came from Mississippi and Arkansas.

After years of immigration, migration, and expansion, the city reached its peak population in 1950. That year, the Census Bureau reported St. Louis's population as 82% White and 17.9% African American.[46] After World War II, St. Louis began losing population to the suburbs, first because of increased demand for new housing, unhappiness with city services, ease of commuting by highways, and later, white flight.[47] St. Louis's population decline has resulted in a significant increase of abandoned residential housing units and vacant lots throughout the city proper; this blight has attracted much wildlife (such as deer and coyotes) to the many abandoned overgrown lots.

St. Louis has lost 64.0% of its population since the 1950 United States Census, the highest percent of any city that had a population of 100,000 or more at the time of the 1950 Census. Detroit, Michigan, and Youngstown, Ohio, are the only other cities that have had population declines of at least 60% in the same time frame. The population of the city of St. Louis has been in decline since the 1950 census; during this period the population of the St. Louis Metropolitan Area, which includes more than one county, has grown every year and continues to do so. A big factor in the decline has been the rapid increase in suburbanization.

According to the 2010 United States Census, St. Louis had 319,294 people living in 142,057 households, of which 67,488 households were families. The population density was 5,158.2 people per square mile (1,990.6/km2). About 24% of the population was 19 or younger, 9% were 20 to 24, 31% were 25 to 44, 25% were 45 to 64, and 11% were 65 or older. The median age was about 34 years.

The African-American population is concentrated in the north side of the city (the area north of Delmar Boulevard is 94.0% black, compared with 35.0% in the central corridor and 26.0% in the south side of St. Louis[48]). Among the Asian-American population in the city, the largest ethnic group is Vietnamese (0.9%), followed by Chinese (0.6%) and Indians (0.5%). The Vietnamese community has concentrated in the Dutchtown neighborhood of south St. Louis; Chinese are concentrated in the Central West End.[49] People of Mexican descent are the largest Latino group, and make up 2.2% of St. Louis's population. They have the highest concentration in the Dutchtown, Benton Park West (Cherokee Street), and Gravois Park neighborhoods.[50] People of Italian descent are concentrated in The Hill.

In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $29,156, and the median income for a family was $32,585. Males had a median income of $31,106; females, $26,987. Per capita income was $18,108.

Some 19% of the city's housing units were vacant, and slightly less than half of these were vacant structures not for sale or rent.

In 2010, St. Louis's per-capita rates of online charitable donations and volunteerism were among the highest among major U.S. cities.[51]

As of 2010[update], 91.05% (270,934) of St. Louis city residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 2.86% (8,516) spoke Spanish, 0.91% (2,713) Serbo-Croat, 0.74% (2,200) Vietnamese, 0.50% (1,495) African languages, 0.50% (1,481) Chinese, and French was spoken as a main language by 0.45% (1,341) of the population over the age of five. In total, 8.95% (26,628) of St. Louis's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.[52]

Bosnian population

See also: History of the Bosnians in St. Louis

About fifteen families from Bosnia settled in St. Louis between 1960 and 1970. After the Bosnian War started in 1992, more Bosnian refugees began arriving and by 2000, tens of thousands of Bosnian refugees settled in St. Louis with the help of Catholic aid societies. Many of them were professionals and skilled workers who had to take any job opportunity to be able to support their families. Most Bosnian refugees are Muslim, ethnically Bosniaks (87%); they have settled primarily in south St. Louis and South County. Bosnian-Americans are well integrated into the city, developing many businesses and ethnic/cultural organizations.[58]

An estimated 70,000 Bosnians live in the metro area, the largest population of Bosnians in the United States and the largest Bosnian population outside their homeland. The highest concentration of Bosnians is in the neighborhood of Bevo Mill and in Affton, Mehlville, and Oakville of south St. Louis County.[59]

Crime

Main article: Crime in St. Louis

Since 2014 the city of St. Louis has had, as of April 2017[update], the highest murder rate, per capita, in the United States,[60] with 188 homicides in 2015 (59.3 homicides per 100,000)[61][62] and ranks No. 13 of the most dangerous cities in the world by homicide rate. Detroit, Flint, Memphis, Birmingham, and Baltimore have higher overall violent crime rates than St. Louis, when comparing other crimes such as rape, robbery, and aggravated assault.[61][63] Despite these high crime rates relative to other American cities, St. Louis index crime rates have declined almost every year since the peak in 1993 (16,648), to the 2014 level of 7,931 (which is the sum of violent crimes and property crimes) per 100,000. In 2015, the index crime rate reversed the 2005–2014 decline to a level of 8,204. Between 2005 and 2014, violent crime has declined by 20%, although rates of violent crime remains 6 times higher than the United States national average and property crime in the city remains 2 1⁄2 times the national average.[64] St. Louis has a higher homicide rate than the rest of the U.S. for both whites and blacks and a higher proportion committed by males. As of October 2016[update], 7 of the homicide suspects were white, 95 black, 0 Hispanic, 0 Asian and 1 female out of the 102 suspects. In 2016, St. Louis was the most dangerous city in the United States with populations of 100,000 or more, ranking 1st in violent crime and 2nd in property crime. It was also ranked 6th of the most dangerous of all establishments in the United States, and East St. Louis, a suburb of the city itself, was ranked 1st.[65][66] The St. Louis Police Department at the end of 2016 reported a total of 188 murders for the year, the same number of homicides that had occurred in the city in 2015.[67] According to the STLP At the end of 2017, St. Louis had 205 murders but the city recorded only 159 inside St. Louis city limits.[68][69] The new Chief of Police, John Hayden said two-thirds (67%) of all the murders and one-half of all the assaults are concentrated in a triangular area in the North part of the city.[68]

Yet another factor when comparing the murder rates of St. Louis and other cities is the manner of drawing municipal boundaries. While many other municipalities have annexed many suburbs, St. Louis has not annexed as much suburban area as most American cities. According to the 2018 Census, the St. Louis metro area included about 3 million residents and the city included about 300,000 residents. Therefore, the city contains about ten percent of the metro population, a low ratio indicating that the municipal boundaries include only a small part of the metro population.[70]

Economy

Main article: Economy of St. Louis

The gross domestic product of the St. Louis metro area was $160 billion in 2016, up from $155 billion the previous year. The gross metropolitan product of Greater St. Louis was $146 billion in 2014, the 21st-highest in the country, up from $144 billion in 2013, $138.4 billion in 2012, and $133.1 billion in 2011. The St. Louis metropolitan area had a per-capita GDP of $48,738 in 2014, up 1.6% from the previous year.[71] In 2007, manufacturing in the city conducted nearly $11 billion in business, followed by the health care and social service industry with $3.5 billion; professional or technical services with $3.1 billion; and the retail trade with $2.5 billion. The health care sector was the area's biggest employer with 34,000 workers, followed by administrative and support jobs, 24,000; manufacturing, 21,000, and food service, 20,000.[72]

Major companies and institutions

As of 2018[update], the St. Louis Metropolitan Area is home to ten Fortune 500 companies, the 7th-most among U.S. cities. They include Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Monsanto, Reinsurance Group of America, Centene, Graybar Electric, and Edward Jones Investments.[73]

Other notable corporations headquartered in the region include Arch Coal, Bunge Limited, Wells Fargo Advisors (formerly A.G. Edwards), Energizer Holdings, Patriot Coal, Post Foods, United Van Lines, and Mayflower Transit, Post Holdings, Olin, and Enterprise Holdings (a parent company of several car rental companies). Notable corporations with operations in St. Louis include Cassidy Turley, Kerry Group, Mastercard, TD Ameritrade, and BMO Harris Bank.

Health care and biotechnology institutions with operations in St. Louis include Pfizer, the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, the Solae Company, Sigma-Aldrich, and Multidata Systems International. General Motors manufactures automobiles in Wentzville, while an earlier plant, known as the St. Louis Truck Assembly, built GMC automobiles from 1920 until 1987. Chrysler closed its St. Louis Assembly production facility in nearby Fenton, Missouri and Ford closed the St. Louis Assembly Plant in Hazelwood.

Several once-independent pillars of the local economy have been purchased by other corporations. Among them are Anheuser-Busch, purchased by Belgium-based InBev; Missouri Pacific Railroad, which was headquartered in St. Louis, merged with the Omaha, Nebraska-based Union Pacific Railroad in 1982;[74]McDonnell Douglas, whose operations are now part of Boeing Defense, Space & Security;[75]Trans World Airlines, which was headquartered in the city for its last decade of existence, prior to being acquired by American Airlines; Mallinckrodt, purchased by Tyco International; and Ralston Purina, now a wholly owned subsidiary of Nestlé.[76] The May Department Stores Company (which owned Famous-Barr and Marshall Field's stores) was purchased by Federated Department Stores, which has its regional headquarters in the area. The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis in downtown is one of two federal reserve banks in Missouri.[77] Most of the assets of Furniture Brands International were sold to Heritage Home Group in 2013, which moved to North Carolina.[78][79]

St. Louis is a center of medicine and biotechnology.[80] The Washington University School of Medicine is affiliated with Barnes-Jewish Hospital, the fifth largest hospital in the world. Both institutions operate the Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center.[81] The School of Medicine also is affiliated with St. Louis Children's Hospital, one of the country's top pediatric hospitals.[82] Both hospitals are owned by BJC HealthCare. The McDonnell Genome Institute at Washington University played a major role in the Human Genome Project.[83]Saint Louis University Medical School is affiliated with SSM Health's Cardinal Glennon Children's Hospital and Saint Louis University Hospital. It also has a cancer center, vaccine research center, geriatric center, and a bioethics institute. Several different organizations operate hospitals in the area, including BJC HealthCare, Mercy, SSM Health Care, and Tenet.

Cortex Innovation Community in Midtown neighborhood is the largest innovation hub in the midwest. Cortex is home to offices of Square, Microsoft, Aon, Boeing, and Centene. Cortex has generated 3,800 tech jobs in 14 years. Once built out, projections are for it to make $2 billion in development and create 13,000 jobs for the region.[84][85]

Boeing employs nearly 15,000 people in its north St. Louis campus, headquarters to its defense unit. In 2013, the company said it would move about 600 jobs from Seattle, where labor costs have risen, to a new IT center in St. Louis.[86][87] Other companies, such as LaunchCode and LockerDome, think the city could become the next major tech hub.[88] Programs such as Arch Grants are attracting new startups to the region.[89]

According to the St. Louis Business Journal, the top employers in the St. Louis metropolitan area as of 1 May 2017[update], are:[90]

According to St. Louis's 2017 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report (June 30),[91][92] the top employers in the city only, as of 30 June 2016[update] are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 BJC Health Care18,354
2 Washington University in St. Louis16,174
3 Saint Louis University10,078
4 City of St. Louis  8,765
5 Defense Finance and Accounting Service 6,508
6 Wells Fargo (A. G. Edwards)  5,418
7 St. Louis Board of Education 4,940
8 US Postal Service 4,577
9 State of Missouri 4,070
10 SSM Health 4,070

Arts and culture

Main article: Culture of St. Louis

See also: St. Louis cuisine

With its French past and waves of Catholic immigrants in the 19th and 20th centuries, from Ireland, Germany and Italy, St. Louis is a major center of Roman Catholicism in the United States. St. Louis also boasts the largest Ethical Culture Society in the United States and is one of the most generous cities in the United States, ranking ninth in 2013.[93] Several places of worship in the city are noteworthy, such as the Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis, home of the world's largest mosaic installation.[94]

Other notable churches include the Basilica of St. Louis, King of France, the oldest Roman Catholic cathedral west of the Mississippi River and the oldest church in St. Louis; the St. Louis Abbey, whose distinctive architectural style garnered multiple awards at the time of its completion in 1962; and St. Francis de Sales Oratory, a neo-Gothic church completed in 1908 in South St. Louis and the second largest church in the city.

The city is identified with music and the performing arts, especially its association with blues, jazz, and ragtime. St. Louis is home to the St. Louis Symphony, the second oldest symphony orchestra in the United States. Until 2010, it was also home to KFUO-FM, one of the oldest classical music FM radio stations west of the Mississippi River.[95]Opera Theatre of St. Louis has been called "one of America's best summer festivals" by the Washington Post. Former general director Timothy O'Leary was known for drawing the community into discussions of challenging operas. John Adams's "The Death of Klinghoffer", which touched off protests and controversy when performed by the Metropolitan Opera in 2014, had no such problems in St. Louis three years before, because the company fostered a citywide discussion, with interfaith dialogues addressing the tough issues of terrorism, religion and the nature of evil that the opera brings up. St. Louis's Jewish Community Relations Council gave O'Leary an award. Under O'Leary, the company — always known for innovative work — gave second chances to other major American operas, such as John Corigliano's "The Ghosts of Versailles", presented in 2009 in a smaller-scale version.[96]

The Gateway Arch anchors downtown St. Louis and a historic center that includes: the Federal courthouse where the Dred Scott case was first argued, an expanded public library, major churches and businesses, and retail. An increasing downtown residential population has taken to adapted office buildings and other historic structures. In nearby University City is the Delmar Loop, ranked by the American Planning Association as a "great American street" for its variety of shops and restaurants, and the Tivoli Theater, all within walking distance.

Unique city and regional cuisine reflecting various immigrant groups include toasted ravioli, gooey butter cake, provel cheese, the slinger, the Gerber sandwich, and the St. Paul sandwich. Some St. Louis chefs have begun emphasizing use of local produce, meats and fish, and neighborhood farmers' markets have become more popular. Artisan bakeries, salumeria, and chocolatiers also operate in the city.

St. Louis-style pizza has thin crust, provel cheese, and is cut in small squares.[97] Frozen-custard purveyor Ted Drewes offers its "Concrete": frozen custard blended with any combination of dozens of ingredients into a mixture so thick that a spoon inserted into the custard does not fall if the cup is inverted.[98]

Sports

See also: Sports in St. Louis and Soccer in St. Louis

St. Louis is home to the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball and the St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League. In 2019, it became the ninth North American city to have won titles in all four major leagues (MLB, NBA, NFL, and NHL) when the Blues won the Stanley Cup championship. It also has notable and collegiate-level soccer teams and is one of three American cities to have hosted an Olympic Games.

A third major team, the St. Louis City SC of Major League Soccer, is slated to begin play in 2023.

Professional sports

Pro teams in the St. Louis area include:

Busch Stadium in downtown St. Louis

The St. Louis Cardinals are one of the most successful franchises in Major League Baseball. The Cardinals have won 19 National League (NL) titles (the most pennants for the league franchise in one city) and 11 World Series titles (second to the New York Yankees and the most by any NL franchise), recently in 2011. They play at Busch Stadium. Previously, the St. Louis Browns played in the American League (AL) from 1902 to 1953, before moving to Baltimore, Maryland to become the current incarnation of the Orioles. The 1944 World Series was an all-St. Louis World Series, matching up the St. Louis Cardinals and St. Louis Browns at Sportsman's Park, won by the Cardinals in six games. It was the third and final time that the teams shared a home field. St. Louis also was home to the St. Louis Stars (baseball), also known as the St. Louis Giants from 1906 to 1921, who played in the Negro league baseball from 1920 to 1931 and won championships in 1928, 1930, and 1931, and the St. Louis Maroons who played in both the Union Association in 1884 and the National League from 1885 to 1889. In 1884, The St. Louis Maroons won the Union Association pennant and started the season with 20 straight wins, a feat that wasn't surpassed by any major professional sports team in America until the 2015-16 Golden State Warriors season when they started their NBA season with 24 straight wins.

The St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League (NHL) play at the Enterprise Center. They were one of the six teams added to the NHL in the 1967 expansion. The Blues went to the Stanley Cup finals in their first three years, but got swept every time. Although they were the first 1967 expansion team to make the Stanley Cup Finals, they were also the last of the 1967 expansion teams to win the Stanley Cup. They finally won their first Stanley Cup in 2019 after beating the Boston Bruins in the final. This championship made St. Louis the eighth city to win a championship in each of the four major U.S. sports. Prior to the Blues, the city was home to the St. Louis Eagles. The team played in the 1934–35 season.

St. Louis has been home to four National Football League (NFL) teams. The St. Louis All-Stars played in the city in 1923, the St. Louis Gunners in 1934, the St. Louis Cardinals from 1960 to 1987, and the St. Louis Rams from 1995 to 2015. The football Cardinals advanced to the NFL playoffs

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Louis

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System

Federal Reserve System Organization

Congress designed the Federal Reserve System to give it a broad perspective on the economy and on economic activity in all parts of the nation. As such, the System is composed of a central, governmental agency—the Board of Governors—in Washington, D.C., and 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks. This section lists key officials across the System, including the Board of Governors, its officers, Federal Open Market Committee members, several System councils, and Federal Reserve Bank and Branch directors and officers for 2020.

Board of Governors

Members

The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System is composed of seven members, who are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The Chair and the Vice Chair of the Board are also named by the President from among the members and are confirmed by the Senate. This section lists Board members who served in 2020. For a full listing of Board members from 1914 through the present, visit www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/bios/board/boardmembership.htm.

Jerome H. Powell
Chair

Richard H. Clarida
Vice Chair

Randal K. Quarles
Vice Chair for Supervision

Michelle W. Bowman

Lael Brainard

Christopher J. Waller
(as of December 18, 2020)

Divisions and Officers

Fifteen divisions support and carry out the mission of the Board of Governors, which is based in Washington, D.C.

Office of Board Members

Michelle A. Smith
Assistant to the Board
and Director

Linda L. Robertson
Assistant to the Board

Lucretia M. Boyer
Assistant to the Board

David W. Skidmore
Assistant to the Board
(through February 1, 2020)

Jennifer C. Gallagher
Special Assistant to the Board
for Congressional Liaison

Jon Faust
Senior Special Adviser
to the Chair

Joshua H. Gallin
Special Adviser to the Chair

Legal Division

Mark E. Van Der Weide
General Counsel

Richard M. Ashton
Deputy General Counsel

Laurie S. Schaffer
Deputy General Counsel

Charles Gray
Senior Associate General Counsel
and Chief of Staff
(as of March 19, 2020)

Stephanie Martin
Senior Associate
General Counsel

Jean C. Anderson
Associate General Counsel

Benjamin W. McDonough
Associate General Counsel

Alvin Williams
Associate General Counsel
(as of August 31, 2020)

Alicia S. Foster
Deputy Associate
General Counsel

Alison M. Thro
Deputy Associate
General Counsel

Cary K. Williams
Deputy Associate
General Counsel

Patrick M. Bryan
Assistant General Counsel
(through January 25, 2020)

Jason A. Gonzalez
Assistant General Counsel
(as of August 16, 2020)

Office of the Secretary

Ann Misback
Secretary of the Board

Margaret M. Shanks
Deputy Secretary

Michele T. Fennell
Deputy Associate Secretary

Yao-Chin Chao
Assistant Secretary

Division of International Finance

Beth Anne Wilson
Director
(as of June 1, 2020)

Shaghil Ahmed
Deputy Director

Sally M. Davies
Deputy Director

Brian M. Doyle1
Deputy Director

Joseph W. Gruber
Deputy Director
(through May 2, 2020)

Carol Bertaut
Senior Associate Director

James A. Dahl
Associate Director

Paul Wood
Associate Director

Ricardo Correa
Deputy Associate Director

Stephanie E. Curcuru
Deputy Associate Director

Matteo Iacoviello
Deputy Associate Director

Andrea Raffo
Deputy Associate Director

Daniel Beltran
Assistant Director
(as of June 21, 2020)

Viktors Stebunovs
Assistant Director
(as of June 21, 2020)

Robert Vigfusson
Assistant Director

Brett Berger
Senior Adviser

Steven B. Kamin
Senior Adviser
(through June 1, 2020)

John H. Rogers
Senior Adviser

Division of Financial Stability

Andreas W. Lehnert
Director

Michael T. Kiley
Deputy Director

William F. Bassett
Senior Associate Director

Elizabeth Klee
Senior Associate Director

John W. Schindler
Senior Associate Director

Luca Guerrieri
Deputy Associate Director

Kent C. Hiteshew
Deputy Associate Director
(as of March 25, 2020)

Namirembe Mukasa
Deputy Associate and
Chief of Staff

Chiara Scotti2
Deputy Associate Director

Skander J. Van den Heuvel
Deputy Associate Director

David Arseneau
Assistant Director
(as of November 8, 2020)

Andrew M. Cohen
Assistant Director

Ceyhun Durdu
Assistant Director
(as of November 8, 2020)

Uzma Wahhab
Special Adviser

Division of Monetary Affairs

Thomas Laubach
Director
(through September 2, 2020)

Trevor A. Reeve
Director
(as of September 3, 2020)

James A. Clouse
Deputy Director

Rochelle M. Edge
Deputy Director

David H. Bowman
Senior Associate Director

Gretchen C. Weinbach
Senior Associate Director

Margaret G. DeBoer
Associate Director

Mary T. Hoffman
Associate Director

J. David Lopez-Salido
Associate Director

Matthew M. Luecke
Associate Director

Katherine Tom
Associate Director
(through October 11, 2020)

Min Wei
Associate Director

Eric C. Engstrom3
Deputy Associate Director

Christopher J. Gust
Deputy Associate Director

Brian Bonis
Assistant Director
(as of March 29, 2020)

Karen Brooks
Assistant Director

Michiel De Pooter
Assistant Director

Giovanni Favara
Assistant Director

Etienne Gagnon
Assistant Director

Dan Li
Assistant Director

Laura Lipscomb
Assistant Director

Elizabeth Marx
Assistant Director
(as of March 29, 2020)

Zeynep Senyuz
Assistant Director

Rebecca Zarutskie
Assistant Director

Antulio Bomfim4
Senior Adviser

Jane E. Ihrig
Senior Adviser

Don H. Kim
Senior Adviser

Ellen E. Meade
Senior Adviser

Edward M. Nelson
Senior Adviser

Robert J. Tetlow
Senior Adviser

Egon Zakrajsek
Senior Adviser

Division of Research and Statistics

Stacey Tevlin
Director

Jeffrey C. Campione
Deputy Director

Daniel M. Covitz
Deputy Director

William L. Wascher III
Deputy Director

Nicole Bennett
Senior Associate Director
(as of March 30, 2020)

Eric M. Engen
Senior Associate Director

Joshua H. Gallin
Senior Associate Director

Diana Hancock
Senior Associate Director

David E. Lebow
Senior Associate Director

Michael G. Palumbo
Senior Associate Director

John J. Stevens
Senior Associate Director

Glenn R. Follette
Associate Director

Elizabeth K. Kiser
Associate Director

Timothy A. Mullen
Associate Director

Burcu Duygan-Bump
Deputy Associate Director

Eric C. Engstrom5
Deputy Associate Director

J. Andrew Figura
Deputy Associate Director

Erik A. Heitfield
Deputy Associate Director

Patrick E. McCabe
Deputy Associate Director

Norman J. Morin
Deputy Associate Director

Karen M. Pence
Deputy Associate Director

John M. Roberts
Deputy Associate Director

Shane M. Sherlund
Deputy Associate Director

Lillian Shewmaker
Deputy Associate Director

Paul A. Smith
Deputy Associate Director

Gianni Amisano
Assistant Director and Chief

Matthias Paustian
Assistant Director and Chief

Paul Lengermann
Assistant Director

Geng Li
Assistant Director and Chief

Byron Lutz
Assistant Director

Raven Molloy
Assistant Director

Gustavo Suarez
Assistant Director

Clara Vega
Assistant Director

S. Wayne Passmore
Senior Adviser

Robin A. Prager
Senior Adviser
(through April 1, 2020)

Jeremy Rudd
Senior Adviser

Steven A. Sharpe
Senior Adviser

Charles Fleischman
Adviser

Division of Supervision and Regulation

Michael S. Gibson
Director

Jennifer Burns
Deputy Director

Arthur W. Lindo
Deputy Director

James Price
Deputy Director

Mary L. Aiken
Senior Associate Director

Barbara J. Bouchard
Senior Adviser

Richard N. Ragan
Senior Associate Director

Lisa Ryu
Senior Associate Director

Todd Vermilyea
Senior Associate Director

Kevin M. Bertsch
Associate Director

Nida Davis
Associate Director

Christopher Finger
Associate Director

Jeffery Gunther
Associate Director

Anna L. Hewko
Associate Director

Michael J. Hsu
Associate Director

John Kolb
Associate Director
(through April 1, 2020)

Molly Mahar
Associate Director

Richard A. Naylor II
Associate Director

Thomas R. Sullivan
Associate Director

John Beebe
Deputy Associate Director

James Ray Diggs
Deputy Associate Director

Mona Elliot
Deputy Associate Director

Constance Horsley
Deputy Associate Director

Kavita Jain
Deputy Associate Director
(as of June 29, 2020)

Kathleen Johnson
Deputy Associate Director

Ryan P. Lordos
Deputy Associate Director

Lara Lylozian
Deputy Associate Director/
Chief Accountant

David K. Lynch
Deputy Associate Director

Susan Motyka
Deputy Associate Director

T. Kirk Odegard
Deputy Associate Director

Catherine Piche
Deputy Associate Director
(through March 1, 2020)

Laurie Priest
Deputy Associate Director
(through July 1, 2020)

Steven Spurry
Deputy Associate Director

Catherine A. Tilford
Deputy Associate Director

Joanne Wakim
Deputy Associate Director
(through July 1, 2020)

Donna Webb
Deputy Associate Director

Suzanne L. Williams
Deputy Associate Director

Dana Burnett
Assistant Director
(as of October 25, 2020)

Karen Caplan
Assistant Director

Juan Climent
Assistant Director
(as of June 7, 2020)

Keith Coughlin
Assistant Director

Christine Graham
Assistant Director

Eric L. Kennedy
Assistant Director
(as of April 26, 2020)

Keith A. Ligon
Assistant Director
(through June 1, 2020)

Ann McKeehan
Assistant Director

Brent Richards
Assistant Director

Vaishali Sack
Assistant Director

Emily Wells
Assistant Director
(as of November 8, 2020)

Robert Sarama
Assistant Director

Norah M. Barger
Senior Adviser

Robert T. Ashman
Adviser
(through October 1, 2020)

Fang Du
Adviser

William F. Treacy
Adviser

Division of Consumer and Community Affairs

Eric S. Belsky
Director

V. Nicole Bynum
Deputy Director

Anna Alvarez Boyd
Senior Associate Director

Suzanne G. Killian
Senior Associate Director
(through December 1, 2020)

Carol A. Evans
Associate Director

Joseph A. Firschein
Associate Director

Phyllis L. Harwell
Associate Director

Marisa A. Reid
Associate Director

David E. Buchholz
Deputy Associate Director

Angelyque Campbell
Assistant Director

Amy B. Henderson
Assistant Director

Minh-Duc T. Le
Assistant Director

Caterina Petrucco-Littleton
Assistant Director

Allen Fishbein
Senior Adviser
(through June 1, 2020)

Division of Reserve Bank Operations and Payment Systems

Matthew J. Eichner
Director

Marta E. Chaffee
Senior Associate Director

Gregory L. Evans
Senior Associate Director

Susan V. Foley
Senior Associate Director

Lawrence E. Mize
Senior Associate Director

Michael J. Lambert
Associate Director
(through November 1, 2020)

Jennifer K. Liu
Associate Director

Jennifer A. Lucier
Associate Director

David C. Mills
Associate Director

Timothy W. Maas
Deputy Associate Director

Stuart E. Sperry
Deputy Associate Director

Jeffrey Walker
Deputy Associate Director

Casey Clark
Assistant Director

Sonja Danburg
Assistant Director and Manager

Caio Peixoto
Assistant Director and Manager
(as of May 24, 2020)

Jason Hinkle
Assistant Director

Brian Lawler
Assistant Director

Mark Manuszak
Assistant Director

Travis D. Nesmith
Assistant Director and Chief

Mark J. Olechowski
Assistant Director

Rebecca L. Royer
Assistant Director

Nick Trotta
Assistant Director and Manager

Office of the Chief Operating Officer

Patrick J. McClanahan
Chief Operating Officer

Michael J. Kraemer
Chief Data Officer
(through May 1, 2020)

Katherine Tom
Chief Data Officer
(as of October 11, 2020)

Sheila Clark
Diversity and Inclusion
Programs Director

Andrew Leonard
Associate Director

Phillip C. Daher
Assistant Director

Jeffrey A. Monica
Assistant Director
(through July 1, 2020)

Steven Miranda
Adviser

Michell Clark
Senior Adviser
(through February 1, 2020)

Division of Financial Management

Ricardo Aguilera
Director and Chief
Financial Officer

Stephen J. Bernard
Deputy Director

Monica Y. Manning
Associate Director
(as of November 9, 2020)

Thomas Murphy
Deputy Associate Director
(as of March 2, 2020)

Jeffrey R. Peirce
Associate Director

Karen L. Vassallo
Associate Director

Kimberly Briggs
Assistant Director

Division of Management

Winona Varnon
Director

Tara Tinsley-Pelitere
Senior Associate Director

Tameika L. Pope
Senior Associate Director
and CTO

Curtis B. Eldridge
Senior Associate Director
and Chief

Ann Buckingham
Associate Director

Donna J. Butler
Deputy Associate Director and Chief of Staff (as of January 21, 2020)

Kendra Gastright
Associate Director

Timothy E. Markey
Deputy Associate Director

Reginald V. Roach
Deputy Associate Director

Katherine Perez-Grines
Deputy Associate Director
and Assistant Chief

Keith F. Bates
Assistant Director

Catherine Jack
Assistant Director

Tim Ly
Assistant Director

Jeffrey A. Martin
Assistant Director
(through April 22, 2020)

Stephen E. Pearson
Assistant Director

Jacqueline Raia
Assistant Director
(through August 29, 2020)

Division of Information Technology

Sharon L. Mowry
Director

Lisa M. Bell
Deputy Director

Raymond Romero
Deputy Director

Kofi A. Sapong
Deputy Director

Glenn S. Eskow
Senior Associate Director

Stephen Olden
Senior Associate Director
(as of October 26, 2020)

Sheryl Lynn Warren
Senior Associate Director

Rajasekhar R. Yelisetty
Senior Associate Director

Charles B. Young
Associate Director

William K. Dennison
Deputy Associate Director

Deborah Prespare
Deputy Associate Director

Jonathan F. Shrier
Deputy Associate Director

Eric C. Turner
Deputy Associate Director

Virginia M. Wall
Deputy Associate Director

Brian Lester
Assistant Director

Amy Kelley
Assistant Director
(as of August 16, 2020)

Scott Meyerle
Assistant Director

Can Xuan Nguyen
Assistant Director

Langston Shaw
Assistant Director

Edgar Wang
Assistant Director

Ivan K. Wun
Assistant Director

Marietta Murphy
Adviser
(through August 1, 2020)

Theresa C. Palya
Adviser

Office of Inspector General

Mark Bialek
Inspector General

Fred Gibson
Deputy Inspector General

Gerald Maye
Associate Inspector General
(through May 1, 2020)

Peter Sheridan
Associate Inspector General

Michael VanHuysen
Associate Inspector General

Stephen Carroll
Deputy Associate
Inspector General

Cynthia Gray
Assistant Inspector General
(as of August 30, 2020)

Jacqueline M. Becker
Senior Adviser

Federal Open Market Committee

The Federal Open Market Committee is made up of the seven members of the Board of Governors; the president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York; and four of the remaining eleven Federal Reserve Bank presidents, who serve one-year terms on a rotating basis. During 2020, the Federal Open Market Committee held eight regularly scheduled and two unscheduled meetings (see appendix B, "Minutes of Federal Open Market Committee Meetings").

Members

Jerome H. Powell
Chair, Board of Governors

John C. Williams
Vice Chairman, President,
Federal Reserve Bank of New York

Michelle W. Bowman
Member, Board of Governors

Lael Brainard
Member, Board of Governors

Richard H. Clarida
Member, Board of Governors

Patrick T. Harker
President, Federal Reserve
Bank of Philadelphia

Robert S. Kaplan
President, Federal Reserve
Bank of Dallas

Neel Kashkari
President, Federal Reserve
Bank of Minneapolis

Loretta J. Mester
President, Federal Reserve
Bank of Cleveland

Randal K. Quarles
Member, Board of Governors

Alternate Members

Thomas Barkin
President, Federal Reserve
Bank of Richmond

Raphael W. Bostic
President, Federal Reserve
Bank of Atlanta

Mary C. Daly
President, Federal Reserve
Bank of San Francisco

Charles L. Evans
President, Federal Reserve
Bank of Chicago

Helen E. Mucciolo
First Vice President, Federal Reserve
Bank of New York
(as of November 11, 2020)

Michael Strine
First Vice President, Federal Reserve
Bank of New York
(through November 10, 2020)

Officers

James A. Clouse
Secretary

Matthew M. Luecke
Deputy Secretary

Michelle A. Smith
Assistant Secretary

Mark E. Van Der Weide
General Counsel

Michael A. Held
Deputy General Counsel

Richard M. Ashton
Assistant General Counsel

Thomas Laubach
Economist
(through September 1, 2020)

Trevor A. Reeve
Economist
(as of October 1, 2020)

Stacey Tevlin
Economist

Beth Anne Wilson
Economist

Shaghil Ahmed
Associate Economist

Michael Dotsey
Associate Economist

Rochelle M. Edge
Associate Economist
(as of October 1, 2020)

Marc P. Giannoni
Associate Economist

Joseph W. Gruber
Associate Economist

Beverly Hirtle
Associate Economist

David E. Lebow
Associate Economist

Ellis W. Tallman
Associate Economist

William L. Wascher
Associate Economist

Mark L.J. Wright
Associate Economist

Lorie K. Logan
Manager, System Open
Market Account

Board of Governors Advisory Councils

The Federal Reserve Board uses advisory committees in carrying out its varied responsibilities. To learn more, visit https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/advisorydefault.htm.

Federal Advisory Council

The Federal Advisory Council—a statutory body established under the Federal Reserve Act—consults with and advises the Board of Governors on all matters within the Board's jurisdiction. It is composed of one representative from each Federal Reserve District, chosen by the Reserve Bank in that District. The president and vice president of the council are selected from amongst council members. The Federal Reserve Act requires the council to meet in Washington, D.C., at least four times a year. In 2020, the council met on February 5–6, May 7–8, September 16–17, and December 2–3. The council met with the Board on February 6, May 7, September 17, and December 3, 2020.

Members
District 1

John R. Ciulla
President and Chief Executive Officer, Webster Financial Corporation and Webster Bank, Waterbury, CT

District 2

Rene F. Jones
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, M&T Bank Corporation, Buffalo, NY

District 3

Jeffrey M. Schweitzer
Chief Executive Officer, Univest Bank and Trust Co., Souderton, PA

District 4

William S. Demchak
Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, PNC Financial Services Group, Pittsburgh, PA

District 5

Brian T. Moynihan
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Bank of America, Charlotte, NC

District 6

Rajinder P. Singh
Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, BankUnited, Inc., Miami Lakes, FL

District 7

Jeffrey J. Brown
Chief Executive Officer, Ally Financial Inc., Detroit, MI

District 8

D. Bryan Jordan
Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, First Horizon National Corporation, Memphis, TN

District 9

Kevin P. Riley
President and Chief Executive Officer, First Interstate BancSystem, Inc., Billings, MT

District 10

John B. Dicus
President and Chief Executive Officer, Capitol Federal Financial, Inc., Topeka, KS

District 11

Phillip D. Green
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Cullen/Frost Bankers Inc., San Antonio, TX

District 12

James H. Herbert, II
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, First Republic Bank, San Francisco, CA

Officers

Brian T. Moynihan
President

Jeffrey J. Brown
Vice President

Herb Taylor
Secretary

Community Depository Institutions Advisory Council

The Community Depository Institutions Advisory Council advises the Board of Governors on the economy, lending conditions, and other issues of interest to community depository institutions. Members are selected from among representatives of banks, thrift institutions, and credit unions who are serving on local advisory councils at the 12 Federal Reserve Banks. One member of each of the Reserve Bank councils serves on the Community Depository Institutions Advisory Council. The president and vice president are selected from amongst council members. The council usually meets with the Board twice a year in Washington, D.C. In 2020, the council met on April 1 and November 19.

Members
District 1

Dorothy A. Savarese
Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, Cape Cod 5, Orleans, MA

District 2

Faheem A. Masood
President and Chief Executive Officer, ESL Federal Credit Union,
Rochester, NY

District 3

Jeane M. Vidoni
President and Chief Executive Officer, Penn Community Bank, Perkasie, PA

District 4

T. Michael Price
President and Chief Executive Officer, First Commonwealth Financial Corp., Indiana, PA

District 5

Dabney T.P. Gilliam, Jr.
President and Chief Executive Officer, The Bank of Charlotte County, Phenix, VA

District 6

David R. Melville III
President and Chief Executive Officer, b1Bank, Baton Rouge, LA

District 7

Douglas S. Gordon
President and Chief Executive Officer, WaterStone Bank, SSB, Wauwatosa, WI

District 8

Marnie Older
Chief Executive Officer and Director, Stone Bank, Little Rock, AR

District 9

Shari Laven
Chief Executive Officer, Viking Bank, Alexandria, MN

District 10

Brad Koehn
Regional President, Midwest Bank, Lincoln, NE

District 11

Erik Beguin
Founder and Chief Executive Officer, Austin Capital Bank, Austin, TX

District 12

Andrew J. Ryback
President and Chief Executive Officer, Plumas Bank, Quincy, CA

Officers

Dorothy A. Savarese
President

T. Michael Price
Vice President

The Community Advisory Council was formed in 2015 to advise the Board of Governors on the economic circumstances and financial services needs of consumers and communities, with a particular focus on the concerns of low- and moderate-income populations. The council is composed of a diverse group of experts and representatives of consumer and community development organizations and interests, including from such fields as affordable housing, community and economic development, employment and labor, financial services and technology, small business, and asset and wealth building. One member of the council serves as its chair. The council first met with the Board in November 2015, and meets with the Board twice each year. In 2020, the council met with the Board on for a special meeting on COVID-19 on April 13 and held their regular meetings on May 14 and October 1.

Members

Juan Bonilla
Deputy Director, Lawrence Community Works, Lawrence, MA

Dr. Susan Bradbury
Professor, Community and Regional Planning, Iowa State University, Ames, IA

Tawney Brunsch
Executive Director, Lakota Funds, Kyle, SD

Adrian M. Brooks
CEO, Memorial Community Development Corporation, Evansville, IN

Joshua Downey
President, Denver Area Labor Federation, AFL-CIO, Denver, CO

Donald Hinkle-Brown
President and CEO, Reinvestment Fund, Philadelphia, PA

Barb Lau
Executive Director, Association of Women Contractors, St. Paul, MN

Stephanie Mackay
Chief Innovation Officer, Columbus Community Center, Salt Lake City, UT

Andreanecia Morris
Executive Director, HousingNOLA, New Orleans, LA

Marc Norman
Associate Professor of Practice, University of Michigan, Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning, Ann Arbor, MI

Jonny Price
Director of Business Development, Wefunder, San Francisco, CA

Bethany Sanchez
Fair Lending Director, Metropolitan Milwaukee Fair Housing Council, Milwaukee, WI

Bill Schlesinger
Co-Director, Project Vida, El Paso, TX

Lora Smith
Executive Director, Appalachian Impact Fund, Hazard, KY

Jesse Van Tol
CEO, National Community Reinvestment Coalition, Washington, DC

Officers

Donald Hinkle-Brown
Chair

Marc Norman
Vice Chair

Model Validation Council

The Model Validation Council was established in 2012 by the Board of Governors to provide expert and independent advice on its process to rigorously assess the models used in stress tests of banking institutions. The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act required the Federal Reserve to conduct annual stress tests of large bank holding companies and systemically important, nonbank financial institutions supervised by the Board. The Model Validation Council provides input on the Board's efforts to assess the effectiveness of the models used in the stress tests. The council is intended to improve the quality of the Federal Reserve's model assessment program and to strengthen the confidence in the integrity and independence of the program.

Members

Andrew Atkeson
Professor, University of California, Los Angeles

Paul Glasserman
Professor, Columbia University

Victoria Ivashina
Professor, Harvard Business School

Stijn Van Nieuwerburgh
Professor, Columbia University

Andrew Patton
Professor, Duke University

Federal Reserve Banks and Branches

To carry out the day-to-day operations of the Federal Reserve System, the nation has been divided into 12 Federal Reserve Districts, each with a Reserve Bank. The majority of Reserve Banks also have at least one Branch.

As required by the Federal Reserve Act, each Federal Reserve Bank is supervised by a nine-member board with three different classes of three directors each: Class A directors, who are nominated and elected by the member banks in that District to represent the stockholding banks; Class B directors, who are nominated and elected by the member banks to represent the public; and Class C directors, who are appointed by the Board of Governors to represent the public. Class B and Class C directors are selected with due, but not exclusive, consideration to the interests of agriculture, commerce, industry, services, labor, and consumers. Each Federal Reserve Bank Branch also has a board with either five or seven directors. A majority of the directors on each Branch board are appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank, with the remaining directors appointed by the Board of Governors.

For more information on Reserve Bank and Branch directors, see https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/directors/about.htm.

Reserve Bank and Branch directors are listed below. For each director, the class of directorship, the director's principal place of business, and the expiration date of the director's current term are shown. Also shown are maps that identify Federal Reserve Districts by their official number, city, and letter designation. For more information on the Federal Reserve indicator letters, see https://www.uscurrency.gov/denominations/bank-note-identifiers.

District 1–Boston

Covers the states of Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont; and all but Fairfield County in Connecticut.

For more information on this District and to learn more about the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston's operations, visit https://www.bostonfed.org/. Information on economic conditions for this District can be found in the Federal Reserve System's Beige Book at https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/beigebook2020.htm. Also find the Reserve Bank's financial statements for 2020 at https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/files/bostonfinstmt2020.pdf.

Class A

Michael E. Tucker, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Greenfield Cooperative Bank, Greenfield, MA

Chandler Howard, 2021
Retired President and Chief Executive Officer, Liberty Bank, Middletown, CT

Bruce Van Saun, 2022
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Citizens Financial Group, Providence, RI

Class B

Kimberly Sherman Stamler, 2020, President, Related Beal, Boston, MA

Roger W. Crandall, 2021
Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer, MassMutual Financial Group, Springfield, MA

Lizanne Kindler, 2022
Chief Executive Officer, Talbots, Hingham, MA

Class C

Kathleen E. Walsh, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA

Phillip L. Clay, 2021
Professor Emeritus of City Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA

Christina Hull Paxson, 2022
President, Brown University, Providence, RI

District 2–New York

Covers the state of New York; Fairfield County in Connecticut; and 12 counties in northern New Jersey, and serves the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

For more information on this District and to learn more about the Federal Reserve Bank of New York's operations, visit https://www.newyorkfed.org/. Information on economic conditions for this District can be found in the Federal Reserve System's Beige Book at https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/beigebook2020.htm. Also find the Reserve Bank's financial statements for 2020 at https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/files/newyorkfinstmt2020.pdf.

Class A

Paul P. Mello, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Solvay Bank, Solvay, NY

James P. Gorman, 2021
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Morgan Stanley, New York, NY

Douglas L. Kennedy, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Peapack-Gladstone Bank, Bedminster, NJ

Class B

Vacancy, 2020

Glenn H. Hutchins, 2021
Chairman, North Island, and Co-Founder, Silver Lake, New York, NY

Adena T. Friedman, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Nasdaq, New York, NY

Class C

Rosa Gil, 2020
Founder, President, and Chief Executive Officer, Comunilife, Inc., New York, NY

Vincent Alvarez, 2021
President, New York City Central Labor Council, AFL-CIO, New York, NY

Denise Scott, 2022
Executive Vice President, Local Initiatives Support Corporation, New York, NY

District 3–Philadelphia

Covers the state of Delaware; nine counties in southern New Jersey; and 48 counties in the eastern two-thirds of Pennsylvania.

For more information on this District and to learn more about the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia's operations, visit https://www.philadelphiafed.org/. Information on economic conditions for this District can be found in the Federal Reserve System's Beige Book at https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/beigebook2020.htm. Also find the Reserve Bank's financial statements for 2020 at https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/files/philadelphiafinstmt2020.pdf.

Class A

Jon S. Evans, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Atlantic Community Bankers Bank, Camp Hill, PA

Timothy Snyder, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Fleetwood Bank, Fleetwood, PA

Christopher D. Maher, 2022
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, OceansFirst Bank, N.A., Toms River, NJ

Class B

Patricia Hasson, 2020
Retired President and Executive Director, Clarifi, Philadelphia, PA

Julia H. Klein, 2021
Chairwoman and Chief Executive Officer, C. H. Briggs Company, Reading, PA

John Fry, 2022
President, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA

Class C

Madeline Bell, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia–CHOP, Philadelphia, PA

Vacancy, 2021

Anthony Ibarguen, 2022
Chief Executive Officer, Quench USA, Inc., King of Prussia, PA

District 4–Cleveland

Covers the state of Ohio; 56 counties in eastern Kentucky; 19 counties in western Pennsylvania; and 6 counties in northern West Virginia.

For more information on this District and to learn more about the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland's operations, visit https://www.clevelandfed.org/. Information on economic conditions for this District can be found in the Federal Reserve System's Beige Book at https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/beigebook2020.htm. Also find the Reserve Bank's financial statements for 2020 at https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/files/clevelandfinstmt2020.pdf.

Class A

Dean J. Miller, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, First National Bank of Bellevue, Bellevue, OH

Eddie L. Steiner, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, CSB Bancorp, Inc., Millersburg, OH

Amy G. Brady, 2022
Chief Information Officer and Executive Vice President, KeyBank, Cleveland, OH

Class B

Charles H. Brown, 2020
Retired Executive Adviser, Toyota Motor North America, Erlanger, KY

Valarie L. Sheppard, 2021
Controller, Treasurer, and Executive Vice President-Company Transition Leader, The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH

David Megenhardt, 2022
Executive Director, United Labor Agency, Cleveland, OH

Class C

Doris Carson Williams, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, African American Chamber of Commerce of Western Pennsylvania,
Pittsburgh, PA

Dawne S. Hickton, 2021
Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer, Critical Mission, Jacobs, Pittsburgh, PA

Dwight E. Smith, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Sophisticated Systems, Inc., Columbus, OH

Cincinnati Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Alfonso Cornejo, 2020
President, Hispanic Chamber Cincinnati USA, Cincinnati, OH

David C. Evans, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, TESSEC LLC, Dayton, OH

Tucker Ballinger, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Forcht Bank, N.A., Lexington, KY

Darin C. Hall, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Civitas Development Group, Cincinnati, OH

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Jenell R. Ross, 2020
President, Bob Ross Auto Group, Centerville, OH

Rachid Abdallah, 2021
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Jedson Engineering, Cincinnati, OH

Holly B. Wiedemann, 2022
Founder and President, AU Associates, Inc., Lexington, KY

Pittsburgh Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Audrey Dunning, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, AMP Growth Advisors, LLC, Cranberry Township, PA

Robert I. Glimcher, 2020
President, Glimcher Group Inc., Pittsburgh, PA

Vera Krekanova, 2021
Chief Strategy and Research Officer, Allegheny Conference on Community Development, Pittsburgh, PA

Shelley L. Fant, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, FCG Solutions, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Suzanne Mellon, 2020
President, Carlow University, Pittsburgh, PA

Dmitri D. Shiry, 2021
Retired Partner Deloitte-Pittsburgh, Deloitte LLP, Pittsburgh, PA

Kathryn Z. Klaber, 2022
Managing Partner, The Klaber Group, Sewickley, PA

District 5–Richmond

Covers the states of Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; 49 counties constituting most of West Virginia; and the District of Columbia.

For more information on this District and to learn more about the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond's operations, visit https://www.richmondfed.org/. Information on economic conditions for this District can be found in the Federal Reserve System's Beige Book at https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/beigebook2020.htm. Also find the Reserve Bank's financial statements for 2020 at https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/files/richmondfinstmt2020.pdf.

Class A

Robert R. Hill, Jr., 2020
Chief Executive Officer, South State Corporation, Columbia, SC

James H. Sills, III, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Mechanics and Farmers Bank, Durham, NC

William A. Loving, Jr., 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Pendleton Community Bank, Franklin, WV

Class B

Thomas C. Nelson, 2020
Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer, National Gypsum Company, Charlotte, NC

Catherine A. Meloy, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Goodwill of Greater Washington/Goodwill Excel Center, Washington, DC

Wayne A. I. Frederick, MD, 2022, President, Howard University,
Washington, DC

Class C

Kathy J. Warden, 2020
Chief Executive Officer and President, Northrop Grumman Corporation, Falls Church, VA

Eugene A. Woods, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Atrium Health, Charlotte, NC

Jodie McLean, 2022
Chief Executive Officer, EDENS, Washington, DC

Baltimore Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Richard Lloyd Willey, 2020
President, Perdue Agribusiness, LLC, Salisbury, MD

Laura L. Gamble, 2021
Regional President Greater Maryland, PNC, Baltimore, MD

Tom Geddes, 2021
Partner and Portfolio Manager, Brown Advisory, Baltimore, MD

Cecilia A. Hodges, 2022
Regional President Greater Washington and Virginia, M&T Bank, Falls Church, VA

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Susan J. Ganz, 2020
Chief Executive Officer, Lion Brothers Company, Inc., Owings Mills, MD

Kenneth R. Banks, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Banks Contracting Company, Greenbelt, MD

William J. McCarthy, 2022
Executive Director, Catholic Charities of Baltimore, Baltimore, MD

Charlotte Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Sepideh Saidi, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, SEPI Inc., Raleigh, NC

Michael D. Garcia, 2021
President, Pulp and Paper Division, Domtar Corp., Fort Mill, SC

Jerry L. Ocheltree, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, United Bank, Lincolnton, NC

Michael C. Crapps, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, First Community Bank, Lexington, SC

Appointed by the Board of Governors

R. Glenn Sherrill, Jr., 2020
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, SteelFab Inc., Charlotte, NC

Bernette William Mazyck, 2021, President and Chief Executive Officer, South Carolina Association for Community Economic Development, Charleston, SC

Vacancy, 2022

District 6–Atlanta

Covers the states of Alabama, Florida, and Georgia; 74 counties in the eastern two-thirds of Tennessee; 38 parishes of southern Louisiana; and 43 counties of southern Mississippi.

For more information on this District and to learn more about the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta's operations, visit https://www.frbatlanta.org/. Information on economic conditions for this District can be found in the Federal Reserve System's Beige Book at https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/beigebook2020.htm. Also find the Reserve Bank's financial statements for 2020 at https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/files/atlantafinstmt2020.pdf.

Class A

Kessel D. Stelling, Jr., 2020
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Synovus Financial Corporation, Columbus, GA

Claire W. Tucker, 2021
Chief Executive Officer, CapStar Financial Holdings, Inc., Nashville, TN

Robert W. Dumas, 2022
Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer, AuburnBank, Auburn, AL

Class B

Jonathan T.M. Reckford, 2020
Chief Executive Officer, Habitat for Humanity International, Atlanta, GA

Michael Russell, 2021
Chief Executive Officer, H.J. Russell and Company, Atlanta, GA

Mary A. Laschinger, 2022
Former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Veritiv Corporation, Atlanta, GA

Class C

Myron A. Gray, 2020
Retired President, U.S. Operations, United Parcel Service, Inc., Atlanta, GA

Claire Lewis Arnold, 2021
Chief Executive Officer, Leapfrog Services, Inc., Atlanta, GA

Elizabeth A. Smith, 2022
Former Executive Chair, Bloomin' Brands, Inc., Tampa, FL

Birmingham Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Herschell L. Hamilton, 2020
Chief Strategic Officer, BLOC Global Group, Birmingham, AL

David M. Benck, 2021
Vice President and General Counsel, Hibbett Sports, Birmingham, AL

David L. Nast, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Progress Bank, Huntsville, AL

Brian C. Hamilton, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Trillion Communications Corp., Bessemer, AL

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Nancy C. Goedecke, 2020
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Mayer Electric Supply Company, Inc., Birmingham, AL

Christy Thomas, 2021
Chief Financial Officer, Milo's Tea Company, Inc., Bessemer, AL

Merrill H. Stewart, Jr., 2022
President, The Stewart/Perry Company, Inc., Birmingham, AL

Jacksonville Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

William O. West, 2020
Chief Executive Officer, The Bank of Tampa, Tampa, FL

John Hirabayashi, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Community First Credit Union of Florida, Jacksonville, FL

Dawn Lockhart, 2021
Director of Strategic Partnerships, Office of the Mayor, City of Jacksonville, Jacksonville, FL

Paul G. Boynton, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Rayonier Advanced Materials, Inc., Jacksonville, FL

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Troy D. Taylor, 2020
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Coca-Cola Beverages Florida, LLC, Tampa, FL

Timothy P. Cost, 2021
President, Jacksonville University, Jacksonville, FL

Nicole B. Thomas, 2022
Hospital President, Baptist Medical Center South, Jacksonville, FL

Miami Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

N. Maria Menendez, 2020
Chief Financial Officer, GL Homes of Florida Holding, Sunrise, FL

Victoria E. Villalba, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Victoria & Associates Career Services, Inc., Miami, FL

Abel L. Iglesias, 2021
President and Chief Operating Officer, Professional Bank, Coral Gables, FL

Eduardo Arriola, 2022
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Apollo Bank, Miami, FL

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Keith T. Koenig, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, City Furniture, Tamarac, FL

Michael A. Wynn, 2021
Board Chairman and President, Sunshine Ace Hardware, Bonita Springs, FL

Ana M. Menendez, 2022
Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer, Watsco, Inc., Miami, FL

Nashville Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

John W. Garratt, 2020
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Dollar General, Goodlettsville, TN

Beth R. Chase, 2021
Former Senior Managing Director, Ankura Consulting Group, Nashville, TN

Leif M. Murphy, 2021
Chief Executive Officer, TeamHealth Holdings, Inc., Knoxville, TN

Amber W. Krupacs, 2022
Chief Financial Officer and Executive Vice President, Clayton Homes, Maryville, TN

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Amanda Mathis, 2020
Chief Financial Officer, Bridgestone Americas, Inc., Nashville, TN

Thomas Zacharia, 2021
Laboratory Director/ President and Chief Executive Officer, Oak Ridge National Laboratory/ UT-Battelle, LLC, Oak Ridge, TN

Matthew S. Bourlakas, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Goodwill Industries of Middle Tennessee, Inc., Nashville, TN

New Orleans Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Lampkin Butts, 2020
President and Chief Operating Officer, Sanderson Farms, Inc., Laurel, MS

Katherine A. Crosby, 2021
Board Chair, Fidelity Bank, New Orleans, LA

David T. Darragh, 2021
Operating Partner, LongueVue Capital, Metairie, LA

Toni D. Cooley, 2022
Chief Executive Officer, Systems Companies, Jackson, MS

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Michael E. Hicks, Jr., 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Hixardt Technologies, Inc., Pensacola, FL

Art E. Favre, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Performance Contractors, Inc., Baton Rouge, LA

G. Janelle Frost, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, AMERISAFE, Inc., DeRidder, LA

District 7–Chicago

Covers the state of Iowa; 68 counties of northern Indiana; 50 counties of northern Illinois; 68 counties of southern Michigan; and 46 counties of southern Wisconsin.

For more information on this District and to learn more about the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago's operations, visit https://www.chicagofed.org/. Information on economic conditions for this District can be found in the Federal Reserve System's Beige Book at https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/beigebook2020.htm. Also find the Reserve Bank's financial statements for 2020 at https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/files/chicagofinstmt2020.pdf.

Class A

Michael O'Grady, 2020
Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer, Northern Trust, Chicago, IL

Christopher J. Murphy III, 2021
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, 1st Source Bank, South Bend, IN

Susan Whitson, 2022
Chief Executive Officer, First National Bank, and President, First of Waverly Corporation, Waverly, IA

Class B

David Cyril Habiger, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, J.D. Power, Troy, MI

Susan M. Collins, 2021
Interim Provost and Executive Vice President for Academic Affairs, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

Linda Jojo, 2022
Executive Vice President, Technology and Chief Digital Officer, United Airlines, Inc., Chicago, IL

Class C

E. Scott Santi, 2020
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Illinois Tool Works Inc., Glenview, IL

Wright L. Lassiter III, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI

Helene D. Gayle, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, The Chicago Community Trust, Chicago IL

Detroit Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Sandy K. Baruah, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Detroit Regional Chamber, Detroit, MI

Sandra E. Pierce, 2020
Chairman & Senior Executive Vice President, Private Client Group and Regional Banking Director, Huntington Michigan, Southfield, MI

Rip Rapson, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, The Kresge Foundation, Troy, MI

Ronald E. Hall, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Bridgewater Interiors, LLC, Detroit, MI

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Joseph B. Anderson, Jr., 2020
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, TAG Holdings, LLC, Wixom, MI

James M. Nicholson, 2021
Co-Chairman, PVS Chemicals, Inc., Detroit, MI

Linda P. Hubbard, 2022
President and Chief Operating Officer, Carhartt, Inc., Dearborn, MI

District 8–St. Louis

Covers the state of Arkansas; 44 counties in southern Illinois; 24 counties in southern Indiana; 64 counties in western Kentucky; 39 counties in northern Mississippi; 71 counties in central and eastern Missouri; the city of St. Louis; and 21 counties in western Tennessee.

For more information on this District and to learn more about the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis's operations, visit https://www.stlouisfed.org/. Information on economic conditions for this District can be found in the Federal Reserve System's Beige Book at https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/beigebook2020.htm. Also find the Reserve Bank's financial statements for 2020 at https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/files/stlouisfinstmt2020.pdf.

Class A

Elizabeth G. McCoy, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Planters Bank, Hopkinsville, KY

Patricia L. Clarke, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, First National Bank of Raymond, Raymond, IL

C. Mitchell Waycaster, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Renassant Bank, Tupelo, MS

Class B

John N. Roberts III, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, J.B. Hunt Transport Services, Inc., Lowell, AR

Alice K. Houston, 2021
Chief Executive Officer, HJI Supply Chain Solutions, Louisville, KY

Penelope Pennington, 2022
Managing Partner, Edward Jones, St. Louis, MO

Class C

James M. McKelvey, Jr., 2020
Chief Executive Officer, Invisibly, Inc., St. Louis, MO

Suzanne Sitherwood, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Spire Inc., St. Louis, MO

Carolyn Chism Hardy, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Chism Hardy Investments, LLC, Collierville, TN

Little Rock Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Keith Glover, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Producers Rice Mill, Inc., Stuttgart, AR

Karama Neal, 2020
President, Southern Bancorp Community Partners, Little Rock, AR

Jeff Lynch, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Eagle Bank and Trust, Little Rock, AR

R. Andrew Clyde, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Murphy USA Inc., El Dorado, AR

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Vickie D. Judy, 2020
Chief Financial Officer and Vice President, America's Car-Mart, Inc, Bentonville, AR

Jamie Henry, 2021
Vice President Finance, Emerging Payments, Walmart Inc., Bentonville, AR

Millie A. Ward, 2022
President, Stone Ward, Little Rock, AR

Louisville Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Tara England Barney, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Southwest Indiana Chamber of Commerce, Evansville, IN

Blake B. Willoughby, 2020
President, First Breckinridge Bancshares, Inc., Irvington, KY

Ben Reno-Weber, 2021
Project Director, Greater Louisville Project, Louisville, KY

Patrick J. Glotzbach, 2022
Director, New Independent Bancshares, Inc., Charlestown, IN

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Sadiqa N. Reynolds, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Louisville Urban League, Louisville, KY

Emerson M. Goodwin, 2021
Vice President of Operations, ARcare d/b/a KentuckyCare, Paducah, KY

David Tatman, 2022
Director of Engineering, Bendix Spicer Foundation Brake, LLC, Bowling Green, KY

Memphis Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Michael E. Cary, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Carroll Bank and Trust, Huntingdon, TN

Michael Ugwueke, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Methodist Le Bonheur Healthcare, Memphis, TN

Beverly Crossen, 2021
Owner, Farmhouse Tupelo, Tupelo, MS

R. Davy Carter, 2022
Regional President, Home BancShares, Inc., Jonesboro, AR

Appointed by the Board of Governors

David T. Cochran, Jr., 2020
Partner, CoCo Planting Co., Avon, MS

Eric D. Robertson, 2021
President, Community LIFT Corporation, Memphis, TN

Katherine Buckman Gibson, 2022, Chief Executive Officer, KBG Technologies, LLC, Memphis, TN

District 9–Minneapolis

Covers the states of Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota; the Upper Peninsula of Michigan; and 26 counties in northern Wisconsin.

For more information on this District and to learn more about the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis's operations, visit https://www.minneapolisfed.org/. Information on economic conditions for this District can be found in the Federal Reserve System's Beige Book at https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/beigebook2020.htm. Also find the Reserve Bank's financial statements for 2020 at https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/files/minneapolisfinstmt2020.pdf.

Class A

Thomas W. Armstrong, 2020
Senior Vice President/Market President, Forward Bank, Park Falls, WI

Jeanne H. Crain, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Bremer Financial Corporation, St. Paul, MN

Brenda K. Foster, 2022
Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer, First Western Bank and Trust, Minot, ND

Class B

Kathleen Neset, 2020
President, Neset Consulting Service, Tioga, ND

Sarah Walsh, 2021
Chief Operating Officer, PayneWest Insurance, Helena, MT

David R. Emery, 2022
Executive Chairman, Retired, Black Hills Corporation, Rapid City, South Dakota

Class C

Srilata Zaheer, 2020
Dean, Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN

Harry D. Melander, 2021
President, Minnesota Building and Construction Trades Council, St. Paul, MN

Christopher M. Hilger, 2022
Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer, Securian Financial, St. Paul, MN

Helena Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

William E. Coffee, 2020
Chief Executive Officer, Stockman Financial Corporation, Billings, MT

Jason Adams, 2021
Chief Financial Officer, Energy Keepers, Inc., Polson, MT

Mary Rutherford, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Montana Community Foundation, Helena, MT

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Norma Nickerson, 2020
Director, Institute for Tourism & Recreation Research, University of Montana, Missoula, MT

Bobbi Wolstein, 2021
Chief Financial Officer, LHC, Inc., Kalispell, MT

District 10–Kansas City

Covers the states of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and Wyoming; 43 counties in western Missouri; and 14 counties in northern New Mexico.

For more information on this District and to learn more about the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City's operations, visit https://www.kansascityfed.org/. Information on economic conditions for this District can be found in the Federal Reserve System's Beige Book at https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/beigebook2020.htm. Also find the Reserve Bank's financial statements for 2020 at https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/files/kansascityfinstmt2020.pdf.

Class A

Patricia J. Minard, 2020
Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer, Southwest National Bank, Wichita, KS

Kyle Heckman, 2021
Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer, Flatirons Bank, Boulder, CO

Gregory Hohl, 2022
Chairman and President, Wahoo State Bank, Wahoo, NE

Class B

Lilly Marks, 2020
Vice President for Health Affairs, University of Colorado and Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO

Brent A. Stewart, Sr., 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, United Way of Greater Kansas City, Kansas City, MO

Douglas J. Stussi, 2022
Executive Vice President and Managing Director, Love Family Office, Oklahoma City, OK

Class C

James C. Farrell, 2020
President, Farrell Growth Group LLC, Omaha, NE

Edmond Johnson, 2021
President and Owner, Premier Manufacturing, Inc., Frederick, CO

Patrick A. Dujakovich, 2022
President, Greater Kansas City AFL-CIO, Kansas City, MO

Denver Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Ashley J. Burt, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, The Gunnison Bank and Trust Company, Gunnison, CO

Nicole Glaros, 2021
Chief Investment Strategy Officer, Techstars, Boulder, CO

Chris Wright, 2021
Chief Executive Officer, Liberty Oilfield Services, Denver, CO

Jeffrey C. Wallace, 2022
Chief Executive Officer, Wyoming Bank & Trust, Cheyenne, WY

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Navin Dimond, 2020
Chief Executive Officer, Stonebridge Companies, Denver, CO

Jacqueline Baca, 2021
President, Bueno Foods, Albuquerque, NM

Taryn Christison, 2022
Owner, Zimmerman Metals, Denver, CO

Oklahoma City Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Brady Sidwell, 2020
Owner and Principal, Sidwell Strategies, LLC, Enid, OK

J. Walter Duncan IV, 2021
President, Duncan Oil Properties, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK

Susan Chapman Plumb, 2022
Board Chair and Chief Executive Officer, Bank of Cherokee County, Tahlequah, OK

Christopher C. Turner, 2022
President and Chief Financial Officer, The First State Bank, Oklahoma City, OK

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Katrina Washington, 2020
Owner, Stratos Realty Group, Oklahoma City, OK

Tina Patel, 2021
Chief Financial Officer, Promise Hotels, Inc., Tulsa, OK

Dana S. Weber, 2022
Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board, Webco Industries, Inc., Sand Springs, OK

Omaha Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Dwayne W. Sieck, 2020
President, Middle Market Banking, CIT, Omaha, NE

Thomas J. Henning, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Cash-Wa Distributing Co., Kearney, NE

Zac Karpf, 2021
Chief Operating Officer, Platte Valley Bank, Scottsbluff, NE

Annette Hamilton, 2022
Chief Operating Officer, Ho-Chunk, Inc., Winnebago, NE

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Eric L. Butler, 2020
Retired Executive Vice President and Chief Administrative Officer, Union Pacific Railroad, Omaha, NE

Kimberly A. Russel, 2021
Chief Executive Officer, Russel Advisors, Lincoln, NE

L. Javier Fernandez, 2022
Chief Financial Officer, Omaha Public Power District, Omaha, NE

District 11–Dallas

Covers the state of Texas; 26 parishes in northern Louisiana; and 18 counties in southern New Mexico.

For more information on this District and to learn more about the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas's operations, visit https://www.dallasfed.org/. Information on economic conditions for this District can be found in the Federal Reserve System's Beige Book at https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/beigebook2020.htm. Also find the Reserve Bank's financial statements for 2020 at https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/files/dallasfinstmt2020.pdf.

Class A

Christopher C. Doyle, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Texas First Bank, Texas City, TX

Kelly A. Barclay, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Ozona National Bank, Wimberly, TX

Joe Quiroga, 2022
President, Texas National Bank, Edinburg, TX

Class B

Gerald B. Smith, 2020
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Smith, Graham & Company Investment Advisors, L.P., Houston, TX

Renard U. Johnson, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Management & Engineering Technologies International, Inc., El Paso, TX

Cynthia Taylor, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Oil States International Inc., Houston, TX

Class C

Claudia Aguirre, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, BakerRipley, Houston, TX

Greg L. Armstrong, 2021
Retired Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Plains All American Pipeline L.P., Houston, TX

Thomas J. Falk, 2022
Retired Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Kimberly-Clark Corporation, Dallas, TX

El Paso Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Sally A. Hurt-Deitch, 2020
Group CEO Mid-South, Memphis Market CEO, and St. Francis Hospital CEO, Tenet Healthcare, El Paso, TX

Teresa O. Molina, 2020
President, First New Mexico Bank, Deming, NM

William Serrata, 2021
President, El Paso Community College, El Paso, TX

Von C. Washington, Sr., 2022
President, IDA Technology, El Paso, TX

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Richard D. Folger, 2020
Managing General Partner, Colbridge Partners Ltd., Midland, TX

Tracy J. Yellen, 2021
Chief Executive Officer, Paso del Norte Community Foundation and Paso Del Norte Health Foundation, El Paso, TX

Julio Chiu, 2022
Founder and Chief Executive Officer, Seisa Group, El Paso, TX

Houston Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Albert Chao, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Westlake Chemical Corporation and Westlake Chemical Partners GP LLC, Houston, TX

Gina Luna, 2020
Chief Executive Officer, Luna Strategies, LLC, Houston, TX

David Zalman, 2021
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Prosperity Bancshares, Houston, TX

Gary R. Petersen, 2022
Managing Partner and Founder, EnCap Investments L.P., Houston, TX

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Ruth J. Simmons, 2020
President, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX

Janiece Longoria, 2021
Vice Chairman, UT Board of Regents, and Former Chairman, Port of Houston Authority, Houston, TX

Darryl L. Wilson, 2022
President and Founder, The Wilson Collective, Houston, TX

San Antonio Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Robert L. Lozano, 2020
President, F&P Brands, Pharr, TX

Tyson Tuttle, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Silicon Labs, Austin, TX

Alfred B. Jones, 2021
Director, American Bank Holding Corp., Corpus Christi, TX

Charles E. Amato, 2022
Chairman and Co-Founder, Southwest Business Corp., San Antonio, TX

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Paula Gold-Williams, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, CPS Energy, San Antonio, TX

Jesús Garza, 2021
Retired President and Chief Executive Officer, Seton Healthcare Family, Austin, TX

Denise M. Trauth, 2022
President, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX

District 12–San Francisco

Covers the states of Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Washington, and serves American Samoa, Guam, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

For more information on this District and to learn more about the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco's operations, visit http://www.frbsf.org/. Information on economic conditions for this District can be found in the Federal Reserve System's Beige Book at https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/beigebook2020.htm. Also find the Reserve Bank's financial statements for 2020 at https://www.federalreserve.gov/aboutthefed/files/sanfranciscofinstmt2020.pdf.

Class A

S. Randolph Compton, 2020
Chief Executive Officer and Co-Chair of the Board, Pioneer Trust Bank, N.A., Salem, OR

Greg Becker, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, SVB Financial Group, Chief Executive Officer, Silicon Valley Bank,
Santa Clara, CA

Richard M. Sanborn, 2022
Retired President and Chief Executive Officer, Seacoast Commerce Bank, San Diego, CA

Class B

Tamara L. Lundgren, 2020
Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer, Schnitzer Steel Industries, Inc., Portland, OR

Arthur F. Oppenheimer, 2021
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Oppenheimer Companies, Inc., President, Oppenheimer Development Corporation, Boise, ID

Sanford L. Michelman, 2022
Chairman, Michelman & Robinson, LLP, Los Angeles, CA

Class C

Rosemary Turner, 2020
Retired President, North California District, United Parcel Service, Inc., Oakland, CA

David P. White, 2021
National Executive Director, SAG-AFTRA, Los Angeles, CA

Barry M. Meyer, 2022
Retired Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Warner Bros., Founder and Chairman, North Ten Mile Associates,
Los Angeles, CA

Los Angeles Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Carl J.P. Chang, 2020
Chief Executive Officer, Redwood-Kairos Real Estate Partners and Pieology Pizzeria, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA

Maritza Diaz, 2021
Chief Executive Officer, iTjuana, San Marcos, CA

Luis Faura, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, C&F Foods, Inc., City of Industry, CA

Steven W. Streit, 2022
Chief Innovation Officer, Green Dot Bank and Green Dot Corporation, Pasadena, CA

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Robert H. Gleason, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Evans Hotels, San Diego, CA

Anita V. Pramoda, 2021
Chief Executive Officer, Owned Outcomes, Las Vegas, NV

Vacancy, 2022

Portland Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Hilary K. Krane, 2020
Executive Vice President, Chief Administrative Officer, and General Counsel, Nike, Inc., Beaverton, OR

Cheryl R. Nester Wolfe, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Salem Health Hospital and Clinics, Salem, OR

Stacey M.L. Dodson, 2021
Market President, Portland and Southwest Washington, U.S. Bank, Portland, OR

Maria Pope, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Portland General Electric Company, Portland, OR

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Charles A. Wilhoite, 2020
Managing Director, Willamette Management Associates, Portland, OR

Gale Castillo, 2021
President, Cascade Centers, Inc., Portland, OR

Anne C. Kubisch, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, The Ford Family Foundation, Roseburg, OR

Salt Lake City Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Jas Krdzalic, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Bodybuilding.com, Boise, ID

Park Price, 2020
Chief Executive Officer Emeritus and Chairman, Bank of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID

O. Randall Woodbury, 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, Woodbury Corporation, Salt Lake City, UT

Deneece Huftalin, 2022
President, Salt Lake Community College, Tayorsville, UT

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Patricia R. Richards, 2020
Retired President and Chief Executive Officer, SelectHealth, Inc., Murray, UT

Thomas K. Corrick, 2021
Chief Executive Officer, Boise Cascade Company, Boise, ID

Russell A. Childs, 2022
Chief Executive Officer and President, SkyWest, Inc., St. George, UT

Seattle Branch

Appointed by the Federal Reserve Bank

Carol Gore, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Cook Inlet Housing Authority, Anchorage, AK

Laura Lee Stewart, 2020
President and Chief Executive Officer, Sound Community Bank and Sound Financial Bancorporation, Seattle, WA

Cheryl B. Fambles, 2021
Chief Executive Officer, Pacific Mountain Workforce Development Council, Tumwater, WA

Robert C. Donegan, 2022
President, Ivar's Inc., Seattle, WA

Appointed by the Board of Governors

Elaine S. Couture, 2020
Executive Vice President and Chief Executive Officer, Washington and Montana Region, Providence St. Joseph Health, Spokane, WA

West Mathison, 2021
President, Stemilt Growers, LLC, Wenatchee, WA

Craig Dawson, 2022
President and Chief Executive Officer, Retail Lockbox, Inc., Seattle, WA

Reserve Bank and Branch Leadership

Each year, the Board of Governors designates one Class C director to serve as chair, and one Class C director to serve as deputy chair, of each Reserve Bank board. Reserve Banks also have a president and first vice president who are appointed by the Bank's Class C, and certain Class B, directors, subject to approval by the Board of Governors. Each Reserve Bank selects a chair for every Branch in its District from among the directors on the Branch board who were appointed by the Board of Governors. For each Branch, an officer from its Reserve Bank is also charged with the oversight of Branch operations.

Boston

Phillip L. Clay, Chair

Christina Hull Paxson, Deputy Chair

Eric S. Rosengren, President and Chief Executive Officer

Kenneth C. Montgomery, First Vice President and Chief Operating Officer

New York

Denise Scott, Chair

Rosa Gil, Deputy Chair

John C. Williams, President and Chief Executive Officer

Helen Mucciolo, Acting First Vice President

Additional office at East Rutherford, NJ

Philadelphia

Madeline Bell, Chair

Anthony Ibarguen, Deputy Chair

Patrick T. Harker, President and Chief Executive Officer

James D. Narron, First Vice President and Chief Operating Officer

Cleveland

Dawne S. Hickton, Chair

Dwight E. Smith, Deputy Chair

Loretta J. Mester, President and Chief Executive Officer

Gregory L. Stefani, First Vice President and Chief Operating Officer

Cincinnati

Jenell R. Ross, Chair

Rick Kaglic, Vice President and Senior Regional Officer

Pittsburgh

Dmitri D. Shiry, Chair

Mekael Teshome, Vice President and Senior Regional Officer

Richmond

Kathy J. Warden, Chair

Eugene A. Woods, Deputy Chair

Thomas I. Barkin, President and Chief Executive Officer

Becky Bareford, First Vice President and Chief Operating Officer

Baltimore

Susan J. Ganz, Chair

Andy Bauer, Vice President and Baltimore Regional Executive

Charlotte

R. Glenn Sherrill, Jr, Chair

Matthew A. Martin, Senior Vice President and Charlotte Regional Executive

Atlanta

Myron A. Gray, Chair

Elizabeth A. Smith, Deputy Chair

Raphael W. Bostic, President and Chief Executive Officer

André Anderson, First Vice President and Chief Operating Officer

Birmingham

Merrill H. Stewart, Jr., Chair

Anoop Mishra, Vice President and Regional Executive

Jacksonville

Troy D. Taylor, Chair

Christopher L. Oakley, Vice President and Regional Executive

Miami

Keith T. Koenig, Chair

Karen Gilmore, Vice President and Regional Executive

Nashville

Thomas Zacharia, Chair

Laurel Graefe, Vice President and Regional Executive

New Orleans

Michael E. Hicks, Jr., Chair

Adrienne C. Slack, Vice President and Regional Executive

Chicago

E. Scott Santi, Chair

Wright L. Lassiter, III, Deputy Chair

Charles L. Evans, President and Chief Executive Officer

Ellen Bromagen, First Vice President and Chief Operating Officer

Additional office at Des Moines, IA

Detroit

Joseph B. Anderson, Jr., Chair

Rick Mattoon, Vice President and Regional Executive

St. Louis

Suzanne Sitherwood, Chair

James M. McKelvey, Jr., Deputy Chair

James B. Bullard, President and Chief Executive Officer

Kathy O. Paese, First Vice President and Chief Operating Officer

Little Rock

Vickie D. Judy, Chair

Robert Hopkins, Senior Vice President and Regional Executive

Louisville

Emerson M. Goodwin, Chair

Nikki R. Lanier, Senior Vice President and Regional Executive

Memphis

David T. Cochran, Jr., Chair

Douglas G. Scarboro, Senior Vice President and Regional Executive

Minneapolis

Srilata Zaheer, Chair

Harry D. Melander, Deputy Chair

Neel Kashkari, President and Chief Executive Officer

Ron Feldman, First Vice President

Helena

Norma Nickerson, Chair

Kansas City

James C. Farrell, Chair

Edmond Johnson, Deputy Chair

Esther L. George, President and Chief Executive Officer

Kelly J. Dubbert, First Vice President and Chief Operating Officer

Denver

Taryn Christison, Chair

Nicholas Sly, Assistant Vice President and Branch Executive

Oklahoma City

Tina Patel, Chair

Chad R. Wilkerson, Vice President and Branch Executive

Omaha

Kimberly A. Russel, Chair

Nathan Kauffman, Assistant Vice President and Branch Executive

Dallas

Greg L. Armstrong, Chair

Thomas J. Falk, Deputy Chair

Robert S. Kaplan, President and Chief Executive Officer

Meredith N. Black, First Vice President and Chief Operating Officer

El Paso

Richard D. Folger, Chair

Roberto A. Coronado, Senior Vice President in Charge

Houston

Darryl L. Wilson, Chair

Daron D. Peschel, Senior Vice President in Charge

San Antonio

Jesús Garza, Chair

Blake Hastings, Senior Vice President in Charge

San Francisco

Barry M. Meyer, Chair

Rosemary Turner, Deputy Chair

Mary C. Daly, President and Chief Executive Officer

Mark A. Gould, First Vice President and Chief Operating Officer

Additional office at Phoenix, AZ

Los Angeles

Anita V. Pramoda, Chair

Roger W. Replogle, Executive Vice President and Regional Executive

Portland

Charles A. Wilhoite, Chair

Lynn Jorgensen, Vice President and Regional Executive

Salt Lake City

Russell A. Childs, Chair

Becky Potts, Vice President and Regional Executive

Seattle

Craig Dawson, Chair

Darlene Wilczynski, Vice President and Regional Executive

Leadership Conferences

Conference of Chairs

The chairs of the Federal Reserve Banks are organized into the Conference of Chairs, which meets to consider matters of common interest and to consult with and advise the Board of Governors. Such meetings, also attended by the deputy chairs, were held in Washington, D.C., on May 6, 2020, October 6 and 9, 2020, and November 10, 2020. The conference's executive committee members for 2020 are listed below.6

Conference of Chairs Executive Committee—2020

Dawne S. Hickton, Chair, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland

Phillip L. Clay, Vice Chair, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston

Greg L. Armstrong, Member, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas

Conference of Presidents

The presidents of the Federal Reserve Banks are organized into the Conference of Presidents, which meets periodically to identify, define, and deliberate issues of strategic significance to the Federal Reserve System; to consider matters of common interest; and to consult with and advise the Board of Governors. The chief executive officer of each Reserve Bank was originally labeled governor and did not receive the title of president until the passage of the Banking Act of 1935. Consequently, when the Conference was first established in 1914, it was known as the Conference of Governors. Conference officers for 2020 are listed below.

Conference of Presidents—2020

Charles L. Evans, Chair, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago

James B. Bullard, Vice Chair, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Keri Trolson, Secretary, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago

Douglas Scarboro, Assistant Secretary, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Conference of First Vice Presidents

The Conference of First Vice Presidents of the Federal Reserve Banks was organized in 1969 to meet periodically for the consideration of operations and other matters. Conference officers for 2020 are listed below.7

Conference of First Vice Presidents—2020

Kelly J. Dubbert, Chair, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City

Michael Strine, Vice Chair, Federal Reserve Bank of New York

Laura Forman, Secretary, Federal Reserve Bank of New York

Joshua Silverstein, Assistant Secretary, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia

Footnotes
Источник: https://www.federalreserve.gov/publications/2020-ar-frs-organization.htm
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Midwest Regional Bank in Arnold #333356058

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Midwest Regional Bank Phone Number

Listing Results Midwest Regional Bank Phone Number

Midwest Regional Bank

(636) 937-5351

If your ATM/Debit card is lost or stolen, please contact us immediately at (636) 937-5351 or after business hours at (800) 523-4175 to receive immediate assistance. Checking Accounts. Small Business Solutions. Smart Savings Accounts. Contact Us. ©2019 Midwest Regional Bank

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Midwest Regional Bank Better Business Bureau® Profile

(660) 366-4321

Business Profile for Midwest Regional Bank. Bank. Multi Location Business Find locations. Business Profile. Phone Numbers (660) 366-4321. Other Phone (636) 232-2678. Other Phone (636) 465-0665.

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Midwest Regional Bank 3 Locations, Hours, Phone Numbers

Midwest Regional Bank. Verify if a check is good. Midwest Regional Bank was established on June 13, 1894. Headquartered in Festus, MO, it has assets in the amount of $383,128,000. Its customers are served from 3 locations. Deposits in Midwest Regional Bank are insured by FDIC. Midwest Regional Bank has 1 routing number.

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Midwest Regional Bank Crunchbase Company Profile & …

636-232-0070

Phone Number 636-232-0070 Midwest Regional Bank is a Missouri state-chartered full-service bank providing products and services to the retail and commercial markets. The company has a longstanding tradition of providing outstanding customer service to their customers.

Founded: 1894

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Midwest Regional Bank Corporate Headquarters, Hours, and

(636) 937-5351

Midwest Regional Bank has 8 banking locations. Their corporate headquarters is listed as: 363 Festus Centre Drive in Festus Missouri. Below you will find ratings, reviews, corporate information, directions, office hours, their phone number, online banking website, and branch locations. Headquarters Location. Lobby Hours. Monday. 9:00 AM - 4:00 PM.

Location: 363 Festus Centre Drive, 63028, Missouri

Phone: (636) 937-5351

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Midwest Regional Bank Company Profile Festus, MO

(636) 937-5372

Midwest Regional Bank is located in Festus, MO, United States and is part of the Depository Credit Intermediation Industry. Midwest Regional Bank has 60 total employees across all of its locations and generates $45.04 million in sales (USD). There are 9 companies in the Midwest Regional Bank corporate family.

Employees: 60

Phone: (636) 937-5372

Location: 363 Festus Centre Dr, 63028-2400, MO

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Bank Midwest Contact Us Lost / Stolen Debit Card

The Bank Midwest routing number is 101006699. What are your hours? Hours vary by location, Why am I seeing phone numbers that are not mine when I try to log into Business Online Banking? Bank Midwest is a division of NBH Bank, Member FDIC. NBH Bank operates under multiple trade names in …

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First Midwest Bank in Milpitas – Branches and ATMs

First Midwest Bank branch opening hours in Milpitas. Customer service hours of operation may vary. Please select a branch and get full branch details, including up-to-date opening times. If you have any doubts or would like to telephone and speak to an advisor, you can use the numbers provided. First Midwest Bank branches and ATMs in Milpitas area

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Midwest Regional Bank in Collinsville, IL with Reviews

Find 17 listings related to Midwest Regional Bank in Collinsville on YP.com. See reviews, photos, directions, phone numbers and more for Midwest Regional Bank locations in Collinsville, IL.

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Cassandra Parrish Regiona.. Midwest Regional Bank

(636) 937-5351

View Cassandra Parrish's business profile as Regional Manager, Retail at Midwest Regional Bank. Find contact's direct phone number, email address, work history, and more.

Occupation: Regional Manager, Retail

Location: 363 Festus Centre Dr, 63028, Missouri

Works For: Midwest Regional Bank

Phone: (636) 937-5351

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MIDWEST REGIONAL BANK Bank Branch Locator

Midwest Regional Bank is a FDIC-insured bank with certificate number of 8889. The assigned Fed RSSD ID of Midwest Regional Bank is 691958. Midwest Regional Bank currently operates with 7 branches located in Missouri. Midwest Regional Bank is the 65th largest bank in Missouri. The bank does not have any offices outside Missouri.

Rating: 5/5(1)

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Midwest Regional Bank Otterville Branch Otterville, MO

Midwest Regional Bank Otterville branch is located at 211 East Grover Street, Otterville, MO 65348 and has been serving Cooper county, Missouri for over 12 years. Get hours, reviews, customer service phone number and driving directions.

Rating: 5/5(1)

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Midwest Regional Bank Kirkwood Branch Kirkwood, MO

Midwest Regional Bank Kirkwood branch is located at 10840 Manchester Road, Kirkwood, MO 63122 and has been serving St. Louis county, Missouri for over 4 years. Get hours, reviews, customer service phone number and driving directions.

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Midwest Regional Bank Chesterfield Branch Chesterfield, MO

636-534-8433

You can also contact the bank by calling the branch phone number at 636-534-8433. Midwest Regional Bank Chesterfield branch operates as a full service brick and mortar office. For lobby hours, drive-up hours and online banking services please visit the official website of the bank at www.mwrbank.com.

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MIDWEST REGIONAL BANK Banks & Credit Unions 363 Festus

(636) 937-5351

Recommended Reviews. 1 review that is not currently recommended. Business website. mwrbank.com. Phone number. (636) 937-5351. Get Directions. 363 Festus Centre Dr Festus, MO 63028.

Location: 363 Festus Centre Dr Festus, MO 63028

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Midwest Regional Bank in Fairview Heights, IL with Reviews

Find 17 listings related to Midwest Regional Bank in Fairview Heights on YP.com. See reviews, photos, directions, phone numbers and more for Midwest Regional Bank locations in Fairview Heights, IL.

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Midwest Regional Bank Arnold Branch Arnold, MO

Midwest Regional Bank Arnold branch is located at 1913 Richardson Road, Arnold, MO 63010 and has been serving Jefferson county, Missouri for over 7 years. Get hours, reviews, customer service phone number and driving directions.

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Mary Savacool Manager, Ma.. Midwest Regional Bank

(636) 937-5351

View Mary Savacool's business profile as Manager, Marketing at Midwest Regional Bank. Find contact's direct phone number, email address, work history, and more.

Occupation: Manager, Marketing

Location: 363 Festus Centre Dr, 63028, Missouri

Works For: Midwest Regional Bank

Phone: (636) 937-5351

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Midwest Regional Bank, Arnold Branch

Midwest Regional Bank, Arnold Branch at 1913 Richardson Road, Arnold, MO 63010.Rate this bank, find bank financial info, routing numbers

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David Shores Senior Vice.. Midwest Regional Bank

View David Shores's business profile as Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer at Midwest Regional Bank. Find contact's direct phone number, email address, work history, and more.

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Contact Us MidWestOne Bank

800-247-4418

Contact Us. Service Center: 800-247-4418 En Español: 319-688-3938. Weekdays: 7:30 am to 6:00 pm. Saturday: 9:00 am to 1:00 pm CT. Important after-hours numbers: 24/7 Telebanc: 800-832-9322. To report a lost/stolen debit card: 800-383-8000. If your debit card …

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Midwest Regional Bank 1913 Richardson Road (Arnold, MO)

Midwest Regional Bank Branch Location at 1913 Richardson Road, Arnold, MO 63010 - Hours of Operation, Phone Number, Routing Numbers, Address, Directions and Reviews.

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Midwest Regional Bank Routing Number

636-937-5351

The main phone number for Midwest Regional Bank is 636-937-5351. The assigned Federal Reserve Office for Midwest Regional Bank is Fed 101000048. WHAT IS A BANK ROUTING NUMBER? A bank's Routing Transit Number (RTN) is a 9-digit code used to identify your bank on checks,

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Business Midwest Regional Bank

Midwest Regional Bank offers a comprehensive line of commercial banking products and services. We can help you streamline operations, speed transaction times and increase productivity. We are committed to helping your business succeed and pledge to deliver solutions that are right for your business.At Midwest Regional Bank, your success is our goal.

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MIDWEST REGIONAL BANK Banks & Credit Unions 1913

Midwest Regional bank in Arnold, reviews by real people. Yelp is a fun and easy way to find, recommend and talk about what’s great and not so great in Arnold and beyond.

Location: 1913 Richardson Rd Arnold, MO 63010

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Eric Pitlyk Credit Analyst Midwest Regional Bank

(636) 937-5351

View Eric Pitlyk's business profile as Credit Analyst at Midwest Regional Bank. Find contact's direct phone number, email address, work history, and more.

Occupation: Credit Analyst

Location: 363 Festus Centre Dr, 63028, Missouri

Works For: Midwest Regional Bank

Phone: (636) 937-5351

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Midwest BankCentre 1950 Richardson Road (Arnold, MO)

Cannot locate a phone number for our local bank. I would like to be able talk to someone in my bank and all you list is the main bank number. Midwest Regional Bank 1913 Richardson Road Arnold, MO 63010. 0.14 mi. FortuneBank 3494 …

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Midwest Regional Bank Routing Number, Address, Swift Codes

Midwest Regional Bank - Midwest Regional Bank - Kirkwood Branch Full Service, brick and mortar office 10840 Manchester Road Kirkwood, MO, 63122 Full Branch Info Routing Number Swift Code

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MIDWEST REGIONAL BANK Banks & Credit Unions 5080 N

(480) 468-5180

You could be the first review for Midwest Regional Bank. Phone number (480) 468-5180. Get Directions. 5080 N 40th St Ste 255 Phoenix, AZ 85018. Browse Nearby. Restaurants. Nightlife. Shopping. Show all. Near Me. Citibank Near Me. Other Banks & Credit Unions Nearby. Find more Banks & Credit Unions near Midwest Regional Bank.

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Midwest Regional Bank 211 East Grover Street (Otterville

(660) 366-4321

Midwest Regional Bank Branch Location at 211 East Grover Street, Otterville, MO 65348 - Hours of Operation, Phone Number, Routing Numbers, Address, Directions and Reviews.

Sat: Closed

Location: 211 East Grover Street, Otterville, 65348, MO

Wed: 10:00 AM-04:00 PM Closed Now

Phone: (660) 366-4321

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Contact Us First Midwest Bank

800-322-3623

If you have questions, concerns, or banking issues of any kind, First Midwest Bank is here to help. Call Customer Care: 800-322-3623. Online Banking & Mobile Support: 877-203-6724. Loan Payments Support: 877-203-6724. First Midwest Bank Routing Number: 071901604.

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Routing Number 101911519 MIDWEST REGIONAL BANK

Routing number 101911519 is assigned to MIDWEST REGIONAL BANK located in FESTUS, MO. ABA routing number 101911519 is used to facilitate ACH funds transfers.

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Midwest Regional Bank Routing Number Banks America

Midwest Regional Bank is a FDIC Insured Bank (Non-member Bank) and its FDIC Certification ID is 8889. The RSSD ID for Midwest Regional Bank is 691958. The EIN (Employer Identification Number, also called IRS Tax ID) for Midwest Regional Bank is 440162290. Find Midwest Regional Bank Routing Number on a Check

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Midwest Regional Bank in Festus, MO Company Info & Reviews

Midwest Regional Bank is a Missouri Bank filed On June 13, 1894. The company's filing status is listed as Good Standing and its File Number is K00000894. The Registered Agent on file for this company is (Regulated By The Division Of Finance) and is located at 363 Festus Centre Drive, Festus, MO 63028.

Location: MO

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Tim Dudley's email & phone Midwest Regional Bank's Area

Rocketreach finds email, phone & social media for 450M+ professionals. Try for free at rocketreach.co Tim Dudley's email & phoneMidwest Regional Bank's Area President email

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Midwest Regional Credit Union

Welcome to the Midwest Regional Credit Union Web Branch. We are glad and excited that you have come in. It is our intent to bring our members a website that you can access at your convenience, 24 hours a day. MRCU is a full service financial institution located in Kansas City, Kansas. We have offices in Kansas City, and Lawrence, Kansas

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Arnold Branch of Midwest Regional Bank in Arnold, MO

(636) 232-0070

Bank: Midwest Regional Bank: Branch: Arnold Branch: Address: 3488 Jeffco Blvd., Suite 101, Arnold, Missouri 63010: Contact Number (636) 232-0070: County: Jefferson

Bank: Midwest Regional Bank

Contact Number: (636) 232-0070

Branch: Arnold Branch

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Midwest Regional Bank Branch of Midwest Regional Bank in

(636) 937-5351

Bank: Midwest Regional Bank: Branch: Midwest Regional Bank Branch (Main Office) Address: 363 Festus Centre Drive, Festus, Missouri 63028: Contact Number (636) 937-5351: County: Jefferson: Service Type: Full Service, brick and mortar office: Date of …

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Implementation & Upgrade PeopleSoft V9.2 Flex Support

Contact Us. Wynn Resorts Case Study Our Flex-Bank is a scheme where you buy a fixed number of hours per month for a defined set of months. Our shared services team will be at your disposal for these hours and you have full control of your project. Midwest Regional Office 2317 International Lane, Suite #210, Madison, WI 53704, USA (608

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Samuel Criales Vice Pres.. First Internet Bancorp

(317) 532-7900

Samuel Criales’s HQ phone number is (317) 532-7900 What is Samuel Criales’s latest job experience? Samuel Criales’s latest job experience is Vice President, Business Development at Midwest Regional Bank

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Midwest Regional Bank Customer Reviews, Frequently Asked

Midwest Regional Bank is an FDIC insured bank located in Festus and has 898031 in assets. Customers can open an account at one of its 8 Branches. Midwest Regional Bank Customer Reviews, Frequently Asked Questions, Rates, Branches, Related Articles, and Financial Summary - 2021

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Locations Welcome to Midwest Bank Midwest Bank

Midwest Bank. 200 East Broadway Monmouth, IL 61462 Phone: (309) 734-BANK (2265) Get driving directions »

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Wire Instructions Midwest Regional Credit Union

Virtual Branch Rates Services My VISA Information Desk Clubs & Affiliates Membership Free ATM's Enterprise Deals Online Loan Payment. Incoming Wiring Instructions: Wire to: Millennium Corporate Credit Union. Routing No. # 301180111. Further Credit to: Midwest Regional Credit Union. 301078773. Final Credit to: Member Name.

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Regional bank closures don’t make sense South Western Times

(08) 9780 0800

Regional bank closures don’t make sense. Jacinta Cantatore South Western Times. Fri, 3 December 2021 11:50AM Number of key staff unvaxxed not known; 600 regional banks closed in four years Contact Us South Western Times. 19 Proffit Street Bunbury WA 6230 Tel (08) 9780 0800.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What is the routing number for midwest regional bank?

FESTUS, MO 63028. Midwest Regional Bank's routing number (the leftmost number on the bottom of a check) is 101911519. Sometimes, banks have multiple routing numbers for different branches or uses.

Is midmidwest regional bank fdic insured?

Midwest Regional Bank is an FDIC insured institution located in Festus, MO. It was founded in 1894 and has approximately $0.88 billion in assets. Customers can open an account at one of its 8 branches.

What are the hours of operation for midwest bank in illinois?

Hours: 11:00 am – 12:00 pm. Peoria Banking Center. 300 East Washington Street. East Peoria, IL 61611. Hours: 24 Hours. Midwest Bank is a member of the SHAZAM Network and Privileged Status program. Look for these symbols when using ATMs that Midwest Bank does not own.

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