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Eberly fired off a shot that preserved Austin as Texas' state capital. He later served Texas as a president of the republic, a U.S. Official website of the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ). DOJ's mission is to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States. Petroleum prices, supply and demand information from the Energy Information Administration - EIA - Official Energy Statistics from the U.S. Government.

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Austin, Texas

Capital of Texas, United States

"Austin" redirects here. For other uses, see Austin (disambiguation).

This article is about the capital city of Texas. It is not to be confused with Austin County, Texas.

State capital city in Texas, United States

Austin, Texas

City of Austin

From top, left to right: Downtown, Texas State Capitol, urban bat colony at Congress Avenue Bridge, Darrell K Royal-Texas Memorial Stadium, Main Building at the University of Texas at Austin, Paramount Theatre and Laguna Gloria.

Nicknames:&#;

Live Music Capital of the World, Silicon Hills, ATX, City of the Violet Crown

Motto(s):&#;

Keep Austin Weird (unofficial)

Location within Travis County in Texas

Location within Travis County in Texas

Austin is located in Texas
Austin

Austin

Location within Texas

Show map of Texas
Austin is located in the United States
Austin

Austin

Location within the United States

Show map of the United States
Coordinates: 30°16′2″N97°44′35″W / °N °W / ; Coordinates: 30°16′2″N97°44′35″W / °N °W / ;
CountryUnited States
StateTexas
CountiesTravis, Hays, Williamson
Settled
IncorporatedDecember 27,
Named forStephen F. Austin
&#;•&#;TypeCouncil–manager
&#;•&#;MayorSteve Adler (D)[1][a]
&#;•&#;City Council

Members

  • Natasha Harper-Madison (D)
  • Vanessa Fuentes (D)
  • Sabino "Pio" Renteria (D)
  • Greg Casar (D)
  • Ann Kitchen (D)
  • Mackenzie Kelly (R)
  • Leslie Pool (D)
  • Paige Ellis (D)
  • Kathie Tovo (D)
  • Alison Alter (D)
&#;•&#;City managerSpencer Cronk[1]
&#;•&#;State capitalcity&#;sq&#;mi (&#;km2)
&#;•&#;Land&#;sq&#;mi (&#;km2)
&#;•&#;Water&#;sq&#;mi (&#;km2)
&#;•&#;Metro4,&#;sq&#;mi (11,&#;km2)
Elevation–1,&#;ft (88–&#;m)
&#;•&#;State capitalcity,
&#;•&#;Rank11th in the United States
4th in Texas
&#;•&#;Density3,/sq&#;mi (1,/km2)
&#;•&#;Metro

[3]

2,, (28th)
Demonym(s)Austinite
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
&#;•&#;Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP Codes

, , –, –, –, –, , , ,

Area codes &
FIPS code[4]
GNIS feature ID[5]
Primary AirportAustin–Bergstrom International Airport
InterstatesI (TX).svg
U.S. RouteUS svgUS svg
Commuter RailCapital MetroRail
Websitetraitortrump.us

Austin is the capital city of the U.S. state of Texas, as well as the seat and largest city of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties. Incorporated on December 27, , it is the 11th-most populous city in the United States,[6] the fourth-most-populous city in Texas, the second-most-populous state capital city after Phoenix, Arizona,[7][8] and the most populous state capital that is not also the most populous city in its state.[7] It has been one of the fastest growing large cities in the United States since [9][10][11] The Greater Austin and Greater San Antonio areas are separated from each other by approximately 80 miles (&#;km) along Interstate It is anticipated that both regions may form a new metroplex similar to Dallas and Fort Worth.[12][13] Austin is the southernmost state capital in the contiguous United States and is considered a "Beta −" global city as categorized by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.[14]

As of the census, Austin had a population of ,,[15] up from , at the census.[4] The city is the cultural and economic center of the Austin–Round Rock metropolitan statistical area, which had an estimated population of 2,, as of July&#;1, [update], roughly 84% increase from the year [16] Located in Central Texas within the greater Texas Hill Country, it is home to numerous lakes, rivers, and waterways, including Lady Bird Lake and Lake Travis on the Colorado River, Barton Springs, McKinney Falls, and Lake Walter E. Long.

Residents of Austin are known as Austinites.[17] They include a diverse mix of government employees, college students, musicians, high-tech workers, digital marketers, and blue-collar workers. The city's official slogan promotes Austin as "The Live Music Capital of the World", a reference to the city's many musicians and live music venues, as well as the long-running PBS TV concert series Austin City Limits.[18][19] The city also adopted "Silicon Hills" as a nickname in the s due to a rapid influx of technology and development companies. In recent years, some Austinites have adopted the unofficial slogan "Keep Austin Weird",[20] which refers to the desire to protect small, unique, and local businesses from being overrun by large corporations.[21] Since the late 19th century, Austin has also been known as the "City of the Violet Crown", because of the colorful glow of light across the hills just after sunset.[22]

In , Austin originated and remains the site for South by Southwest (stylized as SXSW and colloquially referred to as South By), an annual conglomeration of parallel film, interactive media, and music festivals and conferences that take place in mid-March.

Emerging from a strong economic focus on government and education, since the s, Austin has become a center for technology and business.[23][24] A number of Fortune companies have headquarters or regional offices in Austin, including 3M, Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), Amazon, Apple, Facebook (Meta), Google, IBM, Intel, NXP semiconductors, Oracle, Tesla, Texas Instruments, and Whole Foods Market. Dell's worldwide headquarters is located in the nearby suburb of Round Rock.[25] With regard to education, Austin is the home of the University of Texas at Austin, which is one of the largest universities in the U.S. and is attended by over 50, students.[26]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Austin, Texas

See also: Timeline of Austin, Texas

Austin, Travis County and Williamson County have been the site of human habitation since at least BC. The area's earliest known inhabitants lived during the late Pleistocene (Ice Age) and are linked to the Clovis culture around BC (over 11, years ago), based on evidence found throughout the area and documented at the much-studied Gault Site, midway between Georgetown and Fort Hood.[27][failed verification]

When settlers arrived from Europe, the Tonkawa tribe inhabited the area. The Comanches and Lipan Apaches were also known to travel through the area.[28] Spanish colonists, including the Espinosa-Olivares-Aguirre expedition, traveled through the area, though few permanent settlements were created for some time.[29] In , three missions from East Texas were combined and reestablished as one mission on the south side of the Colorado River, in what is now Zilker Park, in Austin. The mission was in this area for only about seven months, and then was moved to San Antonio de Béxar and split into three missions.[30]

During the s, pioneers began to settle the area in central Austin along the Colorado River. Spanish forts were established in what are now Bastrop and San Marcos.[29][31] Following Mexico's independence, new settlements were established in Central Texas, but growth in the region was stagnant because of conflicts with the regional Native Americans.[31][32][33]

Statue of the Goddess of Liberty on the Texas State Capitolgrounds, prior to installation atop the rotunda

In –, Texans fought and won independence from Mexico. Texas thus became an independent country with its own president, congress, and monetary system. After Vice President Mirabeau B. Lamar visited the area during a buffalo-hunting expedition between and , he proposed that the republic's capital, then in Houston, be relocated to the area situated on the north bank of the Colorado River (near the present-day Congress Avenue Bridge). In , the site was chosen to replace Houston as the capital of the Republic of Texas and was incorporated under the name "Waterloo". Shortly afterward, the name was changed to Austin in honor of Stephen F. Austin, the "Father of Texas" and the republic's first secretary of state. The city grew throughout the 19th century and became a center for government and education with the construction of the Texas State Capitol and the University of Texas at Austin.[34] After a severe lull in economic growth from the Great Depression, Austin resumed its steady development.

In , the Texas Congress formed a commission to seek a site for a new capital to be named for Stephen F. Austin.[35] Mirabeau B. Lamar, second president of the newly formed Republic of Texas, advised the commissioners to investigate the area named Waterloo, noting the area's hills, waterways, and pleasant surroundings.[36] Waterloo was selected, and "Austin" was chosen as the town's new name.[37] The location was seen as a convenient crossroads for trade routes between Santa Fe and Galveston Bay, as well as routes between northern Mexico and the Red River.[38]

Second capitol building in Austin

Edwin Waller was picked by Lamar to survey the village and draft a plan laying out the new capital.[35] The original site was narrowed to acres (&#;ha) that fronted the Colorado River between two creeks, Shoal Creek and Waller Creek, which was later named in his honor. Waller and a team of surveyors developed Austin's first city plan, commonly known as the Waller Plan, dividing the site into a block grid plan bisected by a broad north–south thoroughfare, Congress Avenue, running up from the river to Capital Square, where the new Texas State Capitol was to be constructed. A temporary one-story capitol was erected on the corner of Colorado and 8th Streets. On August 1, , the first auction of out of lots total was held.[35][38] The Waller Plan designed and surveyed now forms the basis of downtown Austin.

In , a series of conflicts between the Texas Rangers and the Comanches, known as the Council House Fight and the Battle of Plum Creek, pushed the Comanches westward, mostly ending conflicts in Central Texas.[39] Settlement in the area began to expand quickly. Travis County was established in , and the surrounding counties were mostly established within the next two decades.[33]

Initially, the new capital thrived but Lamar's political enemy, Sam Houston, used two Mexican army incursions to San Antonio as an excuse to move the government. Sam Houston fought bitterly against Lamar's decision to establish the capital in such a remote wilderness. The men and women who traveled mainly from Houston to conduct government business were intensely disappointed as well. By , the population had risen to , nearly half of whom fled Austin when Congress recessed.[40] The resident African American population listed in January of this same year was [41] The fear of Austin's proximity to the Indians and Mexico, which still considered Texas a part of their land, created an immense motive for Sam Houston, the first and third President of the Republic of Texas, to relocate the capital once again in Upon threats of Mexican troops in Texas, Houston raided the Land Office to transfer all official documents to Houston for safe keeping in what was later known as the Archive War, but the people of Austin would not allow this unaccompanied decision to be executed. The documents stayed, but the capital would temporarily move from Austin to Houston to Washington-on-the-Brazos. Without the governmental body, Austin's population declined to a low of only a few hundred people throughout the early s. The voting by the fourth President of the Republic, Anson Jones, and Congress, who reconvened in Austin in , settled the issue to keep Austin the seat of government, as well as annex the Republic of Texas into the United States.

In , 38% of Travis County residents were slaves.[42] In , with the outbreak of the American Civil War, voters in Austin and other Central Texas communities voted against secession.[31][35] However, as the war progressed and fears of attack by Union forces increased, Austin contributed hundreds of men to the Confederate forces. The African American population of Austin swelled dramatically after the enforcement of the Emancipation Proclamation in Texas by Union General Gordon Granger at Galveston, in an event commemorated as Juneteenth. Black communities such as Wheatville, Pleasant Hill, and Clarksville were established, with Clarksville being the oldest surviving freedomtown ‒ the original post-Civil War settlements founded by former African-American slaves ‒ west of the Mississippi River.[35] In , blacks made up % of Austin's population.[43]

An illustration of Edwin Waller's layout for Austin

The postwar period saw dramatic population and economic growth. The opening of the Houston and Texas Central Railway (H&TC) in [44] turned Austin into the major trading center for the region, with the ability to transport both cotton and cattle. The Missouri, Kansas & Texas (MKT) line followed close behind.[45] Austin was also the terminus of the southernmost leg of the Chisholm Trail, and "drovers" pushed cattle north to the railroad.[46] Cotton was one of the few crops produced locally for export, and a cotton gin engine was located downtown near the trains for "ginning" cotton of its seeds and turning the product into bales for shipment.[47] However, as other new railroads were built through the region in the s, Austin began to lose its primacy in trade to the surrounding communities.[35] In addition, the areas east of Austin took over cattle and cotton production from Austin, especially in towns like Hutto and Taylor that sit over the blackland prairie, with its deep, rich soils for producing cotton and hay.[48][49]

In September , Austin public schools held their first classes. The same year, Tillotson Collegiate and Normal Institute (now part of Huston–Tillotson University) opened its doors. The University of Texas held its first classes in , although classes had been held in the original wooden state capitol for four years before.[50]

During the s, Austin gained new prominence as the state capitol building was completed in and claimed as the seventh largest building in the world.[35] In the late 19th century, Austin expanded its city limits to more than three times its former area, and the first granite dam was built on the Colorado River to power a new street car line and the new "moon towers".[35] The first dam washed away in a flood on April 7, [51]

In the late s and s, Austin implemented the Austin city plan through a series of civic development and beautification projects that created much of the city's infrastructure and many of its parks. In addition, the state legislature established the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) that, along with the city of Austin, created the system of dams along the Colorado River to form the Highland Lakes. These projects were enabled in large part because the Public Works Administration provided Austin with greater funding for municipal construction projects than other Texas cities.[35]

During the early twentieth century, a three-way system of social segregation emerged in Austin, with Anglos, African Americans and Mexicans being separated by custom or law in most aspects of life, including housing, health care, and education. Many of the municipal improvement programs initiated during this period—such as the construction of new roads, schools, and hospitals—were deliberately designed to institutionalize this system of segregation. Deed restrictions also played an important role in residential segregation. After most housing deeds prohibited African Americans (and sometimes other nonwhite groups) from using land.[52] Combined with the system of segregated public services, racial segregation increased in Austin during the first half of the twentieth century, with African Americans and Mexicans experiencing high levels of discrimination and social marginalization.[53]

In , the destroyed granite dam on the Colorado River was finally replaced by a hollow concrete dam[54] that formed Lake McDonald (now called Lake Austin) and which has withstood all floods since. In addition, the much larger Mansfield Dam was built by the LCRA upstream of Austin to form Lake Travis, a flood-control reservoir.

[55] In the early 20th century, the Texas Oil Boom took hold, creating tremendous economic opportunities in Southeast Texas and North Texas. The growth generated by this boom largely passed by Austin at first, with the city slipping from fourth largest to 10th largest in Texas between and [35]

After the midth century, Austin became established as one of Texas' major metropolitan centers. In , the U.S. Census Bureau reported Austin's population as % Hispanic, % black, and % non-Hispanic white.[43] In the late 20th century, Austin emerged as an important high tech center for semiconductors and software. The University of Texas at Austin emerged as a major university.[56]

The s saw Austin's emergence in the national music scene, with local artists such as Willie Nelson, Asleep at the Wheel, and Stevie Ray Vaughan and iconic music venues such as the Armadillo World Headquarters. Over time, the long-running television program Austin City Limits, its namesake Austin City Limits Festival, and the South by Southwest music festival solidified the city's place in the music industry.[24]

Geography[edit]

Austin as seen from space,

Austin, the southernmost state capital of the contiguous 48 states, is located in Central Texas on the Colorado River. Austin is miles (&#;km) northwest of Houston,[57] miles (&#;km) south of Dallas[58] and 74 miles (&#;km) northeast of San Antonio.[59]

In , the city occupied a total area of square miles (&#;km2). Approximately square miles (&#;km2) of this area is water.[4] Austin is situated at the foot of the Balcones Escarpment, on the Colorado River, with three artificial lakes within the city limits: Lady Bird Lake (formerly known as Town Lake), Lake Austin (both created by dams along the Colorado River), and Lake Walter E. Long that is partly used for cooling water for the Decker Power Plant. Mansfield Dam and the foot of Lake Travis are located within the city's limits.[35] Lady Bird Lake, Lake Austin, and Lake Travis are each on the Colorado River.[35]

The elevation of Austin varies from feet (&#;m) to approximately 1, feet (&#;m) above sea level.[60] Due to the fact it straddles the Balcones Fault, much of the eastern part of the city is flat, with heavy clay and loam soils, whereas the western part and western suburbs consist of rolling hills on the edge of the Texas Hill Country.[61] Because the hills to the west are primarily limestone rock with a thin covering of topsoil, portions of the city are frequently subjected to flash floods from the runoff caused by thunderstorms.[62][63] To help control this runoff and to generate hydroelectric power, the Lower Colorado River Authority operates a series of dams that form the Texas Highland Lakes. The lakes also provide venues for boating, swimming, and other forms of recreation within several parks on the lake shores.[64]

Austin is located at the intersection of four major ecological regions, and is consequently a temperate-to-hot green oasis with a highly variable climate having some characteristics of the desert, the tropics, and a wetter climate.[65][66] The area is very diverse ecologically and biologically, and is home to a variety of animals and plants.[67] Notably, the area is home to many types of wildflowers that blossom throughout the year but especially in the spring. This includes the popular bluebonnets, some planted by "Lady Bird" Johnson, wife of former President Lyndon B. Johnson.[68]

The soils of Austin range from shallow, gravelly clay loams over limestone in the western outskirts to deep, fine sandy loams, silty clay loams, silty clays or clays in the city's eastern part. Some of the clays have pronounced shrink-swell properties and are difficult to work under most moisture conditions. Many of Austin's soils, especially the clay-rich types, are slightly to moderately alkaline and have free calcium carbonate.[69]

Cityscape[edit]

See also: List of Austin neighborhoods and List of tallest buildings in Austin, Texas

Panorama of Austin skyline

Panorama of Austin skyline in

Austin's skyline historically was modest, dominated by the Texas State Capitol and the University of Texas Main Building. However, since the s, many new high-rise towers have been constructed.[70] Austin is currently undergoing a skyscraper boom, which includes recent construction on new office, hotel and residential buildings. Downtown's buildings are somewhat spread out, partly due to a set of zoning restrictions that preserve the view of the Texas State Capitol from various locations around Austin, known as the Capitol View Corridors.[71]

One of the 15 remaining moonlight towers in Austin

At night, parts of Austin are lit by "artificial moonlight" from moonlight towers built to illuminate the central part of the city.[72] The foot (50&#;m) moonlight towers were built in the late 19th century and are now recognized as historic landmarks. Only 15 of the 31 original innovative towers remain standing in Austin, but none remain in any of the other cities where they were installed. The towers are featured in the film Dazed and Confused.

Downtown[edit]

Main article: Downtown Austin

The central business district of Austin is home to the tallest condo towers in the state, with The Independent (58 stories and &#;ft (&#;m) tall) and The Austonian (topping out at 56 floors and &#;ft (&#;m) tall). The Independent became the tallest all-residential building in the U.S. west of Chicago when topped out in In , then-Mayor Will Wynn set out a goal of having 25, people living downtown by [73] Although downtown's growth did not meet this goal, downtown's residential population did surge from an estimated 5, in to 12, in [74] The skyline has drastically changed in recent years, and the residential real estate market has remained relatively strong. As of December&#;[update], there were 31 high rise projects either under construction, approved or planned to be completed in Austin's downtown core between and Sixteen of those were set to rise above &#;ft (&#;m) tall, including four above ', and eight above '. An additional 15 towers were slated to stand between ' and ' tall.

Climate[edit]

Austin
Climate chart (explanation)

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Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Metric conversion

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Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

Austin is located within the middle of a unique, narrow transitional zone between the dry deserts of the American Southwest and the lush, green, more humid regions of the American Southeast. Its climate, topography, and vegetation share characteristics of both. Officially, Austin has a humid subtropical climate under the Köppen climate classification. This climate is typified by very long and hot summers, short and mild winters, and pleasantly warm spring and fall seasons in-between. Austin averages inches (&#;mm) of annual rainfall distributed mostly evenly throughout the year, though spring and fall are the wettest seasons. Sunshine is common during all seasons, with 2, hours, or % of the possible total, of bright sunshine per year.[75] Austin falls in USDAhardiness zones 8b (15&#;°F to 20&#;°F) and 9a (20&#;°F to 25&#;°F).[76]

Summers in Austin are very hot, with average July and August highs frequently reaching the highs (34–36&#;°C) or above. Highs reach 90&#;°F (32&#;°C) on days per year, of which 18 days reach &#;°F (38&#;°C).[77] The average daytime high is 70&#;°F (21&#;°C) or warmer between March 6 and November 20, rising to 80&#;°F (27&#;°C) or warmer between April 14 and October 24, and reaching 90&#;°F (32&#;°C) or warmer between May 30 and September [78] The highest ever recorded temperature was &#;°F (44&#;°C) occurring on September 5, , and August 28, [79][80] An uncommon characteristic of Austin's climate is its highly variable humidity, which fluctuates frequently depending on the shifting patterns of air flow and wind direction. It is common for a lengthy series of warm, dry, low-humidity days to be occasionally interrupted by very warm and humid days, and vice versa. Humidity rises with winds from the east or southeast, when the air drifts inland from the Gulf of Mexico, but decreases significantly with winds from the west or southwest, bringing air flowing from Chihuahuan Desert areas of West Texas or northern Mexico.[77]

Winters in Austin are mild with cool nights, although occasional short-lived bursts of cold weather known as "Blue Northers" can occur. January is the coolest month with an average daytime high of 61&#;°F (16&#;°C). The overnight low drops to or below freezing 19 times per year,[77] and sinks below 45&#;°F (7&#;°C) during 88 evenings per year, including most nights between mid-December and mid-February. Lows in the upper 30s also occur commonly during the winter. Conversely, winter months are also capable of occasionally producing warm days. On average, eight days in January reach or exceed 70&#;°F (21&#;°C) and one day reaches 80&#;°F (27&#;°C).[78] The lowest ever recorded temperature in the city was −2&#;°F (−19&#;°C) on January 31, Roughly every two years Austin experiences an ice storm that freezes roads over and cripples travel in the city for 24 to 48 hours.[81] When Austin received inches (1&#;mm) of ice on January 24, , there were vehicular collisions.[82] Similarly, snowfall is rare in Austin.[83] A snow event of inches (2&#;cm) on February 4, , caused more than car crashes.[84] The most recent major snow event occurred the week of February 14, , when as many as inches were recorded in parts of Travis County.[85]

Typical of Central Texas, severe weather in Austin is a threat that can strike during any season. However, it is most common during the spring. According to most classifications, Austin lies within the extreme southern periphery of Tornado Alley, although many sources place Austin outside of Tornado Alley altogether.[86] Consequently, tornadoes strike Austin less frequently than areas farther to the north.[86] However, severe weather and/or supercell thunderstorms can occur multiple times per year, bringing damaging winds, lightning, heavy rain, and occasional flash flooding to the city.[87] The deadliest storm to ever strike city limits was the twin tornadoes storm of May 4, , while the deadliest tornado outbreak to ever strike the metro area was the Central Texas tornado outbreak of May 27,

Climate data for Camp Mabry, Austin, Texas (– normals,[b] extremes –present)[c]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 90
(32)
99
(37)
98
(37)
99
(37)

(40)

(43)

(43)

(44)

(44)

(38)
91
(33)
90
(32)

(44)
Mean maximum °F (°C)
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Average high °F (°C)
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Average low °F (°C)
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Mean minimum °F (°C)
(−)

(−)

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()

()

(−)

(−)
Record low °F (°C) −2
(−19)
−1
(−18)
18
(−8)
30
(−1)
40
(4)
51
(11)
57
(14)
58
(14)
41
(5)
30
(−1)
20
(−7)
4
(−16)
−2
(−19)
Average precipitation inches (mm)
(67)

(48)

(73)

(61)

()

(93)

(50)

(70)

(88)

(99)

(74)

(69)

()
Average snowfall inches (cm) 0
(0)

()
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)

()
Average precipitation days (≥ in)
Average snowy days (≥ in) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Average relative humidity (%)
Average dew point °F (°C)
()

()

()

()

()

()

()

()

()

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()
Mean monthly sunshine hours 2,
Percent possible sunshine51 54 55 53 54 68 74 73 63 61 53 48 60
Average ultraviolet index4 6 8 9 10 11 11 10 9 7 5 4 8
Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity and sun –),[88][89][90]
Source 2: Weather Atlas [91] (UV index)

drought[edit]

Main article: Southern US drought

The Texas drought dried up many of central Texas' waterways. This boat was left to sit in the middle of what is normally a branch of Lake Travis, part of the Colorado River.

From October through September , both major reporting stations in Austin, Camp Mabry and Bergstrom Int'l, had the least rainfall of a water year on record, receiving less than a third of normal precipitation.[77] This was a result of La Niña conditions in the eastern Pacific Ocean where water was significantly cooler than normal. David Brown, a regional official with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, explained that "these kinds of droughts will have effects that are even more extreme in the future, given a warming and drying regional climate."[92] The drought, coupled with exceedingly high temperatures throughout the summer of , caused many wildfires throughout Texas, including notably the Bastrop County Complex Fire in neighboring Bastrop, TX.

flooding and water crisis[edit]

In Fall , Austin and surrounding areas received heavy rainfall and flash flooding following Hurricane Sergio.[93] The Lower Colorado River Authority opened four floodgates of the Mansfield Dam after Lake Travis was recorded at % full at feet (&#;m).[94] From the October 22 to 29, the City of Austin issued a mandatory citywide boil-water advisory after the Highland Lakes, home to the city's main water supply, became overwhelmed by unprecedented amounts of silt, dirt, and debris that washed in from the Llano River.[95] Austin Water, the city's water utility, has the capacity to process up to &#;million gallons of water per day, but the elevated level of turbidity reduced output to only &#;million gallons per day since Austin residents consumed an average of &#;million gallons of water per day, so the infrastructure was not able to keep up with demand.[93]

winter storm[edit]

Main article: February 13–17, North American winter storm §&#;Central and Southern Plains

See also: Texas power crisis

Austin covered in snow on February 15, Photo from ESA.

In February , Winter Storm Uri dropped prolific amounts of snow across Texas and Oklahoma, including Austin. The Austin area received a total of inches of snowfall between February 14 and 15, with snow cover persisting till February [96] This marked the longest time the area had had more than 1" of snow, with the previous longest time being 3 days in January ,[97]

Lack of winterization in natural gas power plants plants, which supply a large amount of power to the Texas grid, and increased energy demand caused ERCOT and Austin Energy to enact rolling blackouts in order to avoid total grid collapse between February 15 to [98] Initial rolling blackouts were to last for a maximum of 40 minutes, however lack of energy production caused many blackouts to last for much longer, at the peak of the blackouts an estimated 40% of Austin Energy homes were without power.[99]

Starting on February 15, Austin Water received reports of pipe breaks, hourly water demand increased from million gallons per day (MGD) on February 15 to a peak hourly demand of MGD on February On the morning of February 17 demand increased to MGD, the resulting drop of water pressure caused the Austin area to enter into a boil-water advisory which would last until water pressure was restored on February []

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
CensusPop.
3,%
4,%
11,%
14,%
22,%
29,%
34,%
53,%
87,%
,%
,%
,%
,%
,%
,%
,%
,%
U.S. Decennial Census[]
[15]

According to the United States census,[] the racial composition of Austin was % White (% non-Hispanic whites), % Hispanic or Latino (% Mexican, % Puerto Rican, % Cuban, % Other), % African American, % Asian (% Indian, % Chinese, % Vietnamese, % Korean, % Filipino, % Japanese, % Other), % American Indian, % Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and % two or more races.

Map of racial distribution in Austin, U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic, or Other(yellow)

At the United States Census,[] there were , people, , households, and , families residing in the city. The population density was 2, inhabitants per square mile (1,/km2). There were , housing units at an average density of 1, per square mile (/km2). There were , households, out of which % had children under the age of 18 living with them, % were married couples living together, % had a female householder with no husband present, and % were non-families. % of all households were made up of individuals, and % had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was and the average family size was

In the city, the population was spread out, with % under the age of 18, % from 18 to 24, % from 25 to 44, % from 45 to 64, and % who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every females, there were males.

The median income for a household in the city was US$42,, and the median income for a family was $54, Males had a median income of $35, vs. $30, for females. The per capita income for the city was $24, About % of families and % of the population were below the poverty line, including % of those under age 18 and % of those age 65 or over. The median house price was $, in , and it has increased every year since [needs update][] The median value of a house which the owner occupies was $, in —higher than the average American home value of $,[]

A University of Texas study stated that Austin was the only U.S. city with a fast growth rate between and with a net loss in African Americans. As of [update], Austin's African American and non-Hispanic white percentage share of the total population was declining despite the actual numbers of both ethnic groups increasing, as the rapid growth of the Latino or Hispanic and Asian populations has outpaced all other ethnic groups in the city. Austin's non-Hispanic white population first dropped below 50% in [][][]

According to a survey completed in by Gallup, it is estimated that % of residents in the Austin metropolitan area identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender.[] The Austin metropolitan area had the third-highest rate in the nation.[]

Religion[edit]

According to Sperling's BestPlaces, % of Austin's population are religious.[] The majority of Austinites identified themselves as Christians, about % of whom claimed affiliation with the Catholic Church.[] The city's Catholic population is served by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Austin, headquartered at the Cathedral of Saint Mary. Nationwide, 23% of Americans identified as Catholic in [] Other significant Christian groups in Austin include Baptists (%), followed by Methodists (%), Latter-Day Saints (%), Episcopalians or Anglicans (%), Lutherans (%), Presbyterians (%), Pentecostals (%), and other Christians such as the Disciples of Christ and Eastern Orthodox Church (%).[] The second largest religion Austinites identify with is Islam (%); roughly % of Americans nationwide claimed affiliation with the Islamic faith.[] The dominant branch of Islam is Sunni Islam. Established in , the largest mosque in Austin is the Islamic Center of Greater Austin. The community is affiliated with the Islamic Society of North America. The same study says that eastern faiths including Buddhism, Sikhism, and Hinduism made up % of the city's religious population.[] Several Hindu temples exist in the Austin Metropolitan area with the most notable one being Radha Madhav Dham. Judaism forms less than % of the religious demographic in Austin. Orthodox, Reform, and Conservative congregations are present in the community.[] In addition to those religious groups, Austin is also home to an active secular humanist community, hosting nationwide television shows and charity work.[]

Homelessness[edit]

As of , there were 2, individuals experiencing homelessness in Travis County. Of those, 1, were sheltered and 1, were unsheltered.[] In September , the Austin City Council approved $&#;million for programs aimed at homelessness, which includes housing displacement prevention, crisis mitigation, and affordable housing; the city council also earmarked $, for crisis services and encampment cleanups.[]

In June , following a federal court ruling on homelessness sleeping in public,[] the Austin City Council lifted a year-old ban on camping, sitting, or lying down in public unless doing so causes an obstruction. The resolution also included the approval of a new housing-focused shelter in South Austin.[] In early October , Texas Governor Greg Abbott sent a letter to Mayor Steve Adler threatening to deploy state resources to combat the camping ban repeal.[] On October 17, , the City Council revised the camping ordinance, which imposed increased restrictions on sidewalk camping.[] In November , the State of Texas opened a temporary homeless encampment on a former vehicle storage yard owned by the Texas Department of Transportation.[]

In May , the camping ban was reinstated after a ballot proposition was approved by 57% of voters. The ban introduces penalties for camping, sitting, or lying down on a public sidewalk or sleeping outdoors in or near Downtown Austin or the area around the University of Texas campus. The ordinance would also prohibit solicitation at certain locations.[]

Economy[edit]

See also: Silicon Hills and List of companies based in Austin, Texas

Downtown Austin from Congress Avenue Bridge, with Texas State Capitol in background,

The Greater Austinmetropolitan statistical area had a gross domestic product (GDP) of $86&#;billion in [] Austin is considered to be a major center for high tech.[] Thousands of graduates each year from the engineering and computer science programs at the University of Texas at Austin provide a steady source of employees that help to fuel Austin's technology and defense industry sectors. The region's rapid growth has led Forbes to rank the Austin metropolitan area number one among all big cities for jobs for in their annual survey and WSJ Marketwatch to rank the area number one for growing businesses.[][] By , Austin was ranked No. 14 on Forbes' list of the Best Places for Business and Careers (directly below Dallas, No. 13 on the list).[] As a result of the high concentration of high-tech companies in the region, Austin was strongly affected by the dot-com boom in the late s and subsequent bust.[] Austin's largest employers include the Austin Independent School District, the City of Austin, Dell, the U.S. Federal Government, NXP Semiconductors, IBM, St. David's Healthcare Partnership, Seton Family of Hospitals, the State of Texas, the Texas State University, and the University of Texas at Austin.[]

Other high-tech companies with operations in Austin include 3M, Apple, Amazon, AMD, Apartment Ratings, Applied Materials, Arm Holdings, Bigcommerce, BioWare, Blizzard Entertainment, Buffalo Technology, Cirrus Logic, Cisco Systems, Dropbox, eBay, Electronic Arts, Flextronics, Facebook, Google, Hewlett-Packard, Hoover's, HomeAway, HostGator, Intel Corporation, National Instruments, Nintendo, Nvidia, Oracle, PayPal, Polycom, Qualcomm, Rackspace, RetailMeNot, Rooster Teeth, Samsung Group, Silicon Laboratories, Spansion, Tesla, United Devices, VMware, and Xerox. In , Facebook accepted a grant to build a downtown office that could bring as many as jobs to the city.[] The proliferation of technology companies has led to the region's nickname, "Silicon Hills", and spurred development that greatly expanded the city.

Austin is also emerging as a hub for pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies; the city is home to about 85 of them.[] In , the city was ranked by the Milken Institute as the #12 biotech and life science center in the United States[] and in , CBRE Group ranked Austin as #3 emerging life sciences cluster.[] Companies such as Hospira, Pharmaceutical Product Development, and ArthroCare Corporation are located there.

Whole Foods Market, an international grocery store chain specializing in fresh and packaged food products, was founded and is headquartered in Austin.[]

Other companies based in Austin include NXP Semiconductors, GoodPop, Temple-Inland, Sweet Leaf Tea Company, Keller Williams Realty, National Western Life, GSD&M, Dimensional Fund Advisors, Golfsmith, Forestar Group, EZCorp, Outdoor Voices, Tito's Vodka, Indeed, Speak Social, and YETI.

In , Austin metro-area companies saw a total of $&#;billion invested. Austin's VC numbers were so strong in that they accounted for more than 60 percent of Texas' total investments.[]

Culture and contemporary life[edit]

Museum of the Weird on Sixth Street
The Emma S. Barrientos Mexican American Cultural Center, located on Lady Bird Lake at River Street

"Keep Austin Weird" has been a local motto for years, featured on bumper stickers and T-shirts. This motto has not only been used in promoting Austin's eccentricity and diversity, but is also meant to bolster support of local independent businesses.[21] According to the book Weird City the phrase was begun by a local Austin Community College librarian, Red Wassenich, and his wife, Karen Pavelka, who were concerned about Austin's "rapid descent into commercialism and overdevelopment."[17] The slogan has been interpreted many ways since its inception, but remains an important symbol for many Austinites who wish to voice concerns over rapid growth and irresponsible development. Austin has a long history of vocal citizen resistance to development projects perceived to degrade the environment, or to threaten the natural and cultural landscapes.[]

According to the Nielsen Company, adults in Austin read and contribute to blogs more than those in any other U.S. metropolitan area.[] Austin residents have the highest Internet usage in all of Texas.[] In , Austin was the most active city on Reddit, having the largest number of views per capita.[] Austin was selected as the No. 2 Best Big City in "Best Places to Live" by Money magazine in , and No. 3 in , and also the "Greenest City in America" by MSN.[][]

South Congress is a shopping district stretching down South Congress Avenue from Downtown. This area is home to coffee shops, eccentric stores, restaurants, food trucks, trailers, and festivals. It prides itself on "Keeping Austin Weird," especially with development in the surrounding area(s). Many Austinites attribute its enduring popularity to the magnificent and unobstructed view of the Texas State Capitol.[36]

The Rainey Street Historic District is a neighborhood in Downtown Austin consisting mostly of bungalow style homes built in the early 20th century. Since the early s, the former working class residential street has turned into a popular nightlife district. Much of the historic homes have been renovated into bars and restaurants, many of which feature large porches and outdoor yards for patrons.[] The Rainey Street district is also home to the Emma S. Barrientos Mexican American Cultural Center.

Austin has been part of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network under Media Arts the category.[]

Old Austin[edit]

"Old Austin" is an adage often used by nostalgic natives.[] The term "Old Austin" refers to a time when the city was smaller and more bohemian with a considerably lower cost of living and better known for its lack of traffic, hipsters, and urban sprawl.[] It is often employed by longtime residents expressing displeasure at the rapidly changing culture,[] or when referencing nostalgia of Austin culture.[]

The growth and popularity of Austin[] can be seen by the expansive development taking place in its downtown landscape.[] Forbes ranked Austin as the second fastest-growing city in [] This growth can have a negative impact on longtime small businesses that cannot keep up with the expenses associated with gentrification and the rising cost of real estate.[] A former Austin musician, Dale Watson, described his move away from Austin, "I just really feel the city has sold itself. Just because you're going to get $45 million for a company to come to town – if it's not in the best interest of the town, I don't think they should do it. This city was never about money. It was about quality of life."[]

Annual cultural events[edit]

See also: Category:Festivals in Austin, Texas

The O. Henry House Museum hosts the annual O. Henry Pun-Off, a pun contest where the successful contestants exhibit wit akin to that of the author William Sydney Porter.

Other annual events include Eeyore's Birthday Party, Spamarama, Austin Pride Festival & Parade in August, the Austin Reggae Festival in April,[] Kite Festival, Texas Craft Brewers Festival in September,[] Art City Austin in April,[] East Austin Studio Tour in November,[] and Carnaval Brasileiro in February. Sixth Street features annual festivals such as the Pecan Street Festival and Halloween night. The three-day Austin City Limits Music Festival has been held in Zilker Park every year since Every year around the end of March and the beginning of April, Austin is home to "Texas Relay Weekend."

Austin's Zilker Park Tree is a Christmas display made of lights strung from the top of a Moonlight tower in Zilker Park. The Zilker Tree is lit in December along with the "Trail of Lights," an Austin Christmas tradition. The Trail of Lights was canceled four times, first starting in and due to the September 11 Attacks, and again in and due to budget shortfalls, but the trail was turned back on for the holiday season.[]

Cuisine and breweries[edit]

A food truck trailer park in South Austin

Austin is perhaps best known for its Texas barbecue and Tex-Mex cuisine. Franklin Barbecue

Источник: traitortrump.us,_Texas

Why Some Americans Are Leaving California for Texas

The two most populous states in the United States, California and Texas, have long competed to attract companies and talent. Data from the U.S. census show that Texas is drawing more people, including Californians.

Texans have a saying: "Everything is bigger in Texas." By size, it is the largest state in the contiguous U.S. There are many reasons why the state's population is also getting bigger.

"Your quality of life is so much higher here in Austin," said Alex Backus, who moved with his teenage daughter from San Jose, California, to the Texas capital almost two years ago.

Backus has been bouncing back and forth between the two states over the years. He said that while he missed the outdoor activities and mild weather in California's Bay Area, it is not a financially friendly place for young adults such as his daughter.

"Most of the kids that are in the Bay Area and they graduate, they kind of need to leave the Bay Area because it's so expensive. I kind of figured in Austin, there was a shot that she might actually choose to try to stay in Austin to go to college and start her life," Backus explained.

Correlation between states

"They each have a singular history. Both of them were governed by Spain and Mexico. They both have a sort of a nation-state identity unlike any other state," said Bill Fulton, director of Rice University's Kinder Institute for Urban Research, in Houston.

Fulton moved to Texas from California for his current job. He has been studying the migration patterns between the two states through census data and noticed a correlation.

"When home prices in California go up, more people move to Texas. When home prices in California go down, fewer people move to Texas," Fulton said.

James, 9, and Will, 11, the children of Kate Sullivan Morgan and William Morgan, who relocated so children could attend school in-person, play in the family's new home in Austin, Texas, March 12,

Census and politics

While California still has 10 million more residents than Texas, the migration patterns of each state have been going on for years, and Texas has won the popularity contest, according to the census results.

For the first time in the state's history, California, a Democratic bastion, lost one U.S. congressional seat determined by the state's population. Republican-leaning Texas, the biggest winner of all 50 states, gained two seats.

While the impact will be felt in Washington, Fulton said its political significance depends on who is moving from California to Texas — whether they are conservative Republicans who do not like liberal-leaning California with its state tax and more regulations, or Democrats from California looking for better opportunities in Texas.

"It may well be that a flow from California to Texas increases the likelihood that at some point in the future, Texas will turn blue. And if it does, of course, that's good news for the Democrats and bad news for the Republicans nationally because then the two largest states are locked in to be Democratic states. But that would still be a way off if it happens," Fulton said.

Impact of pandemic

During the pandemic, out-migration from expensive states such as California and New York picked up. States with lower costs of living, including Texas and Florida, are seeing an influx of new residents, said Los Angeles-based Eric Willett, director of research and thought leadership for the Pacific Southwest division at commercial real estate firm CBRE.

He studied the impact of the pandemic on people's decision to move by looking at data from the U.S. Postal Service. With people working from home, there was a trend of people across the U.S. leaving denser urban regions for homes in the suburbs.

"Whether it's a backyard or an extra bedroom, those sorts of living environments became much more highly desired during the pandemic," Willett said.

The urban dwellers who moved tend to be young, affluent, highly educated and childless.

While Willett found that most Californians who moved did so within the state, the migration patterns of people who chose to move out of state were consistent with pre-pandemic trends.

"The states that saw the most out-migration last year are also the states that saw the most outmigration in It just was an accelerated path of out-migration," Willett said.

FILE - Tesla CEO Elon Musk speaks before unveiling the Model Y at Tesla's design studio in Hawthorne, California, March 14,

Texas appeal

Elon Musk, co-founder of Tesla and SpaceX, moved last year from California to Texas, where his business priorities are located.

Tesla Cybertruck and SpaceX's spaceport are in Texas. Tech companies Oracle and HP Inc., as well as CBRE, have relocated their headquarters to Texas. Japanese automaker Toyota also chose to relocate its North American headquarters from California to Texas, which is not only known for its ample housing and lower cost of living but also its business-friendly environment.

Nicknamed "Silicon Hills," Austin has been an attractive location for many tech companies.

"There's no question that Texas has fewer business regulations than California," Fulton said.

Texas may be popular, but Willett said it does not mean there is a mass exodus of businesses from California.

"Increasingly, companies are looking to diversify their talent base, and California is a mature market in many industries. And it makes sense for these companies to look elsewhere to continue to expand their access to talent," Willett explained.

"Facebook and Google are constantly fighting for downtown office space of more than a million square feet (92, square meters). They're looking for additional properties, and it just seems like every company is trying to expand their presence here in Austin," said Job Hammond of the Austin Board of Realtors.

Hammond, originally from Northern California, moved to Austin 14 years ago when he relocated for his then-employer Oracle. He is now a relocation expert who helps people from other cities find homes in Austin.

"They all seemingly want the same sort of thing — a good quality of life, a reasonable price in terms of a home, and, in some cases, to avoid state income tax," Hammond said.

Texas Realtors, the state-level association of realtors, reported that in the first quarter of , the median sales price of single-family homes in the state reached $,

In contrast, the California Association of Realtors reported that the median price of a single-family home in the state in March was $,

"A California family will cash in their home equity to get a bigger house in Texas, and they're probably not going to reverse that pattern," Fulton said.

Foreign investors are also noticing Texas. Hammond has helped investors from Malaysia, Nepal, China, Europe and Mexico find properties.

"I was on the phone about 12 o'clock midnight with somebody in Shanghai who's interested in not having cash in the bank because she's worried about things like inflation," Hammond said.

California dreaming

Backus has enjoyed the live music and arts scene in Austin and picked up surfing on Lake Austin.

But Texas summers are a lot hotter than they are in Northern California, with its milder climate, diverse geography, and plentiful biking opportunities and outdoor activities, which Backus misses.

"I still have my home there. It's rented out there, and I'm questioning whether I should keep it, because I might want to go back. I do miss going snow skiing," he said.

Источник: traitortrump.us

This little-known Texas 'war' is the reason why Austin is the capital of Texas

In the days of Texas' independence, the capital city changed hands fairly often. Houston held the seat a few times, but by , years after Texans won the Battle of San Jacinto, the capital was in Austin. 

Because the republic's independence was challenged by Mexico, Texas was under constant fear of attack. In March , a battalion of Mexican forces made its way into San Antonio and threatened to advance to Austin and possibly take the capital, according to the Texas State Historical Association. 

President Sam Houston ordered the Texas congress to meet and discuss a plan of action – but not in the capital city. Instead, he ordered congress to meet in Houston and wanted the state's official archives moved, too, so they wouldn't fall in the hands of the advancing Mexican forces. 

Of course, that upset Austinites. In an apparent knee-jerk reaction, a "vigilante committee of residents" took arms and threatened to turn their guns on their fellow Texans tasked with moving the official documents, according to the historical association. 

Yes, Austin's hatred for Houston was so strong that they threatened to shoot Texas rangers sent by the president to grab some papers. Houston ordered the rangers to grab the documents but not cause any bloodshed. 

In a not-at-all-surprising move, the so-called committee was unprepared to take any action by the time the rangers arrived. Houston's crew secured the archives and left the city in December  

By January , the committee of vigilantes had stolen more firepower and cornered the rangers just outside the city. There, they fired several rounds at the ranger who, under orders not to cause bloodshed, gave up the papers to the group and made their way back to Houston. 

The committee took the papers back to Austin, where they remain to this day. Texans voted to make Austin the permanent capital years later. 

In the days when we're rethinking how we view Texas' history, including the recent retelling of the history of the Alamo Mission, maybe this intrastate uprising is one of them. 

It's a saga known as the Archives War to historians, but I'd like to call it the War of Austin's Aggression. 

Источник: traitortrump.us

Texas

State of the United States

This article is about the State of Texas. For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation).

"Texan" redirects here. For other uses, see Texan (disambiguation).

State in the United States

Texas

State of Texas
Nickname(s):&#;

The Lone Star State

Motto(s):&#;

Friendship

Anthem: "Texas, Our Texas"
Map of the United States with Texas highlighted

Map of the United States with Texas highlighted

CountryUnited States
Before statehoodRepublic of Texas
Admitted to the UnionDecember 29, (28th)
CapitalAustin
Largest cityHouston
Largest metro and urban areasDallas–Fort Worth
&#;•&#;GovernorGreg Abbott (R)
&#;•&#;Lieutenant GovernorDan Patrick (R)
LegislatureTexas Legislature
&#;•&#;Upper houseSenate
&#;•&#;Lower houseHouse of Representatives
JudiciarySupreme Court of Texas (Civil)
Texas Court of Criminal Appeals (Criminal)
U.S. senatorsJohn Cornyn (R)
Ted Cruz (R)
U.S. House delegation23 Republicans
13 Democrats (list)
&#;•&#;Total,[1]&#;sq&#;mi (,&#;km2)
&#;•&#;Land,[1]&#;sq&#;mi (,&#;km2)
&#;•&#;Water7,[1]&#;sq&#;mi (19,&#;km2) &#;%
Area rank2nd
&#;•&#;Length[2]&#;mi (1,&#;km)
&#;•&#;Width[2]&#;mi (1,&#;km)
Elevation1,&#;ft (&#;m)
Highest&#;elevation

(Guadalupe Peak[3][4][5])

8,&#;ft (2,&#;m)
Lowest&#;elevation

(Gulf of Mexico[4])

0&#;ft (0&#;m)
&#;•&#;Total29,,[6]
&#;•&#;Rank2nd
&#;•&#;Density/sq&#;mi (/km2)
&#;•&#;Density&#;rank26th
&#;•&#;Median household income$64,[7]
&#;•&#;Income rank23rd
Demonym(s)Texan
Texian (archaic)
Tejano (usually only used for Hispanics)
&#;•&#;Official languageNo official language
(see Languages spoken in Texas)
&#;•&#;Spoken languagePredominantly English;
Spanish is spoken by a sizable minority[8]
Majority of stateUTC− (Central)
&#;•&#;Summer (DST)UTC− (CDT)
El Paso, Hudspeth, and northwestern Culberson countiesUTC− (Mountain)
&#;•&#;Summer (DST)UTC− (MDT)
USPS abbreviation

TX

ISO codeUS-TX
Traditional abbreviationTex.
Latitude25°50′ N to 36°30′ N
Longitude93°31′ W to °39′ W
Websitetraitortrump.us

Texas (, ;[9]Spanish: Texas, Tejas[a][10]) is a state in the South Central region of the United States. At , square miles (, sq km), and with more than million residents in , it is the second-largest U.S. state by both area (after Alaska) and population (after California). Texas shares borders with the states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexicanstates of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the south and southwest. It has a coastline with the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast.

Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth-largest in the U.S., while San Antonio is the second most populous in the state and seventh-largest in the U.S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are, respectively, the fourth- and fifth-largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country. Other major cities include Austin, the second most populous state capital in the U.S., and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed the "Lone Star State" for its former status as an independent republic, and as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico. The "Lone Star" can be found on the Texas state flag and on the Texas state seal.[11] The origin of Texas's name is from the Caddo wordtáyshaʼ meaning 'friends'.[12]

Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U.S. Southern and the Southwestern regions.[13] Although Texas is popularly associated with the U.S. southwestern deserts, less than ten percent of Texas's land area is desert.[14] Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands, forests, and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, and finally the desert and mountains of the Big Bend.

The term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations that have ruled over the territory.[note 1]Spain was the first European country to claim and control the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until when Texas won its independence, becoming the Republic of Texas. In , Texas joined the union as the 28th state.[15] The state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U.S. in early , and officially joined the Confederate States of America on March&#;2 of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation.

Historically, four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton, timber, and oil.[16] Before and after the U.S. Civil War, the cattle industry—which Texas came to dominate—was a major economic driver for the state, and created the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the later 19th century, cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative. It was ultimately, though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits (Spindletop in particular) that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry during the midth century. As of , it is second in the United States of most Fortune company headquarters with [17] With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including tourism, agriculture, petrochemicals, energy, computers and electronics, aerospace, and biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U.S. in state export revenue since , and has the second-highestgross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would have the 10th-largest economy in the world.

Etymology

The name Texas, based on the Caddo wordtáyshaʼ (/tʼajʃaʔ/) 'friend', was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas,[18][19][20][1] by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves, specifically the Hasinai Confederacy,[21] the final -s representing the Spanish plural.[22] The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May , in what is now Houston County, East Texas.[23]

During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevas Filipinas ('New Philippines') and Nuevo Reino de Filipinas ('New Kingdom of the Philippines'),[24] or as provincia de los Tejas ('province of the Tejas'),[25] later also provincia de Texas (or de Tejas), ('province of Texas').[26][24] It was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in , and declared a republic in The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings, Tejas and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U.S. state of Texas.[27]

The English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, contrary to the historical value of the letter x (/ʃ/) in Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja 'rooftile', the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements.[28] A s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on the Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett.[28]

History

Main article: History of Texas

Pre-European era

Further information: Pre-Columbian Mexico

Texas lies between two major cultural spheres of Pre-Columbian North America: the Southwestern and the Plains areas. Archaeologists have found that three major indigenous cultures lived in this territory, and reached their developmental peak before the first European contact. These were:[29] the Ancestral Puebloans from the upper Rio Grande region, centered west of Texas; the Mississippian culture, also known as Mound Builders, which extended along the Mississippi River Valley east of Texas; and the civilizations of Mesoamerica, centered south of Texas. Influence of Teotihuacan in northern Mexico peaked around AD and declined over the 8th to 10th centuries.

When Europeans arrived in the Texas region, several different cultures of Native peoples, divided into many smaller tribes, were living there. They were Caddoan, Atakapan, Athabaskan, Coahuiltecan, and Uto-Aztecan. The Uto-Aztecan Puebloan peoples lived neared the Rio Grande in the western portion of the state, the Athabaskan-speaking Apache tribes lived throughout the interior, the Caddoans controlled much of the Red River region and the Atakapans were mostly centered along the Gulf Coast. At least one tribe of Coahuiltecans, the Aranama, lived in southern Texas. This entire culture group, primarily centered in northeastern Mexico, is now extinct. It is difficult to say who lived in the northwestern region of the state originally. By the time the region came to be explored, it belonged to the fairly well-known Comanche, another Uto-Aztecan people who had transitioned into a powerful horse culture, but it is believed that they came later and did not live there during the 16th century. It may have been claimed by several different peoples, including Uto-Aztecans, Athabaskans, or even Dhegihan Siouans.[citation needed]

No culture was dominant in the present-day Texas region, and many peoples inhabited the area.[30] Native American tribes who lived inside the boundaries of present-day Texas include the Alabama, Apache, Atakapan, Bidai, Caddo, Aranama, Comanche, Choctaw, Coushatta, Hasinai, Jumano, Karankawa, Kickapoo, Kiowa, Tonkawa, and Wichita.[31][32]

Early Native American tribal territories

The region was primarily controlled by the Spanish for the first couple centuries of contact, until the Texas Revolution. They were not particularly kind to their native populations—even less so with the Caddoans, who were not trusted as their culture was split between the Spanish and the French. When the Spanish briefly managed to conquer the Louisiana colony, they decided to switch tactics and attempt being exceedingly friendly to the Indians, which they continued even after the French took back the colony. After the Louisiana Purchase, the United States inherited this odd circumstance. The Caddoans preferred the company of Americans and almost the entire population of them migrated into the states of Louisiana and Arkansas. The Spanish felt jilted after having spent so much time and effort and began trying to lure the Caddo back, even promising them more land. Seemingly without actually knowing how they came by it, the United States (who had begun convincing tribes to self-segregate from whites by selling everything and moving west ever since they gained the Louisiana Purchase) faced an overflow of native peoples in Missouri and Arkansas and were able to negotiate with the Caddoans to allow several displaced peoples to settle on unused lands in eastern Texas. They included the Muscogee, Houma Choctaw, Lenape and Mingo Seneca, among others, who all came to view the Caddoans as saviors, making those peoples highly influential.[33][34]

Whether a Native American tribe was friendly or warlike was critical to the fates of European explorers and settlers in that land.[35] Friendly tribes taught newcomers how to grow indigenous crops, prepare foods, and hunt wild game. Warlike tribes made life difficult and dangerous for Europeans through their attacks and resistance to the newcomers.[35]

During the Texas Revolution, the U.S. became heavily involved. Prior treaties with the Spanish forbade either side from militarizing its native population in any potential conflict between the two nations. At that time, several sudden outbreaks of violence between Caddoans and Texans started to spread. The Caddoans were always clueless when questioned, The Texan and American authorities in the region could never find hard evidence linking them to it and often it was so far-flung from Caddoan lands, it barely made any sense. It seems most likely that these were false-flag attacks meant to start a cascading effect to force the natives under Caddoan influence into armed conflict without breaking any treaties—preferably on the side of the Spanish. While no proof was found as to who the culprit was, those in charge of Texas at the time attempted multiple times to publicly blame and punish the Caddoans for the incidents with the U.S. government trying to keep them in check. Furthermore, the Caddoans never turned to violence because of it, excepting cases of self-defense.[33]

By the s, the U.S. had drafted the Indian Removal Act, which was used to facilitate the Trail of Tears. Fearing retribution of other native peoples, Indian Agents all over the eastern U.S. began desperately trying to convince all their native peoples to uproot and move west. This included the Caddoans of Louisiana and Arkansas. Following the Texas Revolution, the Texans chose to make peace with their Native peoples but did not honor former land claims or agreements. This began the movement of Native populations north into what would become Indian Territory—modern-day Oklahoma.[33]

Colonization

Main articles: New France, Louisiana (New France), French colonization of Texas, French and Indian War, Treaty of Paris (), New Spain, Spanish Texas, Seminole Wars, Adams–Onís Treaty, Mexican War of Independence, Treaty of Córdoba, First Mexican Empire, Mexican Texas, Provisional Government of Mexico (–24), Constitution of Mexico, First Mexican Republic, Siete Leyes, and Centralist Republic of Mexico

The first historical document related to Texas was a map of the Gulf Coast, created in by Spanish explorer Alonso Álvarez de Pineda.[36] Nine years later, shipwrecked Spanish explorer Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and his cohort became the first Europeans in what is now Texas.[37][38] Cabeza de Vaca reported that in , when the Spanish landed in the area, "half the natives died from a disease of the bowels and blamed us."[39] Cabeza de Vaca also made observations about the way of life of the Ignaces Natives of Texas:

They went about with a firebrand, setting fire to the plains and timber so as to drive off the mosquitos, and also to get lizards and similar things which they eat, to come out of the soil. In the same manner they kill deer, encircling them with fires, and they do it also to deprive the animals of pasture, compelling them to go for food where the Indians want.[40]

Francisco Vázquez de Coronado describes his encounter:

Two kinds of people travel around these plains with the cows; one is called Querechos and the others Teyas; they are very well built, and painted, and are enemies of each other. They have no other settlement or location than comes from traveling around with the cows. They kill all of these they wish and tan the hides, with which they clothe themselves and make their tents, and they eat the flesh, sometimes even raw, and they also even drink the blood when thirsty. The tents they make are like field tents, and they set them up over poles they have made for this purpose, which come together and are tied at the top, and when they go from one place to another they carry them on some dogs they have, of which they have many, and they load them with the tents and poles and other things, for the country is so level, as I said, that they can make use of these, because they carry the poles dragging along on the ground. The sun is what they worship most.[41]

European powers ignored the area until accidentally settling there in Miscalculations by René-Robert Cavelier de La Salle resulted in his establishing the colony of Fort Saint Louis at Matagorda Bay rather than along the Mississippi River. The colony lasted only four years before succumbing to harsh conditions and hostile natives.

In Spanish authorities, concerned that France posed a competitive threat, constructed several missions in East Texas. After Native American resistance, the Spanish missionaries returned to Mexico. When France began settling Louisiana, mostly in the southern part of the state, in Spanish authorities responded by founding a new series of missions in East Texas.[46] Two years later, they created San Antonio as the first Spanish civilian settlement in the area.

Nicolas de La Fora's map of the northern frontier of New Spainclearly shows the Provincia de los Tejas.[48]

Hostile native tribes and distance from nearby Spanish colonies discouraged settlers from moving to the area. It was one of New Spain's least populated provinces. In , the Spanish peace treaty with the Lipan Apache angered many tribes, including the Comanche, Tonkawa, and Hasinai. The Comanche signed a treaty with Spain in and later helped to defeat the Lipan Apache and Karankawa tribes.[52] With more numerous missions being established, priests led a peaceful conversion of most tribes. By the end of the 18th century only a few nomadic tribes had not converted to Christianity.

When the United States purchased Louisiana from France in , American authorities insisted the agreement also included Texas. The boundary between New Spain and the United States was finally set at the Sabine River in , at what is now the border between Texas and Louisiana. Eager for new land, many United States settlers refused to recognize the agreement. Several filibusters raised armies to invade the area west of the Sabine River. Marked by the War of , some men who had escaped from the Spanish held (Old) Philippines had immigrated to and also passed through Texas (New Philippines)[57] and reached Louisiana where Philippine exiles aided the United States in the defense of New Orleans against a British invasion, with Filipinos in the Saint Malo settlement assisting Jean Lafitte in the Battle of New Orleans.[58] In , the Mexican War of Independence included the Texas territory, which became part of Mexico. Due to its low population, the territory was assigned to other states and territories of Mexico; the core territory was part of the state of Coahuila y Tejas, but other parts of today's Texas were part of Tamaulipas, Chihuahua, or the Mexican Territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México.

Hoping more settlers would reduce the near-constant Comanche raids, Mexican Texas liberalized its immigration policies to permit immigrants from outside Mexico and Spain. Under the Mexican immigration system, large swathes of land were allotted to empresarios, who recruited settlers from the United States, Europe, and the Mexican interior. The first grant, to Moses Austin, was passed to his son Stephen F. Austin after his death.

Austin's settlers, the Old Three Hundred, made places along the Brazos River in Twenty-three other empresarios brought settlers to the state, the majority of whom were from the United States. The population of Texas grew rapidly. In , Texas had about 3, people, with most of Mexican descent. By , the population had grown to about 37, people, with only 7, of Mexican descent. Most of these early settlers who arrived with Austin and soon after were persons less than fortunate in life, as Texas was devoid of the comforts found elsewhere in Mexico and the United States during that time. Early Texas settler David B. Edwards described his fellow Texans as being "banished from the pleasures of life".[66]

Many immigrants openly flouted Mexican law, especially the prohibition against slavery. Combined with United States' attempts to purchase Texas, Mexican authorities decided in to prohibit continued immigration from the United traitortrump.usl immigration from the United States into Mexico continued to increase the population of Texas anyway. New laws also called for the enforcement of customs duties angering native Mexican citizens (Tejanos) and recent immigrants alike.

The Anahuac Disturbances in were the first open revolt against Mexican rule, and they coincided with a revolt in Mexico against the nation's traitortrump.uss sided with the federalists against the current government and drove all Mexican soldiers out of East Texas. They took advantage of the lack of oversight to agitate for more political freedom. Texians met at the Convention of to discuss requesting independent statehood, among other issues. The following year, Texians reiterated their demands at the Convention of [73]

Republic

Main articles: Texas Revolution, Convention of , Texas Declaration of Independence, Treaties of Velasco, and Republic of Texas

Within Mexico, tensions continued between federalists and centralists. In early , wary Texians formed Committees of Correspondence and Safety.[74] The unrest erupted into armed conflict in late at the Battle of Gonzales. This launched the Texas Revolution, and over the next two months the Texians defeated all Mexican troops in the region.[76] Texians elected delegates to the Consultation, which created a provisional government. The provisional government soon collapsed from infighting, and Texas was without clear governance for the first two months of [78]

Surrender of Santa Anna. Painting by William Henry Huddle,

During this time of political turmoil, Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna personally led an army to end the revolt. The Mexican expedition was initially successful. General José de Urrea defeated all the Texian resistance along the coast culminating in the Goliad massacre.[80] Santa Anna's forces, after a thirteen-day siege, overwhelmed Texian defenders at the Battle of the Alamo. News of the defeats sparked panic among Texas settlers.

The newly elected Texian delegates to the Convention of quickly signed a declaration of independence on March 2, forming the Republic of Texas. After electing interim officers, the Convention disbanded.[82] The new government joined the other settlers in Texas in the Runaway Scrape, fleeing from the approaching Mexican army. After several weeks of retreat, the Texian Army commanded by Sam Houston attacked and defeated Santa Anna's forces at the Battle of San Jacinto. Santa Anna was captured and forced to sign the Treaties of Velasco, ending the war. The Constitution of the Republic of Texas prohibited the government from restricting slavery or freeing slaves, and required free people of African descent to leave the country.[85]

While Texas had won its independence, political battles raged between two factions of the new Republic. The nationalist faction, led by Mirabeau B. Lamar, advocated the continued independence of Texas, the expulsion of the Native Americans, and the expansion of the Republic to the Pacific Ocean. Their opponents, led by Sam Houston, advocated the annexation of Texas to the United States and peaceful co-existence with Native Americans. The conflict between the factions was typified by an incident known as the Texas Archive War.[86] With wide popular support, Texas first applied for annexation to the United States in , but its status as a slaveholding country caused its admission to be controversial and it was initially rebuffed. This status, and Mexican diplomacy in support of its claims to the territory, also complicated Texas's ability to form foreign alliances and trade relationships.[87]

The Comanche Indians furnished the main Native American opposition to the Texas Republic, manifested in multiple raids on settlements.[88] Mexico launched two small expeditions into Texas in The town of San Antonio was captured twice and Texans were defeated in battle in the Dawson massacre. Despite these successes, Mexico did not keep an occupying force in Texas, and the republic survived.[89] The cotton price crash of the s depressed the country's economy.[87]

Statehood

Main articles: Texas annexation, Admission to the Union, List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union, Mexican–American War, and Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

As early as , the Republic of Texas made several attempts to negotiate annexation with the United States.[90] Opposition within the republic from the nationalist faction, along with strong abolitionist opposition within the United States, slowed Texas's admission into the Union. Texas was finally annexed when the expansionist James K. Polk won the election of [91] On December 29, , the U.S. Congress admitted Texas to the U.S. as a constituent state of the Union.[92]

The population of the new state was quite small at first, and there was a strong mix between the English-speaking American settlers who dominated in the state's eastern/northeastern portions and the Spanish-speaking former Mexicans (Tejanos) who dominated in the state's southern and western portions. Statehood brought many new settlers. Because of the long Spanish presence in Mexico and various failed colonization efforts by the Spanish and Mexicans in northern Mexico, there were large herds of Longhorn cattle that roamed the state. Hardy by nature, but also suitable for slaughtering and consumption, they represented an economic opportunity many entrepreneurs seized upon, thus creating the cowboy culture for which Texas is famous.

After Texas's annexation, Mexico broke diplomatic relations with the United States. While the United States claimed Texas's border stretched to the Rio Grande, Mexico claimed it was the Nueces River leaving the Rio Grande Valley under contested Texan sovereignty.[92] While the former Republic of Texas could not enforce its border claims, the United States had the military strength and the political will to do so. President Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor south to the Rio Grande on January 13, A few months later Mexican troops routed an American cavalry patrol in the disputed area in the Thornton Affair starting the Mexican–American War. The first battles of the war were fought in Texas: the Siege of Fort Texas, Battle of Palo Alto and Battle of Resaca de la Palma. After these decisive victories, the United States invaded Mexican territory, ending the fighting in Texas.[93]

After a series of United States victories, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the two-year war. In return, for US$18,,, Mexico gave the U.S. undisputed control of Texas, ceded the Mexican Cession in , most of which today is called the American Southwest, and Texas's borders were established at the Rio Grande.[93]

The Compromise of set Texas's boundaries at their present form. U.S. Senator James Pearce of Maryland drafted the final proposal where Texas ceded its claims to land which later became half of present-day New Mexico,[94] a third of Colorado, and small portions of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Wyoming to the federal government, in return for the assumption of $10 million of the old republic's debt.[94] Post-war Texas grew rapidly as migrants poured into the cotton lands of the state.[95]

They also brought or purchased enslaved African Americans, whose numbers tripled in the state from to , from 58, to ,[96]

Civil War to late 19th century

Main articles: Ordinance of Secession, Confederate States of America, and Texas in the American Civil War

Texas was at war again after the election of At this time, blacks comprised 30 percent of the state's population, and they were overwhelmingly enslaved.[97] When Abraham Lincoln was elected, South Carolina seceded from the Union. Five other Deep South states quickly followed. A state convention considering secession opened in Austin on January 28, On February 1, by a vote of –8, the convention adopted an Ordinance of Secession from the United States. Texas voters approved this Ordinance on February 23, Texas joined the newly created Confederate States of America on March 4, ratifying the permanent C.S. Constitution on March [1][98]

Not all Texans favored secession initially, although many of the same would later support the Southern cause. Texas's most notable Unionist was the state Governor, Sam Houston. Not wanting to aggravate the situation, Houston refused two offers from President Lincoln for Union troops to keep him in office. After refusing to swear an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy, Houston was deposed as governor.[99] Around 2, Texans served in the Union Army, with a large contingent of recent German immigrants in Texas Hill Country being a Unionist stronghold.[]

While far from the major battlefields of the American Civil War, Texas contributed large numbers of men and equipment to the rest of the Confederacy.[] Union troops briefly occupied the state's primary port, Galveston. Texas's border with Mexico was known as the "backdoor of the Confederacy" because trade occurred at the border, bypassing the Union blockade.[] The Confederacy repulsed all Union attempts to shut down this route,[] but Texas's role as a supply state was marginalized in mid after the Union capture of the Mississippi River. The final battle of the Civil War was fought at Palmito Ranch, near Brownsville, Texas, and saw a Confederate victory.[][]

Texas descended into anarchy for two months between the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia and the assumption of authority by Union General Gordon Granger. Violence marked the early months of Reconstruction.[]Juneteenth commemorates the announcement of the Emancipation Proclamation in Galveston by General Gordon Granger, almost two and a half years after the original announcement.[][] President Johnson, in , declared the civilian government restored in Texas.[] Despite not meeting reconstruction requirements, Congress resumed allowing elected Texas representatives into the federal government in Social volatility continued as the state struggled with agricultural depression and labor issues.[]

Like most of the South, the Texas economy was devastated by the War. However, since the state had not been as dependent on slaves as other parts of the South, it was able to recover more quickly. The culture in Texas during the later 19th century exhibited many facets of a frontier territory. The state became notorious as a haven for people from other parts of the country who wanted to escape debt, war tensions, or other problems. Indeed, "Gone to Texas" was a common expression for those fleeing the law in other states. Nevertheless, the state also attracted many businessmen and other settlers with more legitimate interests as well.[]

The cattle industry continued to thrive, though it gradually became less profitable. Cotton and lumber became major industries creating new economic booms in various regions of the state. Railroad networks grew rapidly as did the port at Galveston as commerce between Texas and the rest of the U.S. (and the rest of the world) expanded. As with some other states before, the lumber industry quickly expanded in Texas and was its largest industry before the beginning of the 20th century.[]

Early to midth century

Spindletop, the first major oil gusher

In , Texas suffered the deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history during the Galveston hurricane.[] On January 10, , the first major oil well in Texas, Spindletop, was found south of Beaumont. Other fields were later discovered nearby in East Texas, West Texas, and under the Gulf of Mexico. The resulting "oil boom" transformed Texas.[] Oil production eventually averaged three million barrels per day at its peak in []

In , the Democratic-dominated state legislature passed a bill requiring payment of a poll tax for voting, which effectively disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites and Latinos. In addition, the legislature established white primaries, ensuring minorities were excluded from the formal political process. The number of voters dropped dramatically, and the Democrats crushed competition from the Republican and Populist parties.[][] The Socialist Party became the second-largest party in Texas after ,[] coinciding with a large socialist upsurge in the United States during fierce battles in the labor movement and the popularity of national heroes like Eugene V. Debs. The socialists' popularity soon waned after their vilification by the United States government for their opposition to U.S. involvement in World War I.[][]

The Great Depression and the Dust Bowl dealt a double blow to the state's economy, which had significantly improved since the Civil War. Migrants abandoned the worst-hit sections of Texas during the Dust Bowl years. Especially from this period on, blacks left Texas in the Great Migration to get work in the Northern United States or California and to escape the oppression of segregation.[97] In , Texas was 74% Anglo, % black, and % Hispanic.[]

World War II had a dramatic impact on Texas, as federal money poured in to build military bases, munitions factories, POW detention camps and Army hospitals; , young men left for service; the cities exploded with new industry; the colleges took on new roles; and hundreds of thousands of poor farmers left the fields for much better-paying war jobs, never to return to agriculture.[][] Texas manufactured percent of total United States military armaments produced during World War II, ranking eleventh among the 48 states.[]

Texas modernized and expanded its system of higher education through the s. The state created a comprehensive plan for higher education, funded in large part by oil revenues, and a central state apparatus designed to manage state institutions more efficiently. These changes helped Texas universities receive federal research funds.[]

Midth to early 21st century

On November 22, , President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.[]

Beginning around the midth century, Texas began to transform from a rural and agricultural state to one urban and industrialized.[] The state's population grew quickly during this period, with large levels of migration from outside the state.[] As a part of the Sun Belt, Texas experienced strong economic growth, particularly during the s and early s.[] Texas's economy diversified, lessening its reliance on the petroleum industry.[] By , Hispanics and Latin Americans overtook blacks to become the largest minority group in the state.[] Texas has the largest Black and African American population with over million.[]

During the late 20th century, the Republican Party replaced the Democratic Party as the dominant party in the state, as the latter became more politically liberal and as demographic changes favored the former.[] Beginning in the early 21st century, metropolitan areas including Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Austin became centers for the Texas Democratic Party in statewide and national elections as liberal policies became more accepted in urban areas.[][][][]

From the mids to , Texas gained an influx of business relocations and regional headquarters from companies in California.[][][][] Texas became a major destination for migration during the early 21st century and was named the most popular state to move for three consecutive years.[] Another study in determined Texas's growth rate at 1, people per day.[]

During the COVID pandemic in the United States, the first confirmed case of the virus in Texas was announced on March 4, [] On April 27, , Governor Greg Abbott announced phase one of re-opening the economy.[] Amid a rise in COVID cases in autumn , Abbott and other U.S. governors refused to enact further lockdowns.[][] In November , Texas was selected as one of four states to test Pfizer's COVID vaccine distribution.[] As of February 2, , there had been over million confirmed cases in Texas, with at least 37, deaths.[]

During February 13–17, , the state faced a major weather emergency as Winter Storm Uri hit the state, as well as most of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States.[][] Historically high power usage across the state caused the state's power grid to become overworked and ERCOT (the main operator of the Texas Interconnection grid) declared an emergency and began to implement rolling blackouts across Texas.[][][] Over 3 million Texans were without power and over 4 million were under boil notices.[]

Geography

Main article: Geography of Texas

Texas is the second-largest U.S. state, after Alaska, with an area of , square miles (,&#;km2). Though 10% larger than France, almost twice as large as Germany or Japan, and more than twice the size of the United Kingdom, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 39th-largest.[]

Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers. The Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the south. The Red River forms a natural border with Oklahoma and Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east. The Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at ° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western border with New Mexico at ° W. El Paso lies on the state's western tip at 32° N and the Rio Grande.[94]

With 10 climatic regions, 14 soil regions and 11 distinct ecological regions, regional classification becomes problematic with differences in soils, topography, geology, rainfall, and plant and animal communities.[] One classification system divides Texas, in order from southeast to west, into the following: Gulf Coastal Plains, Interior Lowlands, Great Plains, and Basin and Range Province.[]

The Gulf Coastal Plains region wraps around the Gulf of Mexico on the southeast section of the state. Vegetation in this region consists of thick piney woods. The Interior Lowlands region consists of gently rolling to hilly forested land and is part of a larger pine-hardwood forest. The Cross Timbers region and Caprock Escarpment are part of the Interior Lowlands.[]

The Great Plains region in Central Texas spans through the state's panhandle and Llano Estacado to the state's hill country near Austin. This region is dominated by prairie and steppe. "Far West Texas" or the "Trans-Pecos" region is the state's Basin and Range Province. The most varied of the regions, this area includes Sand Hills, the Stockton Plateau, desert valleys, wooded mountain slopes and desert grasslands.[]

Texas has 3, named streams and 15 major rivers,[][] with the Rio Grande as the largest. Other major rivers include the Pecos, the Brazos, Colorado, and Red River. While Texas has few natural lakes, Texans have built more than a hundred artificial reservoirs.[]

The size and unique history of Texas make its regional affiliation debatable; it can be fairly considered a Southern or a Southwestern state, or both. The vast geographic, economic, and cultural diversity within the state itself prohibits easy categorization of the whole state into a recognized region of the United States. Notable extremes range from East Texas which is often considered an extension of the Deep South, to Far West Texas which is generally acknowledged to be part of the interior Southwest.[]

Geology

Main article: Geology of Texas

Texas is the southernmost part of the Great Plains, which ends in the south against the folded Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico. The continental crust forms a stable Mesoproterozoiccraton which changes across a broad continental margin and transitional crust into true oceanic crust of the Gulf of Mexico. The oldest rocks in Texas date from the Mesoproterozoic and are about 1,&#;million years old.[]

These Precambrianigneous and metamorphic rocks underlie most of the state, and are exposed in three places: Llano uplift, Van Horn, and the Franklin Mountains, near El Paso. Sedimentary rocks overlay most of these ancient rocks. The oldest sediments were deposited on the flanks of a rifted continental margin, or passive margin that developed during Cambrian time.

This margin existed until Laurasia and Gondwana collided in the Pennsylvanian subperiod to form Pangea. This is the buried crest of the Appalachian Mountains–Ouachita Mountains zone of Pennsylvanian continental collision. This orogenic crest is today buried beneath the Dallas–Waco–Austin–San Antonio trend.[]

The late Paleozoic mountains collapsed as rifting in the Jurassic period began to open the Gulf of Mexico. Pangea began to break up in the Triassic, but seafloor spreading to form the Gulf of Mexico occurred only in the mid- and late Jurassic. The shoreline shifted again to the eastern margin of the state and the Gulf of Mexico's passive margin began to form. Today 9 to 12 miles (14 to 19&#;km) of sediments are buried beneath the Texas continental shelf and a large proportion of remaining US oil reserves are here. At the start of its formation, the incipient Gulf of Mexico basin was restricted and seawater often evaporated completely to form thick evaporite deposits of Jurassic age. These salt deposits formed salt domediapirs, and are found in East Texas along the Gulf coast.[]

East Texas outcrops consist of Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments which contain important deposits of Eocenelignite. The Mississippian and Pennsylvanian sediments in the north; Permian sediments in the west; and Cretaceous sediments in the east, along the Gulf coast and out on the Texas continental shelf contain oil. Oligocenevolcanic rocks are found in far west Texas in the Big Bend area. A blanket of Miocene sediments known as the Ogallala formation in the western high plains region is an important aquifer.[] Located far from an active plate tectonic boundary, Texas has no volcanoes and few earthquakes.[]

Wildlife

See also: List of mammals of Texas, List of birds of Texas, List of reptiles of Texas, and List of amphibians of Texas

A wide range of animals and insects live in Texas. It is the home to 65 species of mammals, species of reptiles and amphibians, and the greatest diversity of bird life in the United States— native species in all.[] At least 12 species have been introduced and now reproduce freely in Texas.[]

Texas plays host to several species of wasps, including an abundance of Polistes exclamans,[] and is an important ground for the study of Polistes annularis.[]

During the spring Texas wildflowers such as the state flower, the bluebonnet, line highways throughout Texas. During the Johnson Administration the first lady, Lady Bird Johnson, worked to draw attention to Texas wildflowers.[]

Climate

Main article: Climate of Texas

Köppen climate types in Texas

The large size of Texas and its location at the intersection of multiple climate zones gives the state highly variable weather. The Panhandle of the state has colder winters than North Texas, while the Gulf Coast has mild winters. Texas has wide variations in precipitation patterns. El Paso, on the western end of the state, averages inches (&#;mm) of annual rainfall,[] while parts of southeast Texas average as much as 64 inches (1,&#;mm) per year.[] Dallas in the North Central region averages a more moderate 37 inches (&#;mm) per year.[]

Snow falls multiple times each winter in the Panhandle and mountainous areas of West Texas, once or twice a year in North Texas, and once every few years in Central and East Texas. Snow falls south of San Antonio or on the coast only in rare circumstances. Of note is the Christmas Eve snowstorm, when 6 inches (&#;mm) of snow fell as far south as Kingsville, where the average high temperature in December is 65&#;°F.[]

Maximum temperatures in the summer months average from the 80s °F (26&#;°C) in the mountains of West Texas and on Galveston Island to around &#;°F (38&#;°C) in the Rio Grande Valley, but most areas of Texas see consistent summer high temperatures in the 90&#;°F (32&#;°C) range.[citation needed]

Night-time summer temperatures range from the upper 50s °F (14&#;°C) in the West Texas mountains to 80&#;°F (27&#;°C) in Galveston.[][]

The table below consists of averages for August (generally the warmest month) and January (generally the coldest) in selected cities in various regions of the state.

Location August (°F) August (°C) January (°F) January (°C)
Houston94/7534/2463/5417/12
San Antonio96/7435/2363/4017/5
Dallas96/7736/2557/3716/3
Austin97/7436/2361/4516/5
El Paso92/6733/2157/3214/0
Laredo/7737/2567/4619/7
Amarillo89/6432/1850/2310/−4
Brownsville94/7634/2470/5121/11

Storms

Thunderstorms strike Texas often, especially the eastern and northern portions of the state. Tornado Alley covers the northern section of Texas. The state experiences the most tornadoes in the United States, an average of a year. These strike most frequently in North Texas and the Panhandle.[] Tornadoes in Texas generally occur in the months of April, May, and June.[]

Some of the most destructive hurricanes in U.S. history have impacted Texas. A hurricane in killed about people in Indianola, followed by another hurricane in that destroyed the town. These events allowed Galveston to take over as the chief port city. The Galveston hurricane subsequently devastated that city, killing about 8, people or possibly as many as 12, This makes it the deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history.[] In , Hurricane Harvey made landfall in Rockport as a Category&#;4 Hurricane, causing significant damage there. The storm stalled over land for a very long time, allowing it to drop unprecedented amounts of rain over the Greater Houston area and surrounding counties. The result was widespread and catastrophic flooding that inundated hundreds of thousands of homes. Harvey ultimately became the costliest hurricane worldwide, causing an estimated $&#;billion in damage, surpassing the cost of Hurricane Katrina.[]

Other devastating Texas hurricanes include the Galveston hurricane, Hurricane Audrey in which killed more than people, Hurricane Carla in , Hurricane Beulah in , Hurricane Alicia in , Hurricane Rita in , and Hurricane Ike in Tropical storms have also caused their share of damage: Allison in and again during , Claudette in , and Tropical Storm Imelda in [][][]

There is no substantial physical barrier between Texas and the polar region. Although it is unusual, it is possible for arctic or polar air masses to penetrate Texas,[][] as occurred during the February 13–17, North American winter storm.[][] Usually, prevailing winds in North America will push polar air masses to the southeast before they reach Texas. Because such intrusions are rare, and, perhaps, unexpected, they may result in crises such as the Texas power crisis.

Greenhouse gases

Main article: Climate change in Texas

As of [update], Texas emits the most greenhouse gases in the U.S., almost twice the amount of California, the second-most polluting state.[] As of [update] the state emits about 1,&#;billion pounds (&#;million metric tons) of carbon dioxide annually.[] As an independent state, Texas would rank as the world's seventh-largest producer of greenhouse gases.[] Causes of the state's vast greenhouse gas emissions include the state's large number of coal power plants and the state's refining and manufacturing industries.[] In , there were 2, "emission events" which poured &#;million pounds (20, metric tons) of contaminants into the Texas sky.[]

Administrative divisions

See also: List of counties in Texas, List of Texas metropolitan areas, and List of municipalities in Texas

The state has three cities with populations exceeding one million: Houston, San Antonio, and Dallas.[] These three rank among the 10 most populous cities of the United States. As of , six Texas cities had populations greater than , people. Austin, Fort Worth, and El Paso are among the 20 largest U.S. cities. Texas has four metropolitan areas with populations greater than a million: Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, Houston–Sugar Land–The Woodlands, San Antonio–New Braunfels, and Austin–Round Rock–San Marcos. The Dallas–Fort Worth and Houston metropolitan areas number about million and 7 million residents as of , respectively.[]

Three interstate highways—I to the west (Dallas–Fort Worth to San Antonio, with Austin in between), I to the east (Dallas to Houston), and I to the south (San Antonio to Houston) define the Texas Urban Triangle region. The region of 60, square miles (,&#;km2) contains most of the state's largest cities and metropolitan areas as well as 17 million people, nearly 75 percent of Texas's total population.[] Houston and Dallas have been recognized as world cities.[] These cities are spread out amongst the state.[]

In contrast to the cities, unincorporated rural settlements known as colonias often lack basic infrastructure and are marked by poverty.[] The office of the Texas Attorney General stated, in , that Texas had about 2, colonias, and estimates about , lived in the colonias. Hidalgo County, as of , has the largest number of colonias.[] Texas has the largest number of people living in colonias of all states.[]

Texas has counties, which is more than any other state by 95 (Georgia).[] Each county runs on Commissioners' Court system consisting of four elected commissioners (one from each of four precincts in the county, roughly divided according to population) and a county judge elected at large from the entire county. County government runs similar to a "weak" mayor-council system; the county judge has no veto authority, but votes along with the other commissioners.[][]

Although Texas permits cities and counties to enter "interlocal agreements" to share services, the state does not allow consolidated city-county governments, nor does it have metropolitan governments. Counties are not granted home rule status; their powers are strictly defined by state law. The state does not have townships—areas within a county are either incorporated or unincorporated. Incorporated areas are part of a municipality. The county provides limited services to unincorporated areas and to some smaller incorporated areas. Municipalities are classified either "general law" cities or "home rule".[] A municipality may elect home rule status once it exceeds 5, population with voter approval.[]

Texas also permits the creation of "special districts", which provide limited services. The most common is the school district, but can also include hospital districts, community college districts, and utility districts (one utility district near Austin was the plaintiff in a landmark Supreme Court case involving the Voting Rights Act). Municipal, school district, and special district elections are nonpartisan,[] though the party affiliation of a candidate may be well-known. County and state elections are partisan.[]

&#;

&#;

RankNameCountyPop.RankNameCountyPop.
Houston
Houston
San Antonio
San Antonio
1HoustonHarris2,,11LubbockLubbock, Dallas
Dallas
Austin
Austin
2San AntonioBexar1,,12GarlandDallas,
3DallasDallas1,,13IrvingDallas,
4AustinTravis,14FriscoCollin,
5Fort WorthTarrant,15AmarilloPotter,
6El PasoEl Paso,16McKinneyCollin,
7ArlingtonTarrant,17Grand PrairieDallas,
8Corpus ChristiNueces,18BrownsvilleCameron,
9PlanoCollin,19KilleenBell,
10LaredoWebb,20PasadenaHarris,

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Texas

Historical population
CensusPop.
,
,%
,%
1,,%
2,,%
3,,%
3,,%
4,,%
5,,%
6,,%
7,,%
9,,%
11,,%
14,,%
16,,%
20,,%
25,,%
29,,%
[]
Texas population density map

The United States Census Bureau determined the resident population of Texas was 29,, at the U.S census, a % increase since the United States census.[][] At the census, the apportioned population of Texas stood at 29,,[] The Texas Population Estimate program estimated the population was 27,, on July 1, [] In , Texas had a census population of 25,,[] Texas is the second-most populous state in the United States after California.[]

In , Texas had million foreign-born residents, about 17% of the population and % of the state workforce.[] The major countries of origin for Texan immigrants were Mexico (% of immigrants), India (5%), El Salvador (%), Vietnam (%), and China (%).[] Of immigrant residents, some percent were naturalized U.S. citizens.[] As of , the population increased to million foreign-born residents or % of the state population, up from 2,, in []

In , there were an estimated million undocumented immigrants in Texas, making up 35% of the total Texas immigrant population and % of the total state population.[] In addition to the state's foreign-born population, an additional million Texans (15% of the state's population) were born in the United States and had at least one immigrant parent.[] According to the American Community Survey's estimates, 1,, residents were undocumented immigrants, a decrease of , since Of the undocumented immigrant population, , have resided in Texas from less than 5 up to 14 years. An estimated , lived in Texas from 15 to 19 and 20 years or more.[]

Texas's Rio Grande Valley has seen significant migration from across the U.S.–Mexico border. During the crisis, many Central Americans, including unaccompanied minors traveling alone from Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador, reached the state, overwhelming Border Patrol resources for a time. Many sought asylum in the United States.[][]

Texas's population density as of is people per square mile (/km2) which is slightly higher than the average population density of the U.S. as a whole, at people per square mile (/km2). In contrast, while Texas and France are similarly sized geographically, the European country has a population density of people per square mile (/km2). Of its dense population, two-thirds of all Texans live in major metropolitan areas such as Houston. The Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area is the largest in Texas. While Houston is the largest city in Texas and the fourth-largest city in the United States by population, the Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area is larger than the city and metropolitan area of Houston.[][]

Race and ethnicity

In , non-Hispanic whites represented % of Texas's population, reflecting a national demographic shift.[][][]

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Capitals

Valladolid, the administrative center of Spain before Madrid became capital in , and Madrid and Paris could be considered capitals of Texas under the competing claims of Spain and France. Mexico City could also be considered the first capital of Texas, since at the beginning of Spanish Texas there was no intermediate provincial capital of the area. Ysleta, said to be the first settlement in Texas, had Santa Fe, New Mexico, as its capital. Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico, became the first provincial capital of Texas in In the Marqués de Aguayo established headquarters at Los Adaes (present Robeline, Louisiana), which remained the capital of Texas for half a century. From until San Antonio was the seat of government, although Manuel Antonio Cordero y Bustamante made his headquarters in in the Old Stone Fort at Nacogdoches; in Manuel María de Salcedo had his headquarters there for three months.

After the Mexican War of Independence, Texas was united with Coahuila, with Saltillo as the provincial capital. On March 9, , Monclova was made capital of Coahuila and Texas. The Department of Texas had become a subdistrict of the province, and San Felipe de Austin was named the capital of the colony of Texas in Therefore the conventions of and met at San Felipe, as did the Consultation of , which organized a provisional government for Texas as a separate Mexican state. Mexico did not recognize the separation. The Convention of , which declared Texas independent, met at Washington-on-the-Brazos. Harrisburg and Galveston were both occupied by President David G. Burnet as temporary capitals, and after the battle of San Jacinto, Burnet and the cabinet met at Sam Houston's headquarters near the battlefield. The government then returned briefly to Galveston before moving to Velasco, which served as the seat of government through the end of September

In October Columbia (now West Columbia) became the first capital of an elected government of the Republic of Texas. Columbia remained capital for three months. Houston was then selected as a temporary capital, and President Sam Houston ordered the government to move there on December 15, Houston was capital from April 19, , until A capital-site commission selected a site near La Grange, Fayette County, in and Congress passed a bill to build the capital there, but Houston vetoed it. The commission purchased 7, acres along the Colorado River comprising the hamlet of Waterloo and adjacent lands. Austin was approved as the capital on January 19, President Mirabeau B. Lamar and his cabinet arrived in Austin on October 17,

Fearing an attack on Austin by the Mexicans, President Houston ordered the government to return to Houston on March 13, Washington-on-the-Brazos became capital by executive order in September of that year, and the order spawned the Archives War when President Houston attempted to move the archives from Austin. The Constitution of provided that Austin be capital until , when a vote was required to choose the permanent capital. Austin received 7, votes, a majority. Another election was scheduled for twenty years later and held in Austin won with 63, votes, compared to Houston's 35, and Waco's 12,

Источник: traitortrump.us

10 reasons why so many people are moving to Texas

By Tom Geoghegan
BBC News, Washington

Half of the 10 fastest-growing cities in the US are in Texas, according to new figures. Why?

Every way you look at it, there are a lot of people moving to Texas.

Five of the 10 fastest-growing cities in the country between and were in Texas, according to new figures from the US Census Bureau. New York is way out in front in terms of added population, but Houston is second with San Antonio and Austin fourth and fifth.

In terms of percentage growth, it's even more Texas, Texas, Texas. Among the five cities that grew most, as a proportion of their size, between and , three are Texan. San Marcos is out in front with the highest rate of growth among all US cities and towns - %.

Some of this Texan population boom is due to a natural increase - more births than deaths - but the numbers moving into the state from elsewhere in the US and from abroad far outstrip every other American state. Why?

"I don't think people go for the weather or topography," says Joel Kotkin, professor of urban development at Chapman University in Orange, California. "The main reason people go is for employment. It's pretty simple.

"The unconventional oil and gas boom has helped turn Texas into an economic juggernaut, particularly world energy capital Houston, but growth has also been strong in tech, manufacturing and business services."

Critics have questioned whether the "Texas miracle" is a myth, based on cheap labour and poor regulation.

But Kotkin says Texas has plenty of high-wage, blue-collar jobs and jobs for university graduates, although people looking for very high-wage jobs would probably head to Seattle, San Francisco and New York.

Four of the top 10 metropolitan areas for job growth in are in Texas, according to Kotkin's website, New Geography.

Texas also has a huge military presence, which grew as defence spending increased in the decade after 9/ Many retired Texans first came to the state as service personnel.

Once employed, it's hugely important that your pay cheque goes as far as possible, says Kotkin.

"New York, LA and the [San Francisco] Bay Area are too expensive for most people to live, but Houston has the highest 'effective' pay cheque in the country."

Kotkin came to this conclusion after looking at the average incomes in the country's 51 largest metro areas, and adjusting them for the cost of living. His results put three Texan areas in the top

Houston is top because of the region's relatively low cost of living, including consumer prices, utilities and transport costs and, most importantly, housing prices, he says.

"The ratio of the median home price to median annual household income in Houston is only In San Francisco, it's

"In New York, San Francisco and LA, if you're blue-collar you will be renting forever and struggling to make ends meet. But people in Texas have a better shot at getting some of the things associated with middle-class life."

Land is cheaper than elsewhere and the process of land acquisition very efficient, says Dr Ali Anari, research economist at the Real Estate Center at Texas A&M University.

"From the time of getting a building permit right through to the construction of homes, Texas is much quicker than other states.

"There is an abundant supply of land and fewer regulations and more friendly government, generally a much better business attitude here than other states."

This flexibility, plus strict lending rules, helped to shield the state from the recent housing market crash.

Texas is one of only seven states where residents pay no personal state income tax, says Kay Bell, contributing tax editor at Bankrate and Texan native.

The state has a disproportionate take from property taxes, which has become a big complaint among homeowners, she adds. But overall, only five states had a lower individual tax burden than Texas, according to Tax Foundation research.

There are also tax incentives for businesses and this week legislators cut more than $1bn off proposed business taxes.

5. Pick your own big city

Texas has six of the country's 20 biggest cities, says Erica Grieder, author of Big, Hot, Cheap and Right: What America Can Learn from the Strange Genius of Texas.

Contrast this to, for example, Illinois, where if you want to live in a big city you can live in Chicago or you have to move out of state, she says.

But if you're in Texas you can be in Houston, San Antonio, Dallas, Austin, Fort Worth, or El Paso.

Restaurant manager Christopher Hislop, 33, moved in from Los Angeles to Austin, where he met his wife and they now have a nine-month-old boy.

"I came to Austin for a wedding and thought it was a really cool city and the people were nice - it was everything that LA wasn't but still had that hip vibe without pretension. The nightlife is great and there's an emphasis on getting out and about - they maintain trailways and nature.

"It's not Texas at all and that's what I liked about it. I don't know Texas very well, I grew up in Chicago, but Austin is not Texas because you think of gallon hats and guys on horseback. It's a cliché but Austin isn't like that, it's hip and in the now. The rest of Texas is very conservative."

People like to perpetuate a myth that Austin is still the Austin it once was, says Joshua Long, author of Weird City: Sense of Place and Creative Resistance in Austin, Texas. So as it's become a big city, a movement has developed to "keep it cool, keep it weird and keep it environmentally friendly".

Because of its good-value housing, Texas has been particularly popular with families, and some of its cities now have an above-average number of children. San Antonio is home to the largest community of gay parents.

In Texas, you can have a reasonable mortgage and pretty good schools, says Grieder. And restaurants are invariably family-friendly.

"You hear about the high drop-out rate but Texas education scores pretty well at national tests for 4th and 8th graders in math, reading and science. The aggregate is about average.

"The perception is that Texas has poor schools but it's not correct. Across the country in general, we don't have schools as good as we would like them to be."

In eighth-grade maths, for instance, Texas scored higher than the national average and outscored the three other big states of California, New York and Florida. On Sunday, an education budget was approved that restored cuts made in

"Texas is liberal in the classic sense, it's laissez-faire, so there's a lack of regulations," says Grieder, and this can apply to the obvious (business regulations) or the less obvious (city rules).

"The classic social contract is - we're not going to do a ton to help you but we're not going to get in your way. That's not % true of the state but there's that strand in the state."

Mortgage lending is an obvious exception. But there has been strong opposition to banning texting while driving and a proposed tax on soda.

And Governor Rick Perry is poised to sign off the strongest email privacy laws in the US, which would require state law enforcement agencies to get a warrant before accessing emails.

9. Texans are normal people

The state likes to proclaim itself as an unpretentious, down-to-earth place where people are easy to get along with.

As John Steinbeck wrote: "Texas has a tight cohesiveness perhaps stronger than any other section of America."

And for people with conservative values, it could be a natural home, although demographic shifts have prompted speculation it will be a Democratic state in the future.

People dream about moving to California, but they don't dream about moving to Texas, says Grieder, yet many of those reluctant to move there end up liking it.

She adds: "[They] realise that Texans aren't all Bible thumping, gun-toting people. The job is the trigger to come but you find it's pretty nice to live here."

And they're not going anywhere

All this doesn't just bring in new arrivals - native Texans aren't leaving the state either. It is the "stickiest" state in the country, according to the latest figures from the Pew Research Center, which suggest that more than three-quarters of adults born in Texas still live there. Alaska is the least sticky.

You can follow the Magazine on Twitter and on Facebook

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This little-known Texas 'war' is the reason why Austin is the capital of Texas

In the days of Texas' independence, the capital city changed hands fairly often. Houston held the seat a few times, but byyears after Texans won the Battle of San Jacinto, the capital was in Austin. 

Because the republic's independence was challenged by Mexico, Texas was under constant fear of attack. In Marcha battalion of Mexican forces made its way into San Antonio and threatened to advance to Austin and possibly take the capital, according to the Texas State Historical Association. 

President Sam Houston ordered the Texas congress to meet and discuss a plan of action – but not in the capital city. Instead, he ordered congress to meet in Houston and wanted the state's official archives moved, too, so they wouldn't fall in the hands of the advancing Mexican forces. 

Of course, that upset Austinites. In an apparent knee-jerk reaction, a "vigilante committee of residents" took arms and threatened to turn their guns on their fellow Texans tasked with moving the official documents, according to the historical association. 

Yes, Austin's hatred for Houston was so strong that they threatened to shoot Texas rangers sent by the president to grab some papers. Houston ordered the rangers to grab the documents but not cause any bloodshed. 

In a not-at-all-surprising move, the so-called committee was unprepared to take any action by the time the rangers arrived. Houston's crew secured the archives and left the city in December  

By Januarythe committee of vigilantes had stolen more firepower and cornered the rangers just outside the city. There, they fired several rounds at the ranger who, under orders not to cause bloodshed, gave up the papers to the group and made their way back to Houston. 

The committee took the papers back to Austin, where they remain to this day. Texans voted to make Austin the permanent capital years later. 

In the days when we're rethinking how we view Texas' history, including the recent retelling of the history of the Alamo Mission, maybe this intrastate uprising is one of them. 

It's a saga known as the Archives War to historians, but I'd like to call it the War of Austin's Aggression. 

Источник: traitortrump.us

Capitals

Valladolid, the administrative center of Spain before Madrid became capital inand Madrid and Paris could be considered capitals of Texas under the competing claims of Spain and France. Mexico City could also be considered the first capital of Texas, since at the beginning of Spanish Texas there was no intermediate provincial capital of the area. Ysleta, said to be the first settlement in Texas, had Santa Fe, New Mexico, as its capital. Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico, became the first provincial capital of Texas in In the Marqués de Aguayo established headquarters at Los Adaes (present Robeline, Louisiana), which remained the capital of Texas for half a century. From until San Antonio was the seat of government, although Manuel Antonio Cordero y Bustamante made his headquarters in in the Old Stone Fort at Nacogdoches; in Manuel María de Salcedo had his headquarters there for three months.

After the Mexican War of Independence, Texas was united with Coahuila, with Saltillo as the provincial capital. On March 9,Monclova was made capital of Coahuila and Texas. The Department of Texas had become a subdistrict of the province, and San Felipe de Austin was named the capital of the colony of Texas in Therefore the conventions of and met at San Felipe, as did the Consultation ofwhich organized a provisional government for Texas as a separate Mexican state. Mexico did not recognize the separation. The Convention ofwhich declared Texas independent, met at Washington-on-the-Brazos. Harrisburg and Galveston were both occupied by President David G. Burnet as temporary capitals, and after the battle of San Jacinto, Burnet and the cabinet met at Sam Houston's headquarters near the battlefield. The government then returned briefly to Galveston before moving to Velasco, which served as the seat of government through the end of September

In October Columbia (now West Service credit union branches near me became the first capital of an elected government of the Republic of Texas. Columbia remained capital for three months. Houston was then selected as a temporary capital, and President Sam Houston ordered the government to move there on December 15, Houston was capital from April 19,until A capital-site commission selected a site near La Grange, Fayette County, in and Congress passed a bill to build the capital there, but Houston vetoed it. The commission purchased 7, acres along the Colorado River comprising the hamlet of Waterloo and adjacent lands. Austin was approved as the capital on January 19, President Mirabeau B. Lamar and his cabinet arrived in Austin on October 17,

Fearing an attack on Austin by the Mexicans, President Houston ordered the government to return to Houston on March 13, Washington-on-the-Brazos became capital by executive order in September of that year, and the order spawned the Archives War when President Houston attempted to move the archives from Austin. The Constitution of provided that Austin be capital untilwhen a vote was required to choose the permanent capital. Austin received 7, votes, a majority. Another election was scheduled for twenty years later and held in Austin won with 63, votes, compared to Houston's 35, and Waco's 12,

Источник: traitortrump.us

Austin, Texas

Capital of Texas, United States

"Austin" redirects here. First national bank and trust london ky other uses, see Austin (disambiguation).

This article is about the capital city of Texas. It is not to be confused with Austin County, Texas.

State capital city in Texas, United States

Austin, Texas

City of Austin

From top, left to right: Downtown, Texas State Capitol, urban bat colony at Congress Avenue Bridge, Darrell K Royal-Texas Memorial Stadium, Main Building at the University of Texas at Austin, Paramount Theatre and Laguna Gloria.

Nicknames:&#;

Live Music Capital of the World, Silicon Hills, ATX, City of the Violet Crown

Motto(s):&#;

Keep Austin Weird (unofficial)

Location within Travis County in Texas

Location within Travis County in Texas

Austin is located in Texas
Austin

Austin

Location within Texas

Show map of Texas
Austin is located in the United States
Austin

Austin

Location within the United States

Show map of the United States
Coordinates: 30°16′2″N97°44′35″W / °N °W / ; Coordinates: 30°16′2″N97°44′35″W / °N °W / ;
CountryUnited States
StateTexas
CountiesTravis, Hays, Williamson
Settled
IncorporatedDecember 27,
Named forStephen F. Austin
&#;•&#;TypeCouncil–manager
&#;•&#;MayorSteve Adler (D)[1][a]
&#;•&#;City Council

Members

  • Natasha Harper-Madison (D)
  • Vanessa Fuentes (D)
  • Sabino "Pio" Renteria (D)
  • Greg Casar (D)
  • Ann Kitchen (D)
  • Mackenzie Kelly (R)
  • Leslie Pool (D)
  • Paige Ellis (D)
  • Kathie Tovo (D)
  • Alison Alter (D)
&#;•&#;City managerSpencer Cronk[1]
&#;•&#;State capitalcity&#;sq&#;mi (&#;km2)
&#;•&#;Land&#;sq&#;mi (&#;km2)
&#;•&#;Water&#;sq&#;mi (&#;km2)
&#;•&#;Metro4,&#;sq&#;mi (11,&#;km2)
Elevation–1,&#;ft (88–&#;m)
&#;•&#;State capitalcity,
&#;•&#;Rank11th in the United States
4th in Texas
&#;•&#;Density3,/sq&#;mi (1,/km2)
&#;•&#;Metro

[3]

2, (28th)
Demonym(s)Austinite
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
&#;•&#;Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP Codes

,–, –, –, –,

Area codes &
FIPS code[4]
GNIS feature ID[5]
Primary AirportAustin–Bergstrom International Airport
InterstatesI (TX).svg
U.S. RouteUS svgUS svg
Commuter RailCapital MetroRail
Websitetraitortrump.us

Austin is the capital city of the U.S. state of Texas, as well as the seat and largest city of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties. Incorporated on December 27,it is the 11th-most populous city in the United States,[6] the fourth-most-populous city in Texas, the second-most-populous state capital city after Phoenix, Arizona,[7][8] and the most populous state capital that is not also the most populous city in its state.[7] It has been one of the fastest growing large cities in the United States since [9][10][11] The Greater Austin and Greater San Antonio areas are separated from each other by approximately 80 miles (&#;km) along Interstate It is anticipated that both regions may form a new metroplex similar to Dallas and Fort Worth.[12][13] Austin is the southernmost state capital in the contiguous United States and is considered a "Beta −" global city as categorized by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.[14]

As of the census, Austin had a population of ,[15] up fromat the census.[4] The city is the cultural and economic center of the Austin–Round Rock metropolitan statistical area, which had an estimated population of 2, as of July&#;1, [update], roughly 84% increase from the year [16] Located in Central Texas within the greater Texas Hill Country, it is home to numerous lakes, rivers, and waterways, including Lady Bird Lake and Lake Travis on the Colorado River, Barton Springs, McKinney Falls, and Lake Walter E. Long.

Residents of Austin are known as Austinites.[17] They include a diverse mix of government employees, college students, musicians, high-tech workers, digital marketers, and blue-collar workers. The city's official slogan promotes Austin as "The Live Music Capital of the World", a reference to the city's many musicians and live music venues, as well as the long-running PBS TV concert series Austin City Limits.[18][19] The city also adopted "Silicon Hills" as a nickname in the s due to a rapid influx of technology and development companies. In recent years, some Austinites have adopted the unofficial slogan "Keep Austin Weird",[20] which refers to the desire to protect small, unique, and local businesses from being overrun by large corporations.[21] Since the late 19th century, Austin has also been known as the "City of the Violet Crown", because of the colorful glow of light across the hills just after sunset.[22]

InAustin originated and remains the site for South by Southwest (stylized as SXSW and colloquially referred to as South By), an annual conglomeration of parallel film, interactive media, and music festivals and conferences that take place in mid-March.

Emerging from a strong economic focus on government and education, since the s, Austin has become a center for technology and business.[23][24] A number of Fortune companies have headquarters or regional offices in Austin, including 3M, Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), Amazon, Apple, Facebook (Meta), Google, IBM, Intel, NXP semiconductors, Oracle, Tesla, Texas Instruments, and Whole Foods Market. Dell's worldwide headquarters is located in the nearby suburb of Round Rock.[25] With regard to education, Austin is the home of the University of Texas at Austin, which is one of the largest universities in the U.S. and is attended by over 50, students.[26]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Austin, Texas

See also: Timeline of Austin, Texas

Austin, Travis County and Williamson County have been the site of human habitation since at least BC. The area's earliest known inhabitants lived during the late Pleistocene (Ice Age) and are linked to the Clovis culture around BC (over 11, years ago), based on evidence found throughout the area and documented at the much-studied Gault Site, midway between Georgetown and Fort Hood.[27][failed verification]

When settlers arrived from Europe, the Tonkawa tribe inhabited the area. The Comanches and Lipan Apaches were also known to travel through the area.[28] Spanish colonists, including the Espinosa-Olivares-Aguirre expedition, traveled through the area, though few permanent settlements were created for some time.[29] Inthree missions from East Texas were combined and reestablished as one mission on the south side of the Colorado River, in what is now Zilker Park, in Austin. The discover online banking bonus was in this area for only about seven months, and then was moved to San Antonio de Béxar and split into three missions.[30]

During the s, pioneers began to settle the area in central Austin along the Colorado River. Spanish forts were established in what are now Bastrop and San Marcos.[29][31] Following Mexico's independence, new settlements were established in Central Texas, but growth in the region was stagnant because of conflicts with the regional Native Americans.[31][32][33]

Statue of the Goddess what is the capital of the us state texas Liberty on the Texas State Capitolgrounds, prior to installation atop the rotunda

In –, Texans fought and won independence from Mexico. Texas thus became an independent country with its own president, congress, and monetary system. After Vice President Mirabeau B. Lamar visited the area during a buffalo-hunting expedition between andhe proposed that the republic's capital, then in Houston, be relocated to the area situated on the north bank of the Colorado River (near the present-day Congress Avenue Bridge). Inthe site was chosen to replace Houston as the capital of the Republic of Texas and was incorporated under the name "Waterloo". Shortly afterward, the name was changed to Austin in honor of Stephen F. Austin, the "Father of Texas" and the republic's first secretary of state. The city grew throughout the 19th century and became a center for government and education with the construction of the Texas State Capitol and the University of Texas at Austin.[34] After a severe lull in economic growth from the Great Depression, Austin resumed its steady development.

Inthe Texas Congress formed a commission to seek a site for a new capital to be named for Stephen F. Austin.[35] Mirabeau B. Lamar, second president of the newly formed Republic of Texas, advised the commissioners to investigate the area named Waterloo, noting the area's hills, waterways, and pleasant surroundings.[36] Waterloo was selected, and "Austin" was chosen as the town's new name.[37] The location was seen as a convenient crossroads for trade routes between Santa Fe and Galveston Bay, as well as routes between northern Mexico and the Red River.[38]

Second capitol building in Austin

Edwin Waller was picked by Lamar to survey the village and draft a plan laying out the new capital.[35] The original site was narrowed to acres (&#;ha) that fronted the Colorado River between two creeks, Shoal Creek and Waller Creek, which was later named in his honor. Waller and a team of surveyors developed Austin's first city plan, commonly known as the Waller Plan, dividing the site into a block grid plan bisected by a broad north–south thoroughfare, Congress Avenue, running up from the river to Capital Square, where the new Texas State Capitol was to be constructed. A temporary one-story capitol was erected on the corner of Colorado and 8th Streets. On August 1,the first auction of out of lots total was held.[35][38] The Waller Plan designed and surveyed now forms the basis of downtown Austin.

Ina series of conflicts between the Texas Rangers and the Comanches, known as the Council House Fight and the Battle of Plum Creek, pushed the Comanches westward, mostly ending conflicts in Central Texas.[39] Settlement in the area began to expand quickly. Travis County how to activate walmart prepaid debit card established inand the surrounding counties were mostly established within the next two decades.[33]

Initially, the new capital thrived but Lamar's political enemy, Sam Houston, used two Mexican army incursions to San Antonio as an excuse to move the government. Sam Houston fought bitterly against Lamar's decision to establish the capital in such a remote wilderness. The men and women who traveled mainly from Houston to conduct government business were intensely disappointed as well. Bythe population had risen tonearly half of whom fled Austin when Congress recessed.[40] The resident African American population listed in January of this same year was [41] The fear of Austin's proximity to the Indians and Mexico, which still considered Texas a part of their land, created an immense motive for Sam Houston, the first and third President of the Republic of Texas, to relocate the capital once again in Upon threats of Mexican troops in Texas, Houston raided the Land Office to transfer all official documents to Houston for safe keeping in what was later known as the Archive War, but the people of Austin would not allow this unaccompanied decision to be executed. The documents stayed, but the capital would temporarily move from Austin to Houston to Washington-on-the-Brazos. Without the governmental body, Austin's population declined to a low of only a few hundred people throughout the early s. The voting by the fourth President of the Republic, Anson Jones, and Congress, who reconvened in Austin insettled the issue to keep Austin the seat of government, as well as annex the Republic of Texas into the United States.

In38% of Travis County residents were slaves.[42] Inwith the outbreak of the American Civil War, voters in Austin and other Central Texas communities voted against secession.[31][35] However, as the war progressed and fears of attack by Union forces increased, Austin contributed hundreds of men to the Confederate forces. The African American population of Austin swelled dramatically after the enforcement of the Emancipation Proclamation in Texas by Union General Gordon Granger at Galveston, in an event commemorated as Juneteenth. Black communities such as Wheatville, Pleasant Hill, and Clarksville were established, with Clarksville being the oldest surviving freedomtown ‒ the original post-Civil War settlements founded by former African-American slaves ‒ west of the Mississippi River.[35] Inblacks made up % of Austin's population.[43]

An illustration of Edwin Waller's layout for Austin

The postwar period saw dramatic population and economic growth. The opening of the Houston and Texas Central Railway (H&TC) in [44] turned Austin into the major trading center for the region, with the ability to transport both cotton and cattle. The Missouri, Kansas & Texas (MKT) line followed close behind.[45] Austin was also the terminus of the southernmost leg of the Chisholm Trail, and "drovers" pushed cattle north to the railroad.[46] Cotton was one of the few crops produced locally for export, and a cotton gin engine was located downtown near the trains for "ginning" cotton of its seeds and turning the product into bales for shipment.[47] However, as other new railroads were built through the region in the s, Austin began to lose its primacy in trade to the surrounding communities.[35] In addition, the areas east of Austin took over cattle and cotton production from Austin, especially in towns like Hutto and Taylor that sit over the blackland prairie, with its deep, rich soils for producing cotton and hay.[48][49]

In SeptemberAustin public schools held their first classes. The same year, Tillotson Collegiate and Normal Institute (now part of Huston–Tillotson University) opened its doors. The University of Texas held its first classes inalthough classes had been held in the original wooden state capitol for four years before.[50]

During the s, Austin gained new prominence as the state capitol building was completed in and claimed as the seventh largest building in the world.[35] In the late 19th century, Austin expanded its city limits to more than three times its former area, and the first granite dam was built on the Colorado River to power a new street car line and the new "moon towers".[35] The first dam washed away in a flood on April 7, [51]

In the late s and s, Austin implemented the Austin city plan through a series of civic development and beautification projects that created much of the city's infrastructure and many of its parks. In addition, the state legislature established the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) that, along with the city of Austin, created the system of dams along the Colorado River to form the Highland Lakes. These projects were enabled in large part because the Public Works Administration provided Austin with greater funding for municipal construction projects than other Texas cities.[35]

During the early twentieth century, a three-way system of social segregation emerged in Austin, with Anglos, African Americans and Mexicans being separated by custom or law in most aspects of life, including housing, health care, and education. Many of the municipal improvement programs initiated during this period—such as the construction of new roads, schools, and hospitals—were deliberately designed to institutionalize this system of segregation. Deed restrictions also played an important role in residential segregation. After most housing deeds prohibited African Americans (and sometimes other nonwhite groups) from using land.[52] Combined with the system of segregated public services, racial segregation increased in Austin during the first half of the twentieth century, with African Americans and Mexicans experiencing high levels of discrimination and social marginalization.[53]

Inthe destroyed granite dam on the Colorado River was finally replaced by a hollow concrete dam[54] that formed Lake McDonald (now called Lake Austin) and which has withstood all floods since. In addition, the much larger Mansfield Dam was built by the LCRA upstream of Austin to form Lake Travis, a flood-control reservoir.

[55] In the early 20th century, the Texas Oil Boom took hold, creating tremendous economic opportunities in Southeast Texas and North Texas. The growth generated by this boom largely passed by Austin at first, with the city slipping from fourth largest to 10th largest in Texas between and [35]

After the midth century, Austin became established as one of Texas' major metropolitan centers. Inthe U.S. Census Bureau reported Austin's population as % Hispanic, % black, and % non-Hispanic white.[43] In the late 20th century, Austin emerged as an important high tech center for semiconductors and software. The University of Texas at Austin emerged as a major university.[56]

The s saw Austin's emergence in the national music scene, with local artists such as Willie Nelson, Asleep movies fort smith ar malco the Wheel, and Stevie Ray Vaughan and iconic music venues such as the Armadillo World Headquarters. Over time, the long-running television program Austin City Limits, its namesake Austin City Limits Festival, and the South by Southwest music festival solidified the city's place in the music industry.[24]

Geography[edit]

Austin as seen from space,

Austin, the southernmost state capital of the contiguous 48 states, is located in Central Texas on the Colorado River. Austin is miles (&#;km) northwest of Houston,[57] miles (&#;km) south of Dallas[58] and 74 miles (&#;km) northeast of San Antonio.[59]

Inthe city occupied a total area of square miles (&#;km2). Approximately square miles (&#;km2) of this area is water.[4] Austin is situated at the foot of the Balcones Escarpment, on the Colorado River, with three artificial lakes within the city limits: Lady Bird Lake (formerly known as Town Lake), Lake Austin (both created by dams along the Colorado River), and Lake Walter E. Long that is partly used for cooling water for the Decker Power Plant. Mansfield Dam and the foot of Lake Travis are located within the city's limits.[35] Lady Bird Lake, Lake Austin, and Lake Travis are each on the Colorado River.[35]

The elevation of Austin varies from feet (&#;m) the skeleton key in hindi download approximately 1, feet (&#;m) above sea level.[60] Due to the fact it straddles the Balcones Fault, much of the eastern part of the city is flat, with heavy clay and loam soils, whereas the western part and western suburbs consist of rolling hills on the edge of the Texas Hill Country.[61] Because the hills to the west are primarily limestone rock with a thin covering of topsoil, portions of the city are frequently subjected to flash floods from the runoff caused by thunderstorms.[62][63] To help control this runoff and to generate hydroelectric power, the Lower Colorado River Authority operates a series of dams that form the Texas Highland Lakes. The lakes also provide venues for boating, swimming, and other forms of recreation within several parks on the lake shores.[64]

Austin is located at the intersection of four major ecological regions, and is consequently a temperate-to-hot green oasis with a highly variable climate having some characteristics of the desert, the tropics, and a wetter climate.[65][66] The area is very diverse ecologically and biologically, and is home to a variety of animals and plants.[67] Notably, the area is home to many types of wildflowers that blossom throughout the year but especially in the spring. This includes the popular bluebonnets, some planted by "Lady Bird" Johnson, wife of former President Lyndon B. Johnson.[68]

The soils of Austin range from shallow, gravelly clay loams over limestone in the western outskirts to deep, fine sandy loams, silty clay loams, silty clays or clays in the city's eastern part. Some of the clays have pronounced shrink-swell properties and are difficult to work under most moisture conditions. Many of Austin's soils, especially the clay-rich types, are slightly to moderately alkaline and have free calcium carbonate.[69]

Cityscape[edit]

See also: List of Austin neighborhoods and List of tallest buildings in Paypal extras mastercard account login, Texas

Panorama of Austin skyline

Panorama of Austin skyline in

Austin's skyline historically was modest, dominated by the Texas State Capitol and the University of Texas Main Building. However, since the s, many new high-rise towers have been constructed.[70] Austin is currently undergoing a skyscraper boom, which includes recent construction on new office, hotel and residential buildings. Downtown's buildings are somewhat spread out, partly due to a set of zoning restrictions that preserve the view of the Texas State Capitol from various locations around Austin, known as the Capitol View Corridors.[71]

One of the 15 remaining moonlight towers in Austin

At night, parts of Austin are lit by "artificial moonlight" from moonlight towers built to illuminate the central part of the city.[72] The foot (50&#;m) moonlight towers were built in the late 19th century and are now recognized as historic landmarks. Only 15 of the 31 original innovative towers remain standing in Austin, but none remain in any of the other cities where they were installed. The towers are featured in the film Dazed and Confused.

Downtown[edit]

Main article: Downtown Austin

The central business district of Austin is home to the tallest condo towers in the state, with The Independent (58 stories and &#;ft (&#;m) tall) and The Austonian (topping out at 56 floors capital one can t log in &#;ft (&#;m) tall). The Independent became the tallest all-residential building in the U.S. west of Chicago when topped out in Inthen-Mayor Will Wynn set out a goal of having 25, people living downtown by [73] Although downtown's growth did not meet this goal, downtown's residential population did surge from an estimated 5, in to 12, in [74] The skyline has drastically changed in recent years, and the residential real estate market has remained relatively strong. As of December&#;[update], there were 31 high rise projects either under construction, approved or planned to be completed in Austin's downtown core between and Sixteen of those were set to rise above &#;ft (&#;m) tall, including four above ', and eight above '. An additional 15 towers were slated to stand between ' and ' tall.

Climate[edit]

Austin
Climate chart (explanation)

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Metric conversion

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Austin is located within the middle of a unique, narrow transitional zone between the dry deserts of the American Southwest and the lush, green, more humid regions of the American Southeast. Its climate, topography, and vegetation share characteristics of both. Officially, Austin has a humid subtropical climate under the Köppen climate classification. This climate is typified by very long and hot summers, short and mild winters, and pleasantly warm spring and fall seasons in-between. Austin averages inches (&#;mm) of annual the skeleton key in hindi download distributed mostly evenly throughout the year, though spring and fall are the wettest seasons. Sunshine is common during all seasons, with 2, hours, or % of the possible total, of bright sunshine per year.[75] Austin falls in USDAhardiness zones 8b (15&#;°F to 20&#;°F) and 9a (20&#;°F to 25&#;°F).[76]

Summers in Austin are very hot, with average July and August highs frequently reaching the highs (34–36&#;°C) or above. Highs reach 90&#;°F (32&#;°C) on days per year, of which 18 days reach &#;°F (38&#;°C).[77] The average daytime high is 70&#;°F (21&#;°C) or warmer between March 6 and November 20, rising to 80&#;°F (27&#;°C) or warmer between April 14 and October 24, and reaching 90&#;°F (32&#;°C) or warmer between May 30 and September [78] The highest ever recorded temperature was &#;°F (44&#;°C) occurring on September 5,and August 28, [79][80] An uncommon characteristic of Austin's climate is its highly variable humidity, which fluctuates frequently depending on the shifting patterns of air flow and wind direction. It is common for a lengthy series of warm, dry, low-humidity days to be occasionally interrupted by very warm and humid days, and vice versa. Humidity rises with winds from the east or southeast, when the air drifts inland from the Gulf of Mexico, but decreases significantly with winds from the west or southwest, bringing air flowing from Chihuahuan Desert areas of West Texas or northern Mexico.[77]

Winters in Austin are mild with cool nights, although occasional short-lived bursts of cold weather known as "Blue Northers" can occur. January is the coolest month with an average daytime high of 61&#;°F (16&#;°C). The overnight low drops to or below freezing 19 times per year,[77] and sinks below 45&#;°F (7&#;°C) during 88 evenings per year, including most nights between mid-December and mid-February. Lows in the upper 30s also occur commonly during the winter. Conversely, winter months are also capable of occasionally producing warm days. On average, eight days in January reach or exceed 70&#;°F (21&#;°C) and one day reaches 80&#;°F (27&#;°C).[78] The lowest ever recorded temperature in the city was −2&#;°F (−19&#;°C) on January 31, Roughly every two years Austin experiences an ice storm that freezes roads over and cripples travel in the city for 24 to 48 hours.[81] When Austin received inches (1&#;mm) of ice on January 24,there were vehicular collisions.[82] Similarly, snowfall is rare in Austin.[83] A snow event of inches (2&#;cm) on February 4,caused more than car crashes.[84] The most recent major snow event occurred the week of February 14,when as many as inches were recorded in parts of Travis County.[85]

Typical of Central Texas, severe weather in Austin is a threat that can strike during any season. However, it is most common during the spring. According to most classifications, Austin lies within the extreme southern periphery of Tornado Alley, although many sources place Austin outside of Tornado Alley altogether.[86] Consequently, tornadoes strike Austin less frequently than areas farther to the north.[86] However, severe weather and/or supercell thunderstorms can occur multiple times per year, bringing damaging winds, lightning, heavy rain, and occasional flash flooding to the city.[87] The deadliest storm to ever strike city limits was the twin tornadoes storm of May 4,while the deadliest tornado outbreak to ever strike the metro area was the Central Texas tornado outbreak of May 27,

Climate data for Camp Mabry, Austin, Texas (– normals,[b] extremes –present)[c]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 90
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Record low °F (°C) −2
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(11)
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(14)
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Average precipitation inches (mm)
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Average snowfall inches (cm) 0
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Average precipitation days (≥ in)
Average snowy days (≥ in) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Average relative humidity (%) amazon com manage your account
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Mean monthly sunshine hours 2,
Percent possible sunshine51 54 55 53 54 68 74 73 63 61 53 48 60
Average ultraviolet index4 6 8 9 10 11 11 10 9 7 5 4 8
Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity and sun –),[88][89][90]
Source 2: Weather Atlas [91] (UV index)

drought[edit]

Main article: Southern US drought

The Texas drought dried up many of central Texas' waterways. This boat was left to sit in the middle of what is normally a branch of Lake Travis, part of the Colorado River.

From October through Septemberboth major reporting stations in Austin, Camp Mabry and Bergstrom Int'l, had the least rainfall of a water year on record, receiving less than a third of normal precipitation.[77] This was a result of La Niña conditions in the eastern Pacific Ocean where water was significantly cooler than normal. David Brown, a regional official with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, explained that "these kinds of droughts will have effects that are even more extreme in the future, given a warming and drying regional climate."[92] The drought, coupled with exceedingly high temperatures throughout the summer ofcaused many stores that sell baseball cards throughout Texas, including notably the Bastrop County Complex Fire in neighboring Bastrop, TX.

flooding and water crisis[edit]

In FallAustin and surrounding areas received heavy rainfall and flash flooding following Hurricane Sergio.[93] The Lower Colorado River Authority opened four floodgates of the Mansfield Dam after Lake Travis was recorded at % full at feet (&#;m).[94] From the October 22 to 29, the City of Austin issued a mandatory citywide boil-water advisory after the Highland Lakes, home to the city's main water supply, became overwhelmed by unprecedented amounts of silt, dirt, and debris that washed in from the Llano River.[95] Austin Water, the city's water utility, has the capacity to process up to &#;million gallons of water per day, but the elevated level of turbidity reduced output to only &#;million gallons per day since Austin residents consumed an average of &#;million gallons of water per day, so the infrastructure was not able to keep up with demand.[93]

winter storm[edit]

Main article: February 13–17, North American winter storm §&#;Central and Southern Plains

See also: Texas power crisis

Austin covered in snow on February 15, Photo from ESA.

In FebruaryWinter Storm Uri dropped prolific amounts of snow across Texas and Oklahoma, including Austin. The Austin area received a total of inches of snowfall between February 14 and 15, with snow cover persisting till February [96] This marked the longest time the area had had more than 1" what is the capital of the us state texas snow, with the previous longest time being 3 days in January ,[97]

Lack of winterization in natural gas power plants plants, which supply a large amount of power to the Texas grid, and increased energy demand caused ERCOT and Austin Energy to enact rolling blackouts in order to avoid total grid collapse between February 15 to [98] Initial rolling blackouts were to last for a maximum of 40 minutes, however lack of energy production caused many blackouts to last for much longer, at the peak of the blackouts an estimated 40% of Austin Energy homes were without power.[99]

Starting on February 15, Austin Water received reports of pipe breaks, hourly water demand increased from million gallons per day (MGD) on February 15 to a peak hourly demand of MGD on February On the morning of February 17 demand increased to MGD, the resulting drop of water pressure caused the Austin area to enter into a boil-water advisory which would last until water pressure was restored on February []

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
CensusPop.
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U.S. Decennial Census[]
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According to the United States census,[] the racial composition of Austin was % White (% non-Hispanic whites), % Hispanic or Latino (% Mexican, % Puerto Rican, % Cuban, % Other), % African American, % Asian (% Indian, % Chinese, % Vietnamese, % Korean, % Filipino, % Japanese, % Other), % American Indian, % Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and % two or more races.

Map of racial distribution in Austin, U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic, or Other(yellow)

At the United States Census,[] there werepeople,households, andfamilies residing in the city. The population density was 2, inhabitants per square mile (1,/km2). There werehousing units at an average density of 1, per square mile (/km2). There werehouseholds, memes del america vs monterrey of which % had children under the age of 18 living with them, % were married couples living together, % had a female householder with no husband present, and % were non-families. % of all households were made up of individuals, and % had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was and the average family size was

In the city, the population was spread out, with % under the age of 18, % from 18 to what is the capital of the us state texas, % from 25 to 44, % from 45 to 64, and % who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every females, there were males.

The median income for a household in the city was US$42, and the median income for a family was $54, Males had a median income of $35, vs. $30, for females. The per capita income for the city was $24, About % of families and % of the population were below the poverty line, including % of those under age 18 and % of those age 65 or over. The median house price was $, inand it has increased every year since [needs update][] The median value of a house which the owner occupies was $, in —higher than the average American home value of $,[]

A University of Texas study stated that Austin was the only U.S. city with a fast growth rate between and with a net loss in African Americans. As of [update], Austin's African American and non-Hispanic white percentage share of the total population was declining despite the actual numbers of both ethnic groups increasing, as the rapid growth of the Latino or Hispanic and Asian populations has outpaced all other ethnic groups in the city. Austin's non-Hispanic white population first dropped below 50% in [][][]

According to a survey completed in by Gallup, it is estimated that % of residents in the Austin metropolitan area identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender.[] The Austin metropolitan area had the third-highest rate in the nation.[]

Religion[edit]

According to Sperling's BestPlaces, % of Austin's population are religious.[] The majority of Austinites identified themselves as Christians, about % of whom claimed affiliation with the Catholic Church.[] The city's Catholic population is served by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Austin, headquartered at the Cathedral of Saint Mary. Nationwide, 23% of Americans identified as Catholic in [] Other significant Christian groups in Austin include Baptists (%), followed by Methodists (%), Latter-Day Saints (%), Episcopalians or Anglicans (%), Lutherans (%), Presbyterians (%), Pentecostals (%), and other Christians such as the Disciples of Christ and Eastern Orthodox Church (%).[] The second largest religion Austinites identify with is Islam (%); roughly % of Americans nationwide claimed affiliation with the Islamic faith.[] The dominant branch of Islam is Sunni Islam. Established inthe largest mosque in Austin is the Islamic Center of Greater Austin. The community is affiliated with the Islamic Society of North America. The same study says that eastern faiths including Buddhism, Sikhism, and Hinduism made up % of the city's religious population.[] Several Hindu temples exist in the Austin Metropolitan area with the most notable one being Radha Madhav Dham. Judaism forms less than % of the religious demographic in What is the capital of the us state texas. Orthodox, Reform, and Conservative congregations are present in the community.[] In addition to those religious groups, Austin is also home to an active secular humanist community, hosting nationwide television shows and charity work.[]

Homelessness[edit]

As ofthere were 2, individuals experiencing homelessness in Travis County. Of those, 1, were sheltered and 1, were unsheltered.[] In Septemberthe Austin City Council approved $&#;million for programs aimed at homelessness, which includes housing displacement prevention, crisis mitigation, and affordable housing; the city council also earmarked $, for crisis services and encampment cleanups.[]

In Junefollowing a federal court ruling on homelessness sleeping in public,[] the Austin City Council lifted a year-old ban on camping, sitting, or lying down in public unless doing so causes an obstruction. The resolution also included the approval of a new housing-focused shelter in South Austin.[] In early OctoberTexas Governor Greg Abbott sent a letter to Mayor Steve Adler threatening to deploy state resources to combat the camping ban repeal.[] On October 17,the City Council revised the camping ordinance, which imposed increased restrictions on sidewalk camping.[] In Novemberthe State of Texas opened a temporary homeless encampment on a former vehicle storage yard owned by the Texas Department of Transportation.[]

In Maythe camping ban was reinstated after a ballot proposition was approved by 57% of voters. The ban introduces penalties for camping, sitting, or lying down on a public sidewalk or sleeping outdoors in or near Downtown Austin or the area around the University of Texas campus. The ordinance would also prohibit solicitation at certain locations.[]

Economy[edit]

See also: Silicon Hills and List of companies based in Austin, Texas

Downtown Austin from Congress Avenue Bridge, with Texas State Capitol in background,

The Greater Austinmetropolitan statistical area had a gross domestic product (GDP) of $86&#;billion in [] Austin is considered to be a major center for high tech.[] Thousands of graduates each year from the engineering and computer science programs at the University of Texas at Austin provide a steady source of employees that help to fuel Austin's technology and defense industry sectors. The region's rapid growth has led Forbes to rank the Austin metropolitan area hotels near university at buffalo one among all big cities for jobs for in their annual survey and WSJ Marketwatch to rank the area number one for growing businesses.[][] ByAustin was ranked No. 14 on Forbes' list of the Best Places for Business and Careers (directly below Dallas, No. 13 on the list).[] As a result of the high concentration of high-tech companies in the region, Austin was strongly affected by the dot-com boom in the late s and subsequent bust.[] Austin's largest employers include the Austin Independent School District, the City of Austin, Dell, the U.S. Federal Government, NXP Semiconductors, IBM, St. David's Healthcare Partnership, Seton Family of Hospitals, the State of Texas, the Texas State University, and the University of Texas at Austin.[]

Other high-tech companies with operations in Austin include 3M, Apple, Amazon, AMD, Apartment Ratings, Applied Materials, Arm Holdings, Bigcommerce, BioWare, Blizzard Entertainment, Buffalo Technology, Cirrus Logic, Cisco Systems, Dropbox, eBay, Electronic Arts, Flextronics, Facebook, Google, Hewlett-Packard, Hoover's, HomeAway, HostGator, Intel Corporation, National Instruments, Nintendo, Nvidia, Oracle, PayPal, Polycom, Qualcomm, Rackspace, RetailMeNot, Rooster Teeth, Samsung Group, Silicon Laboratories, Spansion, Tesla, United Devices, VMware, and Xerox. InFacebook accepted a grant to build a downtown office that could bring as many as jobs to the city.[] The proliferation of technology companies has led to the region's nickname, "Silicon Hills", and spurred development that greatly expanded the city.

Austin is also emerging as a hub for pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies; the city is home to about 85 of them.[] Inthe city was ranked by the Milken Institute as the #12 biotech and life science center what is the capital of the us state texas the United States[] and inCBRE Group ranked Austin as #3 emerging life sciences cluster.[] Companies such as Hospira, Pharmaceutical Product Development, and ArthroCare Corporation are located there.

Whole Foods Market, an international grocery store chain specializing in fresh and packaged food products, was founded and is headquartered in Austin.[]

Other companies based in Austin include NXP Semiconductors, GoodPop, Temple-Inland, Sweet Leaf Tea Company, Keller Williams Realty, National Western Life, GSD&M, Dimensional Fund Advisors, Golfsmith, Forestar Group, EZCorp, Outdoor Voices, Tito's Vodka, Indeed, Speak Social, and YETI.

InAustin metro-area companies saw a total of $&#;billion invested. Austin's VC numbers were so strong in that they accounted for more than 60 percent of Texas' total investments.[]

Culture and contemporary life[edit]

Museum of the Weird on Sixth Street
The Emma S. Barrientos Mexican American Cultural Center, located on Lady Bird Lake at River Street

"Keep Austin Weird" has been a local motto for years, featured on bumper stickers and T-shirts. This motto has not only been used in promoting Austin's eccentricity and diversity, but is also meant to bolster support of local independent businesses.[21] According to the book Weird City the phrase was begun by a local Austin Community College librarian, Red Wassenich, and his wife, Karen Pavelka, who were concerned about Austin's "rapid descent into commercialism and overdevelopment."[17] The slogan has been interpreted many ways since its inception, but remains an important symbol for many Austinites who wish to voice concerns over rapid growth and irresponsible development. Austin has a long history of vocal citizen resistance to development projects perceived to degrade the environment, or to threaten the natural and cultural landscapes.[]

According to the Nielsen Company, adults in Austin read and contribute to blogs more than those in any other U.S. metropolitan area.[] Austin residents have the highest Internet usage in all of Texas.[] InAustin was the most active city on Reddit, having the largest number of views per capita.[] Austin was selected as the No. 2 Best Big City in "Best Places to Live" by Money magazine inand No. 3 inand also the "Greenest City in America" by MSN.[][]

South Congress is a shopping district stretching down South Congress Avenue from Downtown. This area is home to coffee shops, eccentric stores, restaurants, food trucks, trailers, and festivals. It prides itself on "Keeping Austin Weird," especially with development in the surrounding area(s). Many Austinites attribute its enduring popularity to the magnificent and unobstructed view of the Texas State Capitol.[36]

The Rainey Street Historic District is a neighborhood in Downtown What is the capital of the us state texas consisting mostly of bungalow style homes built in the early 20th century. Since the early s, the former working class residential street has turned into a popular nightlife district. Much of the historic homes have been renovated into bars and restaurants, many of which feature large porches and outdoor yards for patrons.[] The Rainey Street district is also home to the Emma S. Barrientos Mexican American Cultural Center.

Austin has been part of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network under Media Arts the category.[]

Old Austin[edit]

"Old Austin" is an adage often used by nostalgic natives.[] The term "Old Austin" refers to a time when the city was smaller and more bohemian with a considerably lower cost of living and better known for its lack of traffic, hipsters, and urban first national bank severna park It is often employed by longtime residents expressing displeasure at the rapidly changing culture,[] or when referencing nostalgia of Austin culture.[]

The growth and popularity of Austin[] can be seen by the expansive development taking place in its downtown landscape.[] Forbes ranked Austin as the second fastest-growing city in [] This growth can have a negative impact on longtime small businesses that cannot keep up with the expenses associated with gentrification and the rising cost of real estate.[] A former Austin musician, Dale Watson, described his move away from Austin, "I just really feel the city has sold itself. Just because you're going to get $45 million for a company to come to town – if it's not in the best interest of the town, I don't think they should do it. This city was never about money. It was about quality of life."[]

Annual cultural events[edit]

See also: Category:Festivals in Austin, Texas

The O. Henry House Museum hosts the annual O. Henry Www adt com bill pay, a pun contest where the successful contestants exhibit wit akin to that of the author William Sydney Porter.

Other annual events include Eeyore's Birthday Party, Spamarama, Austin Pride Festival & Parade in August, the Austin Reggae Festival in April,[] Kite Festival, Texas Craft Brewers Festival in September,[] Art City Austin in April,[] East Austin Studio Tour in November,[] and Carnaval Brasileiro in February. Sixth Street features annual festivals such as the Pecan Street Festival and Halloween night. The three-day Austin City Limits Music Festival has been held in Zilker Park every year since Every year around the end of March and the beginning of April, Austin is home to "Texas Relay Weekend."

Austin's Zilker Park Tree is a Christmas display made of lights strung from the top of a Moonlight tower in Zilker Park. The Zilker Tree is lit in December along with the "Trail of Lights," an Austin Christmas tradition. The Trail of Lights was canceled four times, first starting in and due to the September 11 Attacks, and again in and due to budget shortfalls, but the trail was turned back on for the holiday season.[]

Cuisine and breweries[edit]

A food truck trailer park in South Austin

Austin is perhaps best known for its Texas barbecue and Tex-Mex cuisine. Franklin Barbecue

Источник: traitortrump.us,_Texas

Why Some Americans Are Leaving California for Texas

The two most populous states in the United States, California and Texas, have long competed to attract companies and talent. Data from the U.S. census show that Texas is drawing more people, including Californians.

Texans have a saying: "Everything is bigger in Texas." By size, it is the largest state in the contiguous U.S. There are many reasons why the state's population is also getting bigger.

"Your quality of life is so much higher here in Austin," said Alex Backus, who moved with his teenage daughter from San Jose, California, to the Texas capital almost two years ago.

Backus has been bouncing back and forth between the two states over the years. He said that while he missed the outdoor activities and mild weather in California's Bay Area, it is not a financially friendly place for young adults chase manhattan bank raleigh nc as his daughter.

"Most of the kids that are in the Bay Area and they graduate, they kind of need to leave the Bay Area because it's so expensive. I kind of figured in Austin, there was a shot that she might actually choose to try to stay in Austin to go to college and start her life," Backus explained.

Correlation between states

"They each have a singular history. Both of them were governed by Spain and Mexico. They both have a sort of a nation-state identity unlike any other state," said Bill Fulton, director of Rice University's Kinder Institute for Urban Research, in Houston.

Fulton moved to Texas from California for his current job. He has been studying the migration patterns between the two states through census data and noticed a correlation.

"When home prices in California go up, more people move to Texas. When home prices in California go down, fewer people move to Texas," Fulton said.

James, 9, and Will, 11, the children of Kate Sullivan Morgan and William Morgan, who relocated so children could attend school in-person, play in the family's new home in Austin, Texas, March 12,

Census and politics

While California still has 10 million more residents than Texas, the migration patterns of each state have been going on for years, and Texas has won the popularity contest, according to the census results.

For the first time in the state's history, California, a Democratic bastion, lost one U.S. congressional seat determined by the state's population. Republican-leaning Texas, the biggest winner of all 50 states, gained two seats.

While the impact will be felt in Washington, Fulton said its political significance depends on who is moving from California to Texas — whether they are conservative Republicans who do not like liberal-leaning California with its state tax and more regulations, or Democrats from California looking for better opportunities in Texas.

"It may well be that a flow from California to Texas increases the likelihood that at some point in the future, Texas will turn blue. And if it does, of course, that's good news for the Democrats and bad news for the Republicans nationally because then the two largest states are locked in to be Democratic states. But that would still be a way off if it happens," Fulton said.

Impact of pandemic

During the pandemic, out-migration from expensive states such as California and New York picked up. States with lower costs of living, including Texas and Florida, are seeing an influx of new residents, said Los Angeles-based Eric Willett, director of research and thought leadership for the Pacific Southwest division at commercial real estate firm CBRE.

He studied the impact of the pandemic on people's decision to move by looking at data from the U.S. Postal Service. With people working from home, there was a trend of people across the U.S. leaving denser urban regions for homes in the suburbs.

"Whether it's a backyard or an extra bedroom, those sorts of living environments became much more highly desired during the pandemic," Willett said.

The urban dwellers who moved tend to be young, affluent, highly educated and childless.

While Willett found that most Californians who moved did so within the state, the migration patterns of people who chose to move out of state were consistent with pre-pandemic trends.

"The states that saw the most out-migration last year are also the states that saw the most outmigration in It just was an accelerated path of out-migration," Willett said.

FILE - Tesla CEO Elon Musk speaks before unveiling the Model Y at Tesla's design studio in Hawthorne, California, March 14,

Texas appeal

Elon Musk, co-founder of What is the capital of the us state texas and SpaceX, moved last year from California to Texas, where his business priorities are located.

Tesla Cybertruck and SpaceX's spaceport are in Texas. Tech companies Oracle and HP Inc., as well as CBRE, have relocated their headquarters to Texas. Japanese automaker Toyota also chose to relocate its North American headquarters from California to Texas, which is not only known for its ample housing and lower cost of living but also its business-friendly environment.

Nicknamed "Silicon Hills," Austin has been an attractive location for many tech companies.

"There's no question that Texas has fewer business regulations than California," Fulton said.

Texas may be popular, but Willett said it does not mean there is a mass exodus of businesses from California.

"Increasingly, companies are looking to diversify their talent base, and California is a mature market in many industries. And it makes sense for these companies to look elsewhere to continue to expand their access to talent," Willett explained.

"Facebook and Google are constantly fighting for downtown office space of more than a million square feet (92, square meters). They're looking for additional properties, and it just seems like every company is trying to expand their presence here in Austin," said Job Hammond of the Austin Board of Realtors.

Hammond, originally from Northern California, moved to Austin 14 years ago when he relocated for his then-employer Oracle. He is now a relocation expert who helps people from other cities find homes in Austin.

"They all seemingly want the same sort of thing — a good quality of life, a reasonable price in terms of a home, and, in some cases, to avoid state income tax," Hammond said.

Texas Realtors, the state-level association of realtors, reported that in the first quarter ofthe median sales price of single-family homes in the state reached $,

In contrast, the California Association of Realtors reported that the median price of a single-family home in the state in March was $,

"A California family will cash in their home equity to get a bigger house in Texas, and they're probably not going to reverse that pattern," Fulton said.

Foreign investors are also noticing Texas. Hammond has helped investors from Malaysia, Nepal, China, Europe and Mexico find properties.

"I was on the phone about 12 o'clock midnight with somebody in Shanghai who's interested in not having cash in the bank because she's worried about things like inflation," Hammond said.

California dreaming

Backus has enjoyed the live music and arts scene in Austin and picked up surfing on Lake Austin.

But Texas summers are a lot hotter than they are in Northern California, with its milder climate, diverse geography, and plentiful biking opportunities and outdoor activities, which Backus misses.

"I still have my home there. It's rented out there, and I'm questioning whether I should keep it, because I might want to go back. I do miss amazon music free snow skiing," he said.

Источник: traitortrump.us

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Congresswoman Eddie Bernice Johnson

U.S. Representative Eddie Bernice Johnson, Representing the 30th District of Texas

Meet Congresswoman Johnson

Congresswoman Eddie Bernice Johnson is a Democrat who proudly represents the 30th Congressional District of Texas in the U.S. House of Representatives. First elected to Congress inshe is currently serving her 15th term in the United States House of Representatives. Congresswoman Johnson what is the capital of the us state texas elected as the first African-American and the first female Chair of the House Committee on Science, Space and Technology. She also serves on the House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure. Read full biography.

Latest News

Источник: traitortrump.us

Texas

State of the United States

This article is about the State of Texas. For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation).

"Texan" redirects here. For other uses, see Texan (disambiguation).

State in the United States

Texas

State of Texas
Nickname(s):&#;

The Lone Star State

Motto(s):&#;

Friendship

Anthem: "Texas, Our Texas"
Map of the United States with Texas highlighted

Map of the United States with Texas highlighted

CountryUnited States
Before statehoodRepublic of Texas
Admitted to the UnionDecember 29, (28th)
CapitalAustin
Largest cityHouston
Largest metro and urban areasDallas–Fort Worth
&#;•&#;GovernorGreg Abbott (R)
&#;•&#;Lieutenant GovernorDan Patrick (R)
LegislatureTexas Legislature
&#;•&#;Upper houseSenate
&#;•&#;Lower houseHouse of Representatives
JudiciarySupreme Court of Texas (Civil)
Texas Court of Criminal Appeals (Criminal)
U.S. senatorsJohn Cornyn (R)
Ted Cruz (R)
U.S. House delegation23 Republicans
13 Democrats (list)
&#;•&#;Total,[1]&#;sq&#;mi (,&#;km2)
&#;•&#;Land,[1]&#;sq&#;mi (,&#;km2)
&#;•&#;Water7,[1]&#;sq&#;mi (19,&#;km2) &#;%
Area rank2nd
&#;•&#;Length[2]&#;mi (1,&#;km)
&#;•&#;Width[2]&#;mi (1,&#;km)
Elevation1,&#;ft (&#;m)
Highest&#;elevation

(Guadalupe Peak[3][4][5])

8,&#;ft (2,&#;m)
Lowest&#;elevation

(Gulf of Mexico[4])

0&#;ft (0&#;m)
&#;•&#;Total29,[6]
&#;•&#;Rank2nd
&#;•&#;Density/sq&#;mi (/km2)
&#;•&#;Density&#;rank26th
&#;•&#;Median household income$64,[7]
&#;•&#;Income rank23rd
Demonym(s)Texan
Texian (archaic)
Tejano (usually only used for Hispanics)
&#;•&#;Official languageNo official language
(see Languages spoken in Texas)
&#;•&#;Spoken languagePredominantly English;
Spanish is spoken by a sizable minority[8]
Majority of stateUTC− (Central)
&#;•&#;Summer (DST)UTC− (CDT)
El Paso, Hudspeth, and northwestern Culberson countiesUTC− (Mountain)
&#;•&#;Summer (DST)UTC− (MDT)
USPS abbreviation

TX

ISO codeUS-TX
Traditional abbreviationTex.
Latitude25°50′ N to 36°30′ N
Longitude93°31′ W to °39′ W
Websitetraitortrump.us

Texas (, ;[9]Spanish: Texas, Tejas[a][10]) is a state in the South Central region of the United States. Atsquare miles (, sq km), and with more than million residents init is the second-largest U.S. state by both area (after Alaska) and population (after California). Texas shares borders with the states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexicanstates of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the south and southwest. It has a coastline with the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast.

Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth-largest in the U.S., while San Antonio is the second most populous in the state and seventh-largest in the U.S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are, respectively, the fourth- and fifth-largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country. Other major cities include Austin, the second most populous state capital in the U.S., and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed the "Lone Star State" for its former status as an independent republic, and as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico. The "Lone Star" can be found on the Texas state flag and on the Texas state seal.[11] The origin of Texas's name is from the Caddo wordtáyshaʼ meaning 'friends'.[12]

Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U.S. Southern and the Southwestern regions.[13] Although Texas is popularly associated with the U.S. southwestern deserts, less than ten percent of Texas's land area is desert.[14] Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands, forests, and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, and finally the desert and mountains of the Big Bend.

The term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations that have ruled over the territory.[note 1]Spain was the first European country to claim and control the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until when Texas won its independence, becoming the Republic of Texas. InTexas joined the union as the 28th state.[15] The state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U.S. in earlyand officially joined the Confederate States of America on March&#;2 of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation.

Historically, four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton, timber, and oil.[16] Before and after the U.S. Civil War, the cattle industry—which Texas came to dominate—was a major economic driver for the state, and created the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the later 19th century, cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative. It was ultimately, though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits (Spindletop in particular) that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry during the midth century. As ofit is second in the United States of most Fortune company headquarters with [17] With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including tourism, agriculture, petrochemicals, energy, computers and electronics, aerospace, and biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U.S. in state export revenue sinceand has the second-highestgross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would have the 10th-largest economy in the world.

Etymology

The name Texas, based on the Caddo wordtáyshaʼ (/tʼajʃaʔ/) 'friend', was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas,[18][19][20][1] by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves, specifically the Hasinai Confederacy,[21] the final -s representing the Spanish plural.[22] The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in Mayin what is now Houston County, East Texas.[23]

During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevas Filipinas ('New Philippines') and Nuevo Reino de Filipinas ('New Kingdom of the Philippines'),[24] or as provincia de los Tejas ('province of the Tejas'),[25] later also beneficial state bank customer service number de Texas (or de Tejas), ('province of Texas').[26][24] It was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire inand declared a republic in The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings, Tejas and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U.S. state of Texas.[27]

The English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, contrary to the historical value of the letter x (/ʃ/) in Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja 'rooftile', the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements.[28] A s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on the Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett.[28]

History

Main article: History of Texas

Pre-European era

Further information: Pre-Columbian Mexico

Texas lies between two major cultural spheres of Pre-Columbian North America: the Southwestern and the Plains areas. Archaeologists have found that three major indigenous cultures lived in this territory, and reached their developmental peak before the first European contact. These were:[29] the Ancestral Puebloans from the upper Rio Grande region, centered west of Texas; the Mississippian culture, also known as Mound Builders, which extended along the Mississippi River Valley east of Texas; and the civilizations of Mesoamerica, centered south of Texas. Influence of Teotihuacan in northern Mexico peaked around AD and declined over the 8th to 10th centuries.

When Europeans arrived in the Texas region, several different cultures of Native peoples, divided into many smaller tribes, were living there. They were Caddoan, Atakapan, Athabaskan, Coahuiltecan, and Uto-Aztecan. The Uto-Aztecan Puebloan peoples lived neared the Rio Grande in the western portion of the state, the Athabaskan-speaking Apache tribes lived throughout the interior, the Caddoans controlled much of the Red River region and the Atakapans were mostly centered along the Gulf Coast. At least one tribe of Coahuiltecans, the Aranama, lived in southern Texas. This entire culture group, primarily centered in northeastern Mexico, is now extinct. It is difficult to say who lived in the northwestern region of the state originally. By the time the region came to be explored, it belonged to the fairly well-known Comanche, another Uto-Aztecan people who had transitioned into a powerful horse culture, but it is believed that they came later and did not live there during the 16th century. It may have been claimed by several different peoples, including Uto-Aztecans, Athabaskans, or even Dhegihan Siouans.[citation needed]

No culture was dominant in the present-day Texas region, and many peoples inhabited the area.[30] Native American tribes who lived inside the boundaries of present-day Texas include the Alabama, Apache, Atakapan, Bidai, Caddo, Aranama, Comanche, Choctaw, Coushatta, Hasinai, Jumano, Karankawa, Kickapoo, Kiowa, Tonkawa, and Wichita.[31][32]

Early Native American tribal territories

The region was primarily controlled by the Spanish for the first couple centuries of contact, until the Texas Revolution. They were not particularly kind to their native populations—even less so with the Caddoans, who were not trusted as their culture was split between the Spanish and the French. When the Spanish briefly managed to conquer the Louisiana colony, they decided to switch tactics and attempt being exceedingly friendly to the Indians, which they continued even after the French took back the colony. After the Louisiana Purchase, the United States inherited this odd circumstance. The Caddoans preferred the company of Americans and almost the entire population of them migrated into the states of Louisiana and Arkansas. The Spanish felt jilted after having spent so much time and effort and began trying to lure the Caddo back, even promising them more land. Seemingly without actually knowing how they came by it, the United States (who had begun convincing tribes to self-segregate from whites by selling everything and moving west ever since they gained the Louisiana Purchase) faced an overflow of native peoples in Missouri and Arkansas and were able to negotiate with the Caddoans to allow several displaced peoples to settle on unused lands in eastern Texas. They included the Muscogee, Houma Choctaw, Lenape and Mingo Seneca, among others, who all came to view the Caddoans as saviors, making those peoples highly influential.[33][34]

Whether a Native American tribe was friendly or warlike was critical to the fates of European explorers and settlers in that land.[35] Friendly tribes taught newcomers how to grow indigenous crops, prepare foods, and hunt wild game. Warlike tribes made life difficult and dangerous for Europeans through their attacks and resistance to the newcomers.[35]

During the Texas Revolution, the U.S. became heavily involved. Prior treaties with the Spanish forbade either side from militarizing its native population in any potential conflict between the two nations. At that time, several sudden outbreaks of violence between Caddoans and Texans started to spread. The Caddoans were always clueless when questioned, The Texan and American authorities in the region could never find hard evidence linking them to it and often it was so far-flung from Caddoan lands, it barely made any sense. It seems most likely that these were false-flag attacks meant to start a cascading effect to force the natives under Caddoan influence into armed conflict without breaking any treaties—preferably on the side of the Spanish. While no proof was found as to who the culprit was, those in charge of Texas at the time attempted multiple times to publicly blame and punish the Caddoans for the incidents with the U.S. government trying to keep them in check. Furthermore, the Caddoans never turned to violence because of it, excepting cases of self-defense.[33]

By the s, the U.S. had drafted the Indian Removal Act, which was used to facilitate the Trail of Tears. Fearing retribution of other native peoples, Indian Agents all over the eastern U.S. began desperately trying to convince all their native peoples to uproot and move west. This included the Caddoans of Louisiana and Arkansas. Following the Texas Revolution, the Texans chose to make peace with their Native peoples but did not honor former land claims or agreements. This began the movement of Native populations north into what would become Indian Territory—modern-day Oklahoma.[33]

Colonization

Main articles: New France, Louisiana (New France), French colonization of Texas, French and Indian War, Treaty of Paris (), New Spain, Spanish Texas, Seminole Wars, Adams–Onís Treaty, Mexican War of Independence, Treaty of Córdoba, First Mexican Empire, Mexican Texas, Provisional Government of Mexico (–24), Constitution of Mexico, First Mexican Republic, Siete Leyes, and Centralist Republic of Mexico

The first historical document related to Texas was a map of the Gulf Coast, created in by Spanish explorer Alonso Álvarez de Pineda.[36] Nine years later, shipwrecked Spanish explorer Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and his cohort became the first Europeans in what is now Texas.[37][38] Cabeza de Vaca reported that inwhen the Spanish landed in the area, "half the natives died from a disease of the bowels and blamed us."[39] Cabeza de Vaca also made observations about the way of life of the Ignaces Natives of Texas:

They went about with a firebrand, setting fire to the plains and timber so as to drive off the mosquitos, and also to get lizards and similar things which they eat, to come out of the soil. In the same manner they kill deer, encircling them with fires, and they do it also to deprive the animals of pasture, compelling them to go for food where the Indians want.[40]

Francisco Vázquez de Coronado describes his encounter:

Two kinds of people travel around these plains with the cows; one is called Querechos and the others Teyas; they are very well built, and painted, and are enemies of each other. They have no other settlement or location than comes from traveling around with the cows. They kill all of these they wish and tan the hides, with which they clothe themselves and make their tents, and they eat the flesh, sometimes even raw, and they also even drink the blood when thirsty. The tents they make are like field tents, and they set them up over poles they have made for this purpose, which come together and are tied at the top, and when they go from one place to another they carry them on some dogs they have, of which they have many, and they load them with the tents and poles and other things, for the country is so level, as I said, that they can make use of these, because they carry the poles dragging along on the ground. The sun is what they worship most.[41]

European powers ignored the area until accidentally settling there in Miscalculations by René-Robert Cavelier de La Salle resulted in his establishing the colony of Fort Saint Louis at Matagorda Bay rather than along the Mississippi River. The colony lasted only four years before succumbing to harsh conditions and hostile natives.

In Spanish authorities, concerned that France posed a competitive threat, constructed several missions in East Texas. After Native American resistance, the Spanish missionaries returned to Mexico. When France began settling Louisiana, mostly in the southern part of the state, in Spanish authorities responded by founding a new series of missions in East Texas.[46] Two years later, they created San Antonio as the first Spanish civilian settlement in the area.

Nicolas de La Fora's map of the northern frontier of New Spainclearly shows the Provincia de los Tejas.[48]

Hostile native tribes and distance from nearby Spanish colonies discouraged settlers from moving to the area. It was one of New Spain's least populated provinces. Inthe Spanish peace treaty with the Lipan Apache angered many tribes, including the Comanche, Tonkawa, and Hasinai. The Comanche signed a treaty with Spain in and later helped to defeat the Lipan Apache and Karankawa tribes.[52] With more numerous missions being established, priests led a peaceful conversion of most tribes. By the end of the 18th century only a few nomadic tribes had not converted to Christianity.

When the United States purchased Louisiana from France inAmerican authorities insisted the agreement also included Texas. The boundary between New Spain and the United States was finally set at the Sabine River inat what is now the border between Texas and Louisiana. Eager for new land, many United States settlers refused to recognize the agreement. Several filibusters raised armies to invade the area west of the Sabine River. Marked by the War ofsome men who had escaped from the Spanish held (Old) Philippines had immigrated to and also passed through Texas (New Philippines)[57] and reached Louisiana where Philippine exiles aided the United States in the defense of New Orleans against a British invasion, with Filipinos in the Saint Malo settlement assisting Jean Lafitte in the Battle of New Orleans.[58] Inthe Mexican War of Independence included the Texas territory, which became part of Mexico. Due to its low population, the territory was assigned to other states and territories of Mexico; the core territory was part of the state of Coahuila y Tejas, but other parts of today's Texas were part of Tamaulipas, Chihuahua, or the Mexican Territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México.

Hoping more settlers would reduce the near-constant Comanche raids, Mexican Texas liberalized its immigration policies to permit immigrants from outside Mexico and Spain. Under the Mexican immigration system, large swathes of land were allotted to empresarios, who recruited settlers from the United States, Europe, and the Mexican interior. The first grant, to Moses Austin, was passed to his son Stephen F. Austin after his death.

Austin's settlers, the Old Three Hundred, made places along the Brazos River in Twenty-three other empresarios brought settlers to the state, the majority of whom were from the United States. The population of Texas grew rapidly. InTexas had about 3, people, with most of Mexican descent. Bythe population had grown to about 37, people, with only 7, of Mexican descent. Most of these early settlers who arrived with Austin and soon after were persons less than fortunate in life, as Texas was devoid of the comforts found elsewhere in Mexico and the United States during that time. Early Texas settler David B. Edwards described his fellow Texans as being "banished from the pleasures of life".[66]

Many immigrants openly flouted Mexican law, especially the prohibition against slavery. Combined with United States' attempts to purchase Texas, Mexican authorities decided in to prohibit continued immigration from the United traitortrump.usl immigration from the United States into Mexico continued to increase the population of Texas anyway. New laws also called for the enforcement of customs duties angering native Mexican citizens (Tejanos) and recent immigrants alike.

The Anahuac Disturbances in were the first open revolt against Mexican rule, and they coincided with a revolt in Mexico against the nation's traitortrump.uss sided with the federalists against the current government and drove all Mexican soldiers out of East Texas. They took advantage of the lack of oversight to agitate for more political freedom. Texians met at the Convention of to discuss requesting independent statehood, among other issues. The following year, Texians reiterated their demands at the Convention of [73]

Republic

Main articles: Texas Revolution, Convention ofTexas Declaration of Independence, Treaties of Velasco, and Republic of Texas

Within Mexico, tensions continued between federalists and centralists. In earlywary Texians formed Committees of Correspondence and Safety.[74] The unrest erupted into armed conflict in late at the Battle of Gonzales. This launched the Texas Revolution, and over the next two months the Texians defeated all Mexican troops in the region.[76] Texians elected delegates to the Consultation, which created a provisional government. The provisional government soon collapsed from infighting, and Texas was without clear governance for the first two months of [78]

Surrender of Santa Anna. Painting by William Henry Huddle,

During this time of political turmoil, Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna personally led an army to end the revolt. The Mexican expedition was initially successful. General José de Urrea defeated all the Texian resistance along the coast culminating in the Goliad massacre.[80] Santa Anna's forces, after a thirteen-day siege, overwhelmed Texian defenders at the Battle of the Alamo. News of the defeats sparked panic among Texas settlers.

The newly elected Texian delegates to the Convention of quickly signed a declaration of independence on March 2, forming the Republic of Texas. After electing interim officers, the Convention disbanded.[82] The new government joined the other what is the capital of the us state texas in Texas in the Runaway Scrape, fleeing from the approaching Mexican army. After several weeks of retreat, the Texian Army commanded by Sam Houston attacked and defeated Santa Anna's forces at the Battle of San Jacinto. Santa Anna was captured and forced to sign the Treaties of Velasco, ending the war. The Constitution of the Republic of Texas prohibited the government from restricting slavery or freeing slaves, and required free people of African descent to leave the country.[85]

While Texas had won its independence, political battles raged between two factions of the new Republic. The nationalist faction, led by Mirabeau B. Lamar, advocated the continued independence of Texas, the expulsion of the Native Americans, and the expansion of the Republic to the Pacific Ocean. Their opponents, led by Sam Houston, advocated the annexation of Texas to the United States and peaceful co-existence with Native Americans. The conflict between the factions was typified by an incident known as the Texas Archive War.[86] With wide popular support, Texas first applied for annexation to the United States inbut its status as a slaveholding country caused its admission to be controversial and it was initially rebuffed. This status, and Mexican diplomacy in support of its claims to the territory, also complicated Texas's ability to form foreign alliances and trade relationships.[87]

The Comanche Indians furnished the main Native American opposition to the Texas Republic, manifested in multiple raids on settlements.[88] Mexico launched two small expeditions into Texas in The town of San Antonio was captured twice and Texans were defeated in battle in the Dawson massacre. Despite these successes, Mexico did not keep an occupying force in Texas, and the republic survived.[89] The cotton price crash of the s depressed the country's economy.[87]

Statehood

Main articles: Texas annexation, Admission to the Union, List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union, Mexican–American War, and Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

As early asthe Republic of Texas made several attempts to negotiate annexation with the United States.[90] Opposition within the republic from the nationalist faction, along with strong abolitionist opposition within the United States, slowed Texas's admission into the Union. Texas was finally annexed when the expansionist James K. Polk won the election of [91] On December 29,the U.S. Congress admitted Texas to the U.S. as a constituent state of the Union.[92]

The population of the new state was quite small at first, and there was a strong mix between the English-speaking American settlers who dominated in the state's eastern/northeastern portions and the Spanish-speaking former Mexicans (Tejanos) who dominated in the state's southern and western portions. Statehood brought many new settlers. Because of the long Spanish presence in Mexico and various failed colonization efforts by the Spanish and Mexicans in northern Mexico, there were large herds of Longhorn cattle that roamed the state. Hardy by nature, but also suitable for slaughtering and consumption, they represented an economic opportunity many entrepreneurs seized upon, thus creating the cowboy culture for which Texas is famous.

After Texas's annexation, Mexico broke diplomatic relations with the United States. While the United States claimed Texas's border stretched to the Rio Grande, Mexico claimed it was the Nueces River leaving the Rio Grande Valley under contested Texan sovereignty.[92] While the former Republic of Texas could not enforce its border claims, the United States what is the capital of the us state texas the military strength and the political will to do so. President Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor south to the Rio Grande on January 13, A few months later Mexican troops routed an American cavalry patrol in the disputed area in the Thornton Affair starting the Mexican–American War. The first battles of the war were fought in Texas: the Siege of Fort Texas, Battle of Palo Alto and Battle of Resaca de la Palma. After these decisive victories, the United States invaded Mexican territory, ending the fighting in Texas.[93]

After a series of United States victories, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the two-year war. In return, for US$18,, Mexico gave the U.S. undisputed control of Texas, ceded the Mexican Cession inmost of which today is called the American Southwest, and Texas's borders were established at the Rio Grande.[93]

The Compromise of set Texas's boundaries at their present form. U.S. Senator James Pearce of Maryland drafted the final proposal where Texas ceded its claims to land which later became half of present-day New Mexico,[94] a third of Colorado, and small portions of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Wyoming to the federal government, in return for the assumption of $10 million of the old republic's debt.[94] Post-war Texas grew rapidly as migrants poured into the cotton lands of the state.[95]

They also brought or purchased enslaved African Americans, whose numbers tripled in the state from tofrom 58, to ,[96]

Civil War to late 19th century

Main articles: Ordinance of Secession, Confederate States of America, and Texas in the American Civil War

Texas was at war again after the election of At this time, blacks comprised 30 percent of the state's population, and they were overwhelmingly enslaved.[97] When Abraham Lincoln was elected, South Carolina seceded from the Union. Five other Deep South states quickly followed. A state convention considering secession opened in Austin on January 28, On February 1, by a vote of –8, the convention adopted an Ordinance of Secession from the United States. Texas voters approved this Ordinance on February 23, Texas joined the newly created Confederate States of America on March 4, ratifying the permanent C.S. Constitution on March [1][98]

Not all Texans favored secession initially, although many of the same would later support the Southern cause. Texas's most notable Unionist was the state Governor, Sam Houston. Not wanting to aggravate the situation, Houston refused two offers from President Lincoln for Union troops to keep him in office. After refusing to swear an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy, Houston was deposed as governor.[99] Around 2, Texans served in the Union Army, with a large contingent of recent German immigrants in Texas Hill Country being a Unionist stronghold.[]

While far from the major battlefields of the American Civil War, Texas contributed large numbers of men and equipment to citizens bank access my account rest of the Confederacy.[] Union troops briefly occupied the state's primary port, Galveston. Texas's border with Mexico was known as the "backdoor of the Confederacy" because trade occurred at the border, bypassing the Union blockade.[] The Confederacy repulsed all Union attempts to shut down this route,[] but Texas's role as a supply state was marginalized in mid after the Union capture of the Mississippi River. The final battle of the Civil War was fought at Palmito Ranch, near Brownsville, Texas, and saw a Confederate victory.[][]

Texas descended into anarchy for two months between the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia and the assumption of authority by Union General Gordon Granger. Violence marked the early months of Reconstruction.[]Juneteenth commemorates the announcement of the Emancipation Proclamation in Galveston by General Gordon Granger, almost two and a half years after the original announcement.[][] President Johnson, indeclared the civilian government restored in Texas.[] Despite not meeting reconstruction requirements, Congress resumed allowing elected Texas representatives into the federal government in Social volatility continued as the state struggled with agricultural depression and labor issues.[]

Like most of the South, the Texas economy was devastated by the War. However, since the state had not been as dependent on slaves as other parts of the South, it was able to recover more quickly. The culture in Texas during the later 19th century exhibited many facets of a frontier territory. The state became notorious as a haven for people from other parts of the country who wanted to escape debt, war tensions, or other problems. Indeed, "Gone to Texas" was a common expression for those fleeing the law in other states. Nevertheless, the state also attracted many businessmen and other settlers with more legitimate interests as well.[]

The cattle industry continued to thrive, though it gradually became less profitable. Cotton and lumber became major industries creating new economic booms in various regions of the state. Railroad networks grew rapidly as did the port at Galveston as commerce between Texas and the rest of the U.S. (and the rest of the world) expanded. As with some other states before, the lumber industry quickly expanded in Texas and was its largest industry before the beginning of the 20th century.[]

Early to midth century

Spindletop, the first major oil gusher

InTexas suffered the deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history during the Galveston hurricane.[] On January 10,the first major oil well in Texas, Spindletop, was found south of Beaumont. Other fields were later discovered nearby in East Texas, West Texas, and under the Gulf of Mexico. The resulting "oil boom" transformed Texas.[] Oil production eventually averaged three million barrels per day at its peak in []

Inthe Democratic-dominated state legislature passed a bill requiring payment of a poll tax for voting, which effectively disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites and Latinos. In addition, the legislature established white primaries, ensuring minorities were excluded from the formal political process. The number of voters dropped dramatically, and the Democrats crushed competition from the Republican and Populist parties.[][] The Socialist Party became the second-largest party in Texas after ,[] coinciding with a large socialist upsurge in the United States during fierce battles in the labor movement and the popularity of national heroes like Eugene V. Debs. The socialists' popularity soon waned after their vilification by the United States government for their opposition to U.S. involvement in World War I.[][]

The Great Depression and the Dust Bowl dealt a double blow to the state's economy, which had significantly improved since the Civil War. Migrants abandoned the worst-hit sections of Texas during the Dust Bowl years. Especially from this period on, blacks left Texas in the Great Migration to get work in the Northern United States or California and to escape the oppression of segregation.[97] InTexas was 74% Anglo, % black, and % Hispanic.[]

World War II had a dramatic impact on Texas, as federal money poured in to build military bases, munitions factories, POW detention camps and Army hospitals;young men left for service; the cities exploded with new industry; the colleges took on new roles; and hundreds of thousands of poor farmers left the fields for much better-paying war jobs, never to return to agriculture.[][] Texas manufactured percent of total United States military armaments produced during World War II, ranking eleventh among the 48 states.[]

Texas modernized and expanded its system of higher education through the s. The state created a comprehensive plan for higher education, funded in large part by oil revenues, and a central state apparatus designed to manage state institutions more efficiently. These changes helped Texas universities receive federal research funds.[]

Midth to early 21st century

On November 22,President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.[]

Beginning around the midth century, Texas began to transform from a rural and agricultural state to one urban and industrialized.[] The state's population grew quickly during this period, with large levels of migration from outside the state.[] As a part of the Sun Belt, Texas experienced strong economic growth, particularly during the s and early s.[] Texas's economy diversified, lessening its reliance on the petroleum industry.[] ByHispanics and Latin Americans overtook blacks to become the largest minority group in the state.[] Texas has the largest Black and African American population with over million.[]

During the late 20th century, the Republican Party replaced the Democratic Party as the usps office open today party in the state, as the latter became more politically liberal and as demographic changes favored the former.[] Beginning in the early 21st century, metropolitan areas including Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Austin became centers for the Texas Democratic Party in statewide and national elections as liberal policies became more accepted in urban areas.[][][][]

From the mids toTexas gained an influx of business relocations and regional headquarters from companies in California.[][][][] Texas became a major destination for migration during the early 21st century and was named the most popular state to move for three consecutive years.[] Another study in determined Texas's growth rate at 1, people per day.[]

During the COVID pandemic in the United States, the first confirmed case of the virus in Texas was announced on March 4, [] On April 27,Governor Greg Abbott announced phase one of re-opening the economy.[] Amid a rise in COVID cases in autumnAbbott and other U.S. governors refused to enact further lockdowns.[][] In NovemberTexas was selected as one of four states to test Pfizer's COVID vaccine distribution.[] As of February 2,there had been over million confirmed cases in Texas, with at least 37, deaths.[]

During February 13–17,the state faced a major weather emergency as Winter Storm Uri hit the state, as well as most of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States.[][] Historically high power usage across the state caused the state's power grid to become overworked and ERCOT (the main operator of the Texas Interconnection grid) declared an emergency and began to implement rolling blackouts across Texas.[][][] Over 3 million Texans were without power and over 4 million were under boil notices.[]

Geography

Main article: Geography of Texas

Texas is the second-largest U.S. state, after Alaska, with an area ofsquare miles (,&#;km2). Though 10% larger than France, almost twice as large as Germany or Japan, and more than twice the size of the United Kingdom, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 39th-largest.[]

Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers. The Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the south. The Red River forms a natural border with Oklahoma and Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east. The Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at ° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western border with New Mexico at ° W. El Paso lies on the state's western tip at 32° N and the Rio Grande.[94]

With 10 climatic regions, 14 soil regions and 11 distinct ecological regions, regional classification becomes problematic with differences in soils, topography, geology, rainfall, and plant and animal communities.[] One classification system divides Texas, in order from southeast to west, into the following: Gulf Coastal Plains, Interior Lowlands, Great Plains, and Basin and Range Province.[]

The Gulf Coastal Plains region wraps around the Gulf of Mexico on the southeast section of the state. Vegetation in this region consists of thick piney woods. The Interior Lowlands region consists of gently rolling to hilly forested land and is part of a larger pine-hardwood forest. The Cross Timbers region and Caprock Escarpment are part of the Interior Lowlands.[]

The Great Plains region in Central Texas spans through the state's panhandle and Llano Estacado to the state's hill country near Austin. This region is dominated by prairie and steppe. "Far West Texas" or the "Trans-Pecos" region is the state's Basin and Range Province. The most varied of the regions, this area includes Sand Hills, the Stockton Plateau, desert valleys, wooded mountain slopes and desert grasslands.[]

Texas has 3, named streams and 15 major rivers,[][] with the Rio Grande as the largest. Other major rivers include the Pecos, the Brazos, Colorado, and Red River. While Texas has few natural lakes, Texans have built more than a hundred artificial reservoirs.[]

The size and unique history of Texas make its regional affiliation debatable; it can be fairly considered a Southern or a Southwestern state, or both. The vast geographic, economic, and cultural diversity within the state itself prohibits easy categorization of the whole state into a recognized region of the United States. Notable extremes range from East Texas which is often considered an extension of the Deep South, to Far West Texas which is generally acknowledged to be part of the interior Southwest.[]

Geology

Main article: Geology of Texas

Texas is the southernmost part of the Great Plains, which ends in the south against the folded Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico. The continental crust forms a stable Mesoproterozoiccraton which changes across a broad continental margin and transitional crust into true oceanic crust of the Gulf of Mexico. The oldest rocks in Texas date from the Mesoproterozoic and are about 1,&#;million years old.[]

These Precambrianigneous and metamorphic rocks underlie most of the state, and are exposed in three places: Llano uplift, Van Horn, and the Franklin Mountains, near El Paso. Sedimentary rocks overlay most of these ancient rocks. The oldest sediments were deposited on the flanks of a rifted continental margin, or passive margin that developed during Cambrian time.

This margin existed until Laurasia and Gondwana collided in the Pennsylvanian subperiod to form Pangea. This is the buried crest of the Appalachian Mountains–Ouachita Mountains zone of Pennsylvanian continental collision. This orogenic crest is today buried beneath the Dallas–Waco–Austin–San Antonio trend.[]

The late Paleozoic mountains collapsed as rifting in the Jurassic period began to open the Gulf of Mexico. Pangea began to break up in the Triassic, but seafloor spreading to form the Gulf of Mexico occurred only in the mid- and late Jurassic. The shoreline shifted again to the eastern margin of the state and the Gulf of Mexico's passive margin began to form. Today 9 to 12 miles (14 to 19&#;km) of sediments are buried beneath the Texas continental shelf and a large proportion of remaining US oil reserves are here. At the start of its formation, the incipient Gulf of Mexico basin was restricted and seawater often evaporated completely to form thick evaporite deposits of Jurassic age. These salt deposits formed salt domediapirs, and are found in East Texas along the Gulf coast.[]

East Texas outcrops consist of Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments which contain important deposits of Eocenelignite. The Mississippian and Pennsylvanian sediments in the north; Permian sediments in the west; and Cretaceous sediments in the east, along the Gulf coast and out on the Texas continental shelf contain oil. Oligocenevolcanic rocks are found in far west Texas in the Big Bend area. A blanket of Miocene sediments known as the Ogallala formation in the western high plains region is an important aquifer.[] Located far from an active plate tectonic boundary, Texas has no volcanoes and few earthquakes.[]

Wildlife

See also: List of mammals of Texas, List of birds of Texas, List of reptiles of Texas, and List of amphibians of Texas

A wide range of animals and insects live in Texas. It is the home to 65 species of mammals, species of reptiles and amphibians, and the greatest diversity of bird life in the United States— native species in all.[] At least 12 species have been introduced and now reproduce freely in Texas.[]

Texas plays host to several species of wasps, including an abundance of Polistes exclamans,[] and is an important ground for the study of Polistes annularis.[]

During the spring Texas wildflowers such as the state flower, the bluebonnet, line highways throughout Texas. During the Johnson Administration the first lady, Lady Bird Johnson, worked to draw attention to Texas wildflowers.[]

Climate

Main article: Climate of Texas

Köppen climate types in Texas

The large size of Texas and its location at the intersection of multiple climate zones gives the state highly variable weather. The Panhandle of the state has colder winters than North Texas, while the Gulf Coast has mild winters. Texas has wide variations in precipitation patterns. El Paso, on the western end of the state, averages inches (&#;mm) of annual rainfall,[] while parts of southeast Texas average as much as 64 inches (1,&#;mm) per year.[] Dallas in the North Central region averages a more moderate 37 inches (&#;mm) per year.[]

Snow falls multiple times each winter in the Panhandle and mountainous areas of West Texas, once or twice a year in North Texas, and once every few years in Central and East Texas. Snow falls south of San Antonio or on the coast only in rare circumstances. What is the routing number for first interstate bank note is the Christmas Eve snowstorm, when 6 inches (&#;mm) of snow fell as far south as Kingsville, where the average high temperature in December is 65&#;°F.[]

Maximum temperatures in the summer months average from the 80s °F (26&#;°C) in the mountains of West Texas and on Galveston Island to around &#;°F (38&#;°C) in the Rio Grande Valley, but most areas of Texas see consistent summer high temperatures in the 90&#;°F (32&#;°C) range.[citation needed]

Night-time summer temperatures range from the upper 50s °F (14&#;°C) in the West Texas mountains to 80&#;°F (27&#;°C) in Galveston.[][]

The table below consists of averages for August (generally the warmest month) and January (generally the coldest) in selected cities in various regions of the state.

Location August (°F) August (°C) January (°F) January (°C)
Houston94/7534/2463/5417/12
San Antonio96/7435/2363/4017/5
Dallas96/7736/2557/3716/3
Austin97/7436/2361/4516/5
El Paso92/6733/2157/3214/0
Laredo/7737/2567/4619/7
Amarillo89/6432/1850/2310/−4
Brownsville94/7634/2470/5121/11

Storms

Thunderstorms strike Texas often, especially the eastern and northern portions of the state. Tornado Alley covers the northern section of Texas. The state experiences the most tornadoes in the United States, an average of a year. These strike most frequently in North Texas and the Panhandle.[] Tornadoes in Texas generally occur in the months of April, May, and June.[]

Some of the most destructive hurricanes in U.S. history have impacted Texas. A hurricane in killed about people in Indianola, followed by another hurricane in that destroyed the town. These events allowed Galveston to take over as the chief port city. The Galveston hurricane subsequently devastated that city, killing about 8, people or possibly as many as 12, This makes it the deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history.[] InHurricane Harvey made pampered chef thank you for your order in Rockport as a Category&#;4 Hurricane, causing significant damage there. The storm stalled over land for a very long time, allowing it to drop unprecedented amounts of rain over the Greater Houston area and surrounding counties. The result was widespread and catastrophic flooding that inundated hundreds of thousands of homes. Harvey ultimately became the costliest hurricane worldwide, causing an estimated $&#;billion in damage, surpassing the cost of Hurricane Katrina.[]

Other devastating Texas hurricanes include the Galveston hurricane, Hurricane Audrey in which killed more than people, Hurricane Carla inHurricane Beulah inHurricane Alicia inHurricane Rita inand Hurricane Ike in Tropical storms have also caused their share of damage: Allison in and again duringClaudette inand Tropical Storm Imelda in [][][]

There is no substantial physical barrier between Texas and the polar region. Although it is unusual, it is possible for arctic or polar air masses to penetrate Texas,[][] as occurred during the February 13–17, North American winter storm.[][] Usually, prevailing winds in North America will push polar air masses to the southeast before they reach Texas. Because such intrusions are rare, and, perhaps, unexpected, they may result in crises such as the Texas power crisis.

Greenhouse gases

Main article: Climate change in Texas

As of [update], Texas emits the most greenhouse gases in the U.S., almost twice the amount of California, the second-most polluting state.[] As of [update] the state emits about 1,&#;billion pounds (&#;million metric tons) of carbon dioxide annually.[] As an independent state, Texas would rank as the world's seventh-largest producer of greenhouse gases.[] Causes of the state's vast greenhouse gas emissions include the state's large number of coal power plants and the state's refining and manufacturing industries.[] Inthere were 2, "emission events" which poured &#;million pounds (20, metric tons) of contaminants into the Texas sky.[]

Administrative divisions

See also: List of counties in Texas, List of Texas metropolitan areas, and List of municipalities in Texas

The state has three cities with populations exceeding one million: Houston, San Antonio, and Dallas.[] These three rank among the 10 most populous cities of the United States. As ofsix Texas cities had populations greater thanpeople. Austin, Fort Worth, and El Paso are among the 20 largest U.S. cities. Texas has four metropolitan areas with populations greater than a million: Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, Houston–Sugar Land–The Woodlands, San Antonio–New Braunfels, and Austin–Round Rock–San Marcos. The Dallas–Fort Worth and Houston metropolitan areas number about million and 7 million residents as ofrespectively.[]

Three interstate highways—I to the west (Dallas–Fort Worth to San Antonio, with Austin in between), I to the east (Dallas to Houston), and I to the south (San Antonio to Houston) define the Texas Urban Triangle region. The region of 60, square miles (,&#;km2) contains most of the state's largest cities and metropolitan areas as well as 17 million people, nearly 75 percent of Texas's total population.[] Houston and Dallas have been recognized as world cities.[] These cities are spread out amongst the state.[]

In contrast to the cities, unincorporated rural settlements known as colonias often lack basic infrastructure and are marked by poverty.[] The office of the Texas Attorney General stated, inthat Texas had about 2, colonias, and estimates aboutlived in the colonias. Hidalgo County, as ofhas the largest number of colonias.[] Texas has the largest number of people living in colonias of all states.[]

Texas has counties, which is more than any other state by 95 (Georgia).[] Each county runs on Commissioners' Court system consisting of four elected commissioners (one from each of four precincts in the county, roughly divided according to population) and a county judge elected at large from the entire county. County government runs similar to a "weak" mayor-council system; the county judge has no veto authority, but votes along with the other commissioners.[][]

Although Texas permits cities and counties to enter "interlocal agreements" to share services, the state does not allow consolidated city-county governments, nor does it have metropolitan governments. Counties are not granted home rule status; their powers are strictly defined by state law. The state does not have townships—areas within a county are either incorporated or unincorporated. Incorporated areas are part of a municipality. The county provides limited services to unincorporated areas and to some smaller incorporated areas. Municipalities are classified either "general law" cities or "home rule".[] A municipality may elect home rule status once it exceeds 5, population with voter approval.[]

Texas also permits the creation of "special districts", which provide limited services. The most common is the school district, but can also include hospital districts, community college districts, and utility districts (one utility district near Austin was the plaintiff in a landmark Supreme Court case involving the Voting Rights Act). Municipal, school district, and special district elections are nonpartisan,[] though the party affiliation of a candidate may be well-known. County and state elections are partisan.[]

&#;

&#;

RankNameCountyPop.RankNameCountyPop.
Houston
Houston
San Antonio
San Antonio
1HoustonHarris2,11LubbockLubbock, Dallas
Dallas
Austin
Austin
2San AntonioBexar1,12GarlandDallas,
3DallasDallas1,13IrvingDallas,
4AustinTravis,14FriscoCollin,
5Fort WorthTarrant,15AmarilloPotter,
6El PasoEl Paso,16McKinneyCollin,
7ArlingtonTarrant,17Grand PrairieDallas,
8Corpus ChristiNueces,18BrownsvilleCameron,
9PlanoCollin,19KilleenBell,
10LaredoWebb,20PasadenaHarris,

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Texas

Historical population
CensusPop.
,
,%
,%
1,%
2,%
3,%
3,%
4,%
5,%
6,%
7,%
9,%
11,%
14,%
16,%
20,%
25,%
29,%
[]
Texas population density map

The United States Census Bureau determined the resident population of Texas was 29, at the U.S census, a % increase since the United States census.[][] At the census, the apportioned population of Texas stood at 29,[] The Texas Population Estimate program estimated the population was 27, on July 1, [] InTexas had a census population of 25,[] Texas is the second-most populous state in the United States after California.[]

InTexas had million foreign-born residents, about 17% of the population and % of the state workforce.[] The major countries of origin for Texan immigrants were Mexico (% of immigrants), India (5%), El Salvador (%), Vietnam (%), and China (%).[] Of immigrant residents, some percent were naturalized U.S. citizens.[] As ofthe population increased to million foreign-born residents or % of the state population, up from 2, in []

Inthere were an estimated million undocumented immigrants in Texas, making up 35% of the total Texas immigrant population and % of the total state population.[] In addition to the state's foreign-born population, an additional million Texans (15% of the state's population) were born in the United States and had at least one immigrant parent.[] According to the American Community Survey's estimates, 1, residents were undocumented immigrants, a decrease ofsince Of the undocumented immigrant population,have resided in Texas from less than 5 up to 14 years. An estimatedlived in Texas from 15 to 19 and 20 years or more.[]

Texas's Rio Grande Valley has seen significant migration from across the U.S.–Mexico border. During the crisis, many Central Americans, including unaccompanied minors traveling alone from Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador, reached the state, overwhelming Border Patrol resources for a time. Many sought asylum in the United States.[][]

Texas's population density as of is people per square mile (/km2) which is slightly higher than the average population density of the U.S. as a whole, at people per square mile (/km2). In contrast, while Texas and France are similarly sized geographically, the European country has a population density of people per square mile (/km2). Of its dense population, two-thirds of all Texans live in major metropolitan areas such as Houston. The Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area is the largest in Texas. While Houston is the largest city in Texas and the fourth-largest city in the United States by population, the Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area is larger than the city and metropolitan area of Houston.[][]

Race and ethnicity

Innon-Hispanic whites represented % of Texas's population, reflecting a national demographic shift.[][][]

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Congresswoman Eddie Bernice Johnson

U.S. Representative Eddie Bernice Johnson, Representing the 30th District of Texas

Meet Congresswoman Johnson

Congresswoman Eddie Bernice Johnson is a Democrat who proudly represents the 30th Congressional District of Texas in the U.S. House of Representatives. First elected to Congress in , she is currently serving her 15th term in the United States House of Representatives. Congresswoman Johnson was elected as the first African-American and the first female Chair of the House Committee on Science, Space and Technology. She also serves on the House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure. Read full biography.

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The Capitals of Texas

Many different locations have served as capitals of the area that is now Texas, including a number that served only briefly.

The National Capitals of Texas

Capitals of the six nations that have ruled Texas have been:
Spain: Valladolid (before ) and Madrid;
France: Paris;
Mexico: Mexico City, D.F.;
Republic of Texas: San Felipe de Austin, Washington-on-the-Brazos, Harrisburg, Galveston Island, Velasco, Columbia, Houston and Austin;
United States: Washington, D.C.;
Confederate States of America: Montgomery, Ala., and Richmond, Va.

The Administrative Headquarters

The administrative headquarters for Texas shifted many times from the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century to the end of the Civil War.

Spanish Provincial Capitals

In , Monclova, Coahuila, Mex., became the first provincial capital for the area that became Texas. While Texas was associated with Spain and the Republic of Mexico, its government was administered largely from Coahuila, which alternately had Monclova and Saltillo as its provincial capital.

In Marqués de Aguayo, governor of Coahuila including Texas, led an expedition north of the Rio Grande and established the presidio of Los Adaes a short distance east of the Sabine River on the site of present-day Robeline, La. Los Adaes became the capital of Texas and remained so for half a century.

The seat of government was moved to San Antonio in , where it remained until For two short periods during this time, the administrators of Coahuila y Texas conducted business from La Casa Piedra (today commonly called the Old Stone Fort) in Nacogdoches: Manuel Antonio Cordero y Bustamante in and Manuel María de Salcedo for three months in

Mexican Provincial Headquarters

After Mexico became independent of Spain in , Texas was again united with Coahuila, of which Saltillo was then the capital. The first state congress convened there Aug. 15, The capital of Coahuila-Texas was moved to Monclova, March 9, A heated controversy between Saltillo and Monclova ensued. When the issue was placed before President Santa Anna, he favored Monclova.

The capital of the first Anglo-American colony in Texas was San Felipe de Austin. The conventions of and , as well as the Consultation of met at San Felipe, which continued to be the official headquarters until March 1,

Capitals of the Republic of Texas

The provisional government of the Republic of Texas met at Washington-on-the-Brazos March 1, This convention, in which all powers of sovereignty were claimed and exercised, adopted the Declaration of Independence on March 2. They also wrote a constitution and inaugurated executive officers. Because of the movement of Santa Anna's troops, President Burnet selected Harrisburg on Buffalo Bayou as the temporary capital.

As Mexican troops moved eastward after their victory at the Alamo, President Burnet and part of his cabinet boarded the steamboat Cayuga at Harrisburg on April 15, , making it the de facto capital of the Republic until the Texas officials went ashore at Galveston on April The capital then moved to Velasco until October.

In October , Columbia (today's West Columbia) became the first capital of an elected government of the Republic of Texas. President Houston, on Dec. 15, , ordered the seat of government removed to Houston. The government began operating from Houston on April 19,

In , the Capital Commission selected the "site of the town of Waterloo, on the north bank of the Colorado" as the permanent capital. This was confirmed by the Texas Congress Jan. 19, , and the place was renamed Austin in honor of Stephen F. Austin. President Mirabeau B. Lamar and his cabinet moved there October 17, When Mexican troops threatened San Antonio in March , President Sam Houston ordered the government moved to Houston. Officials moved to Washington-on-the-Brazos, in September, and Houston sent men to Austin to fetch the archives. Austin citizens feared that if the papers were moved, Austin would lose its status as capital permanently. In an action known as the Archive War, the citizens stopped Houston's men and returned the archives to Austin. Austin became the capital again in

Capitols of Texas

No trace is left of most of the early buildings in which the seat of government was housed. The Spanish Governors' palace still stands, however, at San Antonio. A replica of the one-story frame building that served as the Capitol at Columbia has been built at West Columbia. A frame structure where the Rice Hotel stands today was the Capitol at Houston. When Austin was selected as the capital, several log buildings were used until the first permanent structure was erected. This burned Nov. 9, , and a temporary Capitol located off the Capitol grounds at the head of Congress Avenue served until completion of the present structure, which was opened May 16,

— based on an article written by Mike Kingston, then editor, for the Texas Almanac –

 

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10 reasons why so many people are moving to Texas

By Tom Geoghegan
BBC News, Washington

Half of the 10 fastest-growing cities in the US are in Texas, according to new figures. Why?

Every way you look at it, there are a lot of people moving to Texas.

Five of the 10 fastest-growing cities in the country between and were in Texas, according to new figures from the US Census Bureau. New York is way out in front in terms of added population, but Houston is second with San Antonio and Austin fourth and fifth.

In terms of percentage growth, it's even more Texas, Texas, Texas. Among the five cities that grew most, as a proportion of their size, between and , three are Texan. San Marcos is out in front with the highest rate of growth among all US cities and towns - %.

Some of this Texan population boom is due to a natural increase - more births than deaths - but the numbers moving into the state from elsewhere in the US and from abroad far outstrip every other American state. Why?

"I don't think people go for the weather or topography," says Joel Kotkin, professor of urban development at Chapman University in Orange, California. "The main reason people go is for employment. It's pretty simple.

"The unconventional oil and gas boom has helped turn Texas into an economic juggernaut, particularly world energy capital Houston, but growth has also been strong in tech, manufacturing and business services."

Critics have questioned whether the "Texas miracle" is a myth, based on cheap labour and poor regulation.

But Kotkin says Texas has plenty of high-wage, blue-collar jobs and jobs for university graduates, although people looking for very high-wage jobs would probably head to Seattle, San Francisco and New York.

Four of the top 10 metropolitan areas for job growth in are in Texas, according to Kotkin's website, New Geography.

Texas also has a huge military presence, which grew as defence spending increased in the decade after 9/ Many retired Texans first came to the state as service personnel.

Once employed, it's hugely important that your pay cheque goes as far as possible, says Kotkin.

"New York, LA and the [San Francisco] Bay Area are too expensive for most people to live, but Houston has the highest 'effective' pay cheque in the country."

Kotkin came to this conclusion after looking at the average incomes in the country's 51 largest metro areas, and adjusting them for the cost of living. His results put three Texan areas in the top

Houston is top because of the region's relatively low cost of living, including consumer prices, utilities and transport costs and, most importantly, housing prices, he says.

"The ratio of the median home price to median annual household income in Houston is only In San Francisco, it's

"In New York, San Francisco and LA, if you're blue-collar you will be renting forever and struggling to make ends meet. But people in Texas have a better shot at getting some of the things associated with middle-class life."

Land is cheaper than elsewhere and the process of land acquisition very efficient, says Dr Ali Anari, research economist at the Real Estate Center at Texas A&M University.

"From the time of getting a building permit right through to the construction of homes, Texas is much quicker than other states.

"There is an abundant supply of land and fewer regulations and more friendly government, generally a much better business attitude here than other states."

This flexibility, plus strict lending rules, helped to shield the state from the recent housing market crash.

Texas is one of only seven states where residents pay no personal state income tax, says Kay Bell, contributing tax editor at Bankrate and Texan native.

The state has a disproportionate take from property taxes, which has become a big complaint among homeowners, she adds. But overall, only five states had a lower individual tax burden than Texas, according to Tax Foundation research.

There are also tax incentives for businesses and this week legislators cut more than $1bn off proposed business taxes.

5. Pick your own big city

Texas has six of the country's 20 biggest cities, says Erica Grieder, author of Big, Hot, Cheap and Right: What America Can Learn from the Strange Genius of Texas.

Contrast this to, for example, Illinois, where if you want to live in a big city you can live in Chicago or you have to move out of state, she says.

But if you're in Texas you can be in Houston, San Antonio, Dallas, Austin, Fort Worth, or El Paso.

Restaurant manager Christopher Hislop, 33, moved in from Los Angeles to Austin, where he met his wife and they now have a nine-month-old boy.

"I came to Austin for a wedding and thought it was a really cool city and the people were nice - it was everything that LA wasn't but still had that hip vibe without pretension. The nightlife is great and there's an emphasis on getting out and about - they maintain trailways and nature.

"It's not Texas at all and that's what I liked about it. I don't know Texas very well, I grew up in Chicago, but Austin is not Texas because you think of gallon hats and guys on horseback. It's a cliché but Austin isn't like that, it's hip and in the now. The rest of Texas is very conservative."

People like to perpetuate a myth that Austin is still the Austin it once was, says Joshua Long, author of Weird City: Sense of Place and Creative Resistance in Austin, Texas. So as it's become a big city, a movement has developed to "keep it cool, keep it weird and keep it environmentally friendly".

Because of its good-value housing, Texas has been particularly popular with families, and some of its cities now have an above-average number of children. San Antonio is home to the largest community of gay parents.

In Texas, you can have a reasonable mortgage and pretty good schools, says Grieder. And restaurants are invariably family-friendly.

"You hear about the high drop-out rate but Texas education scores pretty well at national tests for 4th and 8th graders in math, reading and science. The aggregate is about average.

"The perception is that Texas has poor schools but it's not correct. Across the country in general, we don't have schools as good as we would like them to be."

In eighth-grade maths, for instance, Texas scored higher than the national average and outscored the three other big states of California, New York and Florida. On Sunday, an education budget was approved that restored cuts made in

"Texas is liberal in the classic sense, it's laissez-faire, so there's a lack of regulations," says Grieder, and this can apply to the obvious (business regulations) or the less obvious (city rules).

"The classic social contract is - we're not going to do a ton to help you but we're not going to get in your way. That's not % true of the state but there's that strand in the state."

Mortgage lending is an obvious exception. But there has been strong opposition to banning texting while driving and a proposed tax on soda.

And Governor Rick Perry is poised to sign off the strongest email privacy laws in the US, which would require state law enforcement agencies to get a warrant before accessing emails.

9. Texans are normal people

The state likes to proclaim itself as an unpretentious, down-to-earth place where people are easy to get along with.

As John Steinbeck wrote: "Texas has a tight cohesiveness perhaps stronger than any other section of America."

And for people with conservative values, it could be a natural home, although demographic shifts have prompted speculation it will be a Democratic state in the future.

People dream about moving to California, but they don't dream about moving to Texas, says Grieder, yet many of those reluctant to move there end up liking it.

She adds: "[They] realise that Texans aren't all Bible thumping, gun-toting people. The job is the trigger to come but you find it's pretty nice to live here."

And they're not going anywhere

All this doesn't just bring in new arrivals - native Texans aren't leaving the state either. It is the "stickiest" state in the country, according to the latest figures from the Pew Research Center, which suggest that more than three-quarters of adults born in Texas still live there. Alaska is the least sticky.

You can follow the Magazine on Twitter and on Facebook

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Austin, Texas

Capital of Texas, United States

"Austin" redirects here. For other uses, see Austin (disambiguation).

This article is about the capital city of Texas. It is not to be confused with Austin County, Texas.

State capital city in Texas, United States

Austin, Texas

City of Austin

From top, left to right: Downtown, Texas State Capitol, urban bat colony at Congress Avenue Bridge, Darrell K Royal-Texas Memorial Stadium, Main Building at the University of Texas at Austin, Paramount Theatre and Laguna Gloria.

Nicknames:&#;

Live Music Capital of the World, Silicon Hills, ATX, City of the Violet Crown

Motto(s):&#;

Keep Austin Weird (unofficial)

Location within Travis County in Texas

Location within Travis County in Texas

Austin is located in Texas
Austin

Austin

Location within Texas

Show map of Texas
Austin is located in the United States
Austin

Austin

Location within the United States

Show map of the United States
Coordinates: 30°16′2″N97°44′35″W / °N °W / ; Coordinates: 30°16′2″N97°44′35″W / °N °W / ;
CountryUnited States
StateTexas
CountiesTravis, Hays, Williamson
Settled
IncorporatedDecember 27,
Named forStephen F. Austin
&#;•&#;TypeCouncil–manager
&#;•&#;MayorSteve Adler (D)[1][a]
&#;•&#;City Council

Members

  • Natasha Harper-Madison (D)
  • Vanessa Fuentes (D)
  • Sabino "Pio" Renteria (D)
  • Greg Casar (D)
  • Ann Kitchen (D)
  • Mackenzie Kelly (R)
  • Leslie Pool (D)
  • Paige Ellis (D)
  • Kathie Tovo (D)
  • Alison Alter (D)
&#;•&#;City managerSpencer Cronk[1]
&#;•&#;State capitalcity&#;sq&#;mi (&#;km2)
&#;•&#;Land&#;sq&#;mi (&#;km2)
&#;•&#;Water&#;sq&#;mi (&#;km2)
&#;•&#;Metro4,&#;sq&#;mi (11,&#;km2)
Elevation–1,&#;ft (88–&#;m)
&#;•&#;State capitalcity,
&#;•&#;Rank11th in the United States
4th in Texas
&#;•&#;Density3,/sq&#;mi (1,/km2)
&#;•&#;Metro

[3]

2,, (28th)
Demonym(s)Austinite
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
&#;•&#;Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP Codes

, , –, –, –, –, , , ,

Area codes &
FIPS code[4]
GNIS feature ID[5]
Primary AirportAustin–Bergstrom International Airport
InterstatesI (TX).svg
U.S. RouteUS svgUS svg
Commuter RailCapital MetroRail
Websitetraitortrump.us

Austin is the capital city of the U.S. state of Texas, as well as the seat and largest city of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties. Incorporated on December 27, , it is the 11th-most populous city in the United States,[6] the fourth-most-populous city in Texas, the second-most-populous state capital city after Phoenix, Arizona,[7][8] and the most populous state capital that is not also the most populous city in its state.[7] It has been one of the fastest growing large cities in the United States since [9][10][11] The Greater Austin and Greater San Antonio areas are separated from each other by approximately 80 miles (&#;km) along Interstate It is anticipated that both regions may form a new metroplex similar to Dallas and Fort Worth.[12][13] Austin is the southernmost state capital in the contiguous United States and is considered a "Beta −" global city as categorized by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.[14]

As of the census, Austin had a population of ,,[15] up from , at the census.[4] The city is the cultural and economic center of the Austin–Round Rock metropolitan statistical area, which had an estimated population of 2,, as of July&#;1, [update], roughly 84% increase from the year [16] Located in Central Texas within the greater Texas Hill Country, it is home to numerous lakes, rivers, and waterways, including Lady Bird Lake and Lake Travis on the Colorado River, Barton Springs, McKinney Falls, and Lake Walter E. Long.

Residents of Austin are known as Austinites.[17] They include a diverse mix of government employees, college students, musicians, high-tech workers, digital marketers, and blue-collar workers. The city's official slogan promotes Austin as "The Live Music Capital of the World", a reference to the city's many musicians and live music venues, as well as the long-running PBS TV concert series Austin City Limits.[18][19] The city also adopted "Silicon Hills" as a nickname in the s due to a rapid influx of technology and development companies. In recent years, some Austinites have adopted the unofficial slogan "Keep Austin Weird",[20] which refers to the desire to protect small, unique, and local businesses from being overrun by large corporations.[21] Since the late 19th century, Austin has also been known as the "City of the Violet Crown", because of the colorful glow of light across the hills just after sunset.[22]

In , Austin originated and remains the site for South by Southwest (stylized as SXSW and colloquially referred to as South By), an annual conglomeration of parallel film, interactive media, and music festivals and conferences that take place in mid-March.

Emerging from a strong economic focus on government and education, since the s, Austin has become a center for technology and business.[23][24] A number of Fortune companies have headquarters or regional offices in Austin, including 3M, Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), Amazon, Apple, Facebook (Meta), Google, IBM, Intel, NXP semiconductors, Oracle, Tesla, Texas Instruments, and Whole Foods Market. Dell's worldwide headquarters is located in the nearby suburb of Round Rock.[25] With regard to education, Austin is the home of the University of Texas at Austin, which is one of the largest universities in the U.S. and is attended by over 50, students.[26]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Austin, Texas

See also: Timeline of Austin, Texas

Austin, Travis County and Williamson County have been the site of human habitation since at least BC. The area's earliest known inhabitants lived during the late Pleistocene (Ice Age) and are linked to the Clovis culture around BC (over 11, years ago), based on evidence found throughout the area and documented at the much-studied Gault Site, midway between Georgetown and Fort Hood.[27][failed verification]

When settlers arrived from Europe, the Tonkawa tribe inhabited the area. The Comanches and Lipan Apaches were also known to travel through the area.[28] Spanish colonists, including the Espinosa-Olivares-Aguirre expedition, traveled through the area, though few permanent settlements were created for some time.[29] In , three missions from East Texas were combined and reestablished as one mission on the south side of the Colorado River, in what is now Zilker Park, in Austin. The mission was in this area for only about seven months, and then was moved to San Antonio de Béxar and split into three missions.[30]

During the s, pioneers began to settle the area in central Austin along the Colorado River. Spanish forts were established in what are now Bastrop and San Marcos.[29][31] Following Mexico's independence, new settlements were established in Central Texas, but growth in the region was stagnant because of conflicts with the regional Native Americans.[31][32][33]

Statue of the Goddess of Liberty on the Texas State Capitolgrounds, prior to installation atop the rotunda

In –, Texans fought and won independence from Mexico. Texas thus became an independent country with its own president, congress, and monetary system. After Vice President Mirabeau B. Lamar visited the area during a buffalo-hunting expedition between and , he proposed that the republic's capital, then in Houston, be relocated to the area situated on the north bank of the Colorado River (near the present-day Congress Avenue Bridge). In , the site was chosen to replace Houston as the capital of the Republic of Texas and was incorporated under the name "Waterloo". Shortly afterward, the name was changed to Austin in honor of Stephen F. Austin, the "Father of Texas" and the republic's first secretary of state. The city grew throughout the 19th century and became a center for government and education with the construction of the Texas State Capitol and the University of Texas at Austin.[34] After a severe lull in economic growth from the Great Depression, Austin resumed its steady development.

In , the Texas Congress formed a commission to seek a site for a new capital to be named for Stephen F. Austin.[35] Mirabeau B. Lamar, second president of the newly formed Republic of Texas, advised the commissioners to investigate the area named Waterloo, noting the area's hills, waterways, and pleasant surroundings.[36] Waterloo was selected, and "Austin" was chosen as the town's new name.[37] The location was seen as a convenient crossroads for trade routes between Santa Fe and Galveston Bay, as well as routes between northern Mexico and the Red River.[38]

Second capitol building in Austin

Edwin Waller was picked by Lamar to survey the village and draft a plan laying out the new capital.[35] The original site was narrowed to acres (&#;ha) that fronted the Colorado River between two creeks, Shoal Creek and Waller Creek, which was later named in his honor. Waller and a team of surveyors developed Austin's first city plan, commonly known as the Waller Plan, dividing the site into a block grid plan bisected by a broad north–south thoroughfare, Congress Avenue, running up from the river to Capital Square, where the new Texas State Capitol was to be constructed. A temporary one-story capitol was erected on the corner of Colorado and 8th Streets. On August 1, , the first auction of out of lots total was held.[35][38] The Waller Plan designed and surveyed now forms the basis of downtown Austin.

In , a series of conflicts between the Texas Rangers and the Comanches, known as the Council House Fight and the Battle of Plum Creek, pushed the Comanches westward, mostly ending conflicts in Central Texas.[39] Settlement in the area began to expand quickly. Travis County was established in , and the surrounding counties were mostly established within the next two decades.[33]

Initially, the new capital thrived but Lamar's political enemy, Sam Houston, used two Mexican army incursions to San Antonio as an excuse to move the government. Sam Houston fought bitterly against Lamar's decision to establish the capital in such a remote wilderness. The men and women who traveled mainly from Houston to conduct government business were intensely disappointed as well. By , the population had risen to , nearly half of whom fled Austin when Congress recessed.[40] The resident African American population listed in January of this same year was [41] The fear of Austin's proximity to the Indians and Mexico, which still considered Texas a part of their land, created an immense motive for Sam Houston, the first and third President of the Republic of Texas, to relocate the capital once again in Upon threats of Mexican troops in Texas, Houston raided the Land Office to transfer all official documents to Houston for safe keeping in what was later known as the Archive War, but the people of Austin would not allow this unaccompanied decision to be executed. The documents stayed, but the capital would temporarily move from Austin to Houston to Washington-on-the-Brazos. Without the governmental body, Austin's population declined to a low of only a few hundred people throughout the early s. The voting by the fourth President of the Republic, Anson Jones, and Congress, who reconvened in Austin in , settled the issue to keep Austin the seat of government, as well as annex the Republic of Texas into the United States.

In , 38% of Travis County residents were slaves.[42] In , with the outbreak of the American Civil War, voters in Austin and other Central Texas communities voted against secession.[31][35] However, as the war progressed and fears of attack by Union forces increased, Austin contributed hundreds of men to the Confederate forces. The African American population of Austin swelled dramatically after the enforcement of the Emancipation Proclamation in Texas by Union General Gordon Granger at Galveston, in an event commemorated as Juneteenth. Black communities such as Wheatville, Pleasant Hill, and Clarksville were established, with Clarksville being the oldest surviving freedomtown ‒ the original post-Civil War settlements founded by former African-American slaves ‒ west of the Mississippi River.[35] In , blacks made up % of Austin's population.[43]

An illustration of Edwin Waller's layout for Austin

The postwar period saw dramatic population and economic growth. The opening of the Houston and Texas Central Railway (H&TC) in [44] turned Austin into the major trading center for the region, with the ability to transport both cotton and cattle. The Missouri, Kansas & Texas (MKT) line followed close behind.[45] Austin was also the terminus of the southernmost leg of the Chisholm Trail, and "drovers" pushed cattle north to the railroad.[46] Cotton was one of the few crops produced locally for export, and a cotton gin engine was located downtown near the trains for "ginning" cotton of its seeds and turning the product into bales for shipment.[47] However, as other new railroads were built through the region in the s, Austin began to lose its primacy in trade to the surrounding communities.[35] In addition, the areas east of Austin took over cattle and cotton production from Austin, especially in towns like Hutto and Taylor that sit over the blackland prairie, with its deep, rich soils for producing cotton and hay.[48][49]

In September , Austin public schools held their first classes. The same year, Tillotson Collegiate and Normal Institute (now part of Huston–Tillotson University) opened its doors. The University of Texas held its first classes in , although classes had been held in the original wooden state capitol for four years before.[50]

During the s, Austin gained new prominence as the state capitol building was completed in and claimed as the seventh largest building in the world.[35] In the late 19th century, Austin expanded its city limits to more than three times its former area, and the first granite dam was built on the Colorado River to power a new street car line and the new "moon towers".[35] The first dam washed away in a flood on April 7, [51]

In the late s and s, Austin implemented the Austin city plan through a series of civic development and beautification projects that created much of the city's infrastructure and many of its parks. In addition, the state legislature established the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) that, along with the city of Austin, created the system of dams along the Colorado River to form the Highland Lakes. These projects were enabled in large part because the Public Works Administration provided Austin with greater funding for municipal construction projects than other Texas cities.[35]

During the early twentieth century, a three-way system of social segregation emerged in Austin, with Anglos, African Americans and Mexicans being separated by custom or law in most aspects of life, including housing, health care, and education. Many of the municipal improvement programs initiated during this period—such as the construction of new roads, schools, and hospitals—were deliberately designed to institutionalize this system of segregation. Deed restrictions also played an important role in residential segregation. After most housing deeds prohibited African Americans (and sometimes other nonwhite groups) from using land.[52] Combined with the system of segregated public services, racial segregation increased in Austin during the first half of the twentieth century, with African Americans and Mexicans experiencing high levels of discrimination and social marginalization.[53]

In , the destroyed granite dam on the Colorado River was finally replaced by a hollow concrete dam[54] that formed Lake McDonald (now called Lake Austin) and which has withstood all floods since. In addition, the much larger Mansfield Dam was built by the LCRA upstream of Austin to form Lake Travis, a flood-control reservoir.

[55] In the early 20th century, the Texas Oil Boom took hold, creating tremendous economic opportunities in Southeast Texas and North Texas. The growth generated by this boom largely passed by Austin at first, with the city slipping from fourth largest to 10th largest in Texas between and [35]

After the midth century, Austin became established as one of Texas' major metropolitan centers. In , the U.S. Census Bureau reported Austin's population as % Hispanic, % black, and % non-Hispanic white.[43] In the late 20th century, Austin emerged as an important high tech center for semiconductors and software. The University of Texas at Austin emerged as a major university.[56]

The s saw Austin's emergence in the national music scene, with local artists such as Willie Nelson, Asleep at the Wheel, and Stevie Ray Vaughan and iconic music venues such as the Armadillo World Headquarters. Over time, the long-running television program Austin City Limits, its namesake Austin City Limits Festival, and the South by Southwest music festival solidified the city's place in the music industry.[24]

Geography[edit]

Austin as seen from space,

Austin, the southernmost state capital of the contiguous 48 states, is located in Central Texas on the Colorado River. Austin is miles (&#;km) northwest of Houston,[57] miles (&#;km) south of Dallas[58] and 74 miles (&#;km) northeast of San Antonio.[59]

In , the city occupied a total area of square miles (&#;km2). Approximately square miles (&#;km2) of this area is water.[4] Austin is situated at the foot of the Balcones Escarpment, on the Colorado River, with three artificial lakes within the city limits: Lady Bird Lake (formerly known as Town Lake), Lake Austin (both created by dams along the Colorado River), and Lake Walter E. Long that is partly used for cooling water for the Decker Power Plant. Mansfield Dam and the foot of Lake Travis are located within the city's limits.[35] Lady Bird Lake, Lake Austin, and Lake Travis are each on the Colorado River.[35]

The elevation of Austin varies from feet (&#;m) to approximately 1, feet (&#;m) above sea level.[60] Due to the fact it straddles the Balcones Fault, much of the eastern part of the city is flat, with heavy clay and loam soils, whereas the western part and western suburbs consist of rolling hills on the edge of the Texas Hill Country.[61] Because the hills to the west are primarily limestone rock with a thin covering of topsoil, portions of the city are frequently subjected to flash floods from the runoff caused by thunderstorms.[62][63] To help control this runoff and to generate hydroelectric power, the Lower Colorado River Authority operates a series of dams that form the Texas Highland Lakes. The lakes also provide venues for boating, swimming, and other forms of recreation within several parks on the lake shores.[64]

Austin is located at the intersection of four major ecological regions, and is consequently a temperate-to-hot green oasis with a highly variable climate having some characteristics of the desert, the tropics, and a wetter climate.[65][66] The area is very diverse ecologically and biologically, and is home to a variety of animals and plants.[67] Notably, the area is home to many types of wildflowers that blossom throughout the year but especially in the spring. This includes the popular bluebonnets, some planted by "Lady Bird" Johnson, wife of former President Lyndon B. Johnson.[68]

The soils of Austin range from shallow, gravelly clay loams over limestone in the western outskirts to deep, fine sandy loams, silty clay loams, silty clays or clays in the city's eastern part. Some of the clays have pronounced shrink-swell properties and are difficult to work under most moisture conditions. Many of Austin's soils, especially the clay-rich types, are slightly to moderately alkaline and have free calcium carbonate.[69]

Cityscape[edit]

See also: List of Austin neighborhoods and List of tallest buildings in Austin, Texas

Panorama of Austin skyline

Panorama of Austin skyline in

Austin's skyline historically was modest, dominated by the Texas State Capitol and the University of Texas Main Building. However, since the s, many new high-rise towers have been constructed.[70] Austin is currently undergoing a skyscraper boom, which includes recent construction on new office, hotel and residential buildings. Downtown's buildings are somewhat spread out, partly due to a set of zoning restrictions that preserve the view of the Texas State Capitol from various locations around Austin, known as the Capitol View Corridors.[71]

One of the 15 remaining moonlight towers in Austin

At night, parts of Austin are lit by "artificial moonlight" from moonlight towers built to illuminate the central part of the city.[72] The foot (50&#;m) moonlight towers were built in the late 19th century and are now recognized as historic landmarks. Only 15 of the 31 original innovative towers remain standing in Austin, but none remain in any of the other cities where they were installed. The towers are featured in the film Dazed and Confused.

Downtown[edit]

Main article: Downtown Austin

The central business district of Austin is home to the tallest condo towers in the state, with The Independent (58 stories and &#;ft (&#;m) tall) and The Austonian (topping out at 56 floors and &#;ft (&#;m) tall). The Independent became the tallest all-residential building in the U.S. west of Chicago when topped out in In , then-Mayor Will Wynn set out a goal of having 25, people living downtown by [73] Although downtown's growth did not meet this goal, downtown's residential population did surge from an estimated 5, in to 12, in [74] The skyline has drastically changed in recent years, and the residential real estate market has remained relatively strong. As of December&#;[update], there were 31 high rise projects either under construction, approved or planned to be completed in Austin's downtown core between and Sixteen of those were set to rise above &#;ft (&#;m) tall, including four above ', and eight above '. An additional 15 towers were slated to stand between ' and ' tall.

Climate[edit]

Austin
Climate chart (explanation)

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Metric conversion

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Austin is located within the middle of a unique, narrow transitional zone between the dry deserts of the American Southwest and the lush, green, more humid regions of the American Southeast. Its climate, topography, and vegetation share characteristics of both. Officially, Austin has a humid subtropical climate under the Köppen climate classification. This climate is typified by very long and hot summers, short and mild winters, and pleasantly warm spring and fall seasons in-between. Austin averages inches (&#;mm) of annual rainfall distributed mostly evenly throughout the year, though spring and fall are the wettest seasons. Sunshine is common during all seasons, with 2, hours, or % of the possible total, of bright sunshine per year.[75] Austin falls in USDAhardiness zones 8b (15&#;°F to 20&#;°F) and 9a (20&#;°F to 25&#;°F).[76]

Summers in Austin are very hot, with average July and August highs frequently reaching the highs (34–36&#;°C) or above. Highs reach 90&#;°F (32&#;°C) on days per year, of which 18 days reach &#;°F (38&#;°C).[77] The average daytime high is 70&#;°F (21&#;°C) or warmer between March 6 and November 20, rising to 80&#;°F (27&#;°C) or warmer between April 14 and October 24, and reaching 90&#;°F (32&#;°C) or warmer between May 30 and September [78] The highest ever recorded temperature was &#;°F (44&#;°C) occurring on September 5, , and August 28, [79][80] An uncommon characteristic of Austin's climate is its highly variable humidity, which fluctuates frequently depending on the shifting patterns of air flow and wind direction. It is common for a lengthy series of warm, dry, low-humidity days to be occasionally interrupted by very warm and humid days, and vice versa. Humidity rises with winds from the east or southeast, when the air drifts inland from the Gulf of Mexico, but decreases significantly with winds from the west or southwest, bringing air flowing from Chihuahuan Desert areas of West Texas or northern Mexico.[77]

Winters in Austin are mild with cool nights, although occasional short-lived bursts of cold weather known as "Blue Northers" can occur. January is the coolest month with an average daytime high of 61&#;°F (16&#;°C). The overnight low drops to or below freezing 19 times per year,[77] and sinks below 45&#;°F (7&#;°C) during 88 evenings per year, including most nights between mid-December and mid-February. Lows in the upper 30s also occur commonly during the winter. Conversely, winter months are also capable of occasionally producing warm days. On average, eight days in January reach or exceed 70&#;°F (21&#;°C) and one day reaches 80&#;°F (27&#;°C).[78] The lowest ever recorded temperature in the city was −2&#;°F (−19&#;°C) on January 31, Roughly every two years Austin experiences an ice storm that freezes roads over and cripples travel in the city for 24 to 48 hours.[81] When Austin received inches (1&#;mm) of ice on January 24, , there were vehicular collisions.[82] Similarly, snowfall is rare in Austin.[83] A snow event of inches (2&#;cm) on February 4, , caused more than car crashes.[84] The most recent major snow event occurred the week of February 14, , when as many as inches were recorded in parts of Travis County.[85]

Typical of Central Texas, severe weather in Austin is a threat that can strike during any season. However, it is most common during the spring. According to most classifications, Austin lies within the extreme southern periphery of Tornado Alley, although many sources place Austin outside of Tornado Alley altogether.[86] Consequently, tornadoes strike Austin less frequently than areas farther to the north.[86] However, severe weather and/or supercell thunderstorms can occur multiple times per year, bringing damaging winds, lightning, heavy rain, and occasional flash flooding to the city.[87] The deadliest storm to ever strike city limits was the twin tornadoes storm of May 4, , while the deadliest tornado outbreak to ever strike the metro area was the Central Texas tornado outbreak of May 27,

Climate data for Camp Mabry, Austin, Texas (– normals,[b] extremes –present)[c]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 90
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Average precipitation inches (mm)
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Mean monthly sunshine hours 2,
Percent possible sunshine51 54 55 53 54 68 74 73 63 61 53 48 60
Average ultraviolet index4 6 8 9 10 11 11 10 9 7 5 4 8
Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity and sun –),[88][89][90]
Source 2: Weather Atlas [91] (UV index)

drought[edit]

Main article: Southern US drought

The Texas drought dried up many of central Texas' waterways. This boat was left to sit in the middle of what is normally a branch of Lake Travis, part of the Colorado River.

From October through September , both major reporting stations in Austin, Camp Mabry and Bergstrom Int'l, had the least rainfall of a water year on record, receiving less than a third of normal precipitation.[77] This was a result of La Niña conditions in the eastern Pacific Ocean where water was significantly cooler than normal. David Brown, a regional official with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, explained that "these kinds of droughts will have effects that are even more extreme in the future, given a warming and drying regional climate."[92] The drought, coupled with exceedingly high temperatures throughout the summer of , caused many wildfires throughout Texas, including notably the Bastrop County Complex Fire in neighboring Bastrop, TX.

flooding and water crisis[edit]

In Fall , Austin and surrounding areas received heavy rainfall and flash flooding following Hurricane Sergio.[93] The Lower Colorado River Authority opened four floodgates of the Mansfield Dam after Lake Travis was recorded at % full at feet (&#;m).[94] From the October 22 to 29, the City of Austin issued a mandatory citywide boil-water advisory after the Highland Lakes, home to the city's main water supply, became overwhelmed by unprecedented amounts of silt, dirt, and debris that washed in from the Llano River.[95] Austin Water, the city's water utility, has the capacity to process up to &#;million gallons of water per day, but the elevated level of turbidity reduced output to only &#;million gallons per day since Austin residents consumed an average of &#;million gallons of water per day, so the infrastructure was not able to keep up with demand.[93]

winter storm[edit]

Main article: February 13–17, North American winter storm §&#;Central and Southern Plains

See also: Texas power crisis

Austin covered in snow on February 15, Photo from ESA.

In February , Winter Storm Uri dropped prolific amounts of snow across Texas and Oklahoma, including Austin. The Austin area received a total of inches of snowfall between February 14 and 15, with snow cover persisting till February [96] This marked the longest time the area had had more than 1" of snow, with the previous longest time being 3 days in January ,[97]

Lack of winterization in natural gas power plants plants, which supply a large amount of power to the Texas grid, and increased energy demand caused ERCOT and Austin Energy to enact rolling blackouts in order to avoid total grid collapse between February 15 to [98] Initial rolling blackouts were to last for a maximum of 40 minutes, however lack of energy production caused many blackouts to last for much longer, at the peak of the blackouts an estimated 40% of Austin Energy homes were without power.[99]

Starting on February 15, Austin Water received reports of pipe breaks, hourly water demand increased from million gallons per day (MGD) on February 15 to a peak hourly demand of MGD on February On the morning of February 17 demand increased to MGD, the resulting drop of water pressure caused the Austin area to enter into a boil-water advisory which would last until water pressure was restored on February []

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
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U.S. Decennial Census[]
[15]

According to the United States census,[] the racial composition of Austin was % White (% non-Hispanic whites), % Hispanic or Latino (% Mexican, % Puerto Rican, % Cuban, % Other), % African American, % Asian (% Indian, % Chinese, % Vietnamese, % Korean, % Filipino, % Japanese, % Other), % American Indian, % Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and % two or more races.

Map of racial distribution in Austin, U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic, or Other(yellow)

At the United States Census,[] there were , people, , households, and , families residing in the city. The population density was 2, inhabitants per square mile (1,/km2). There were , housing units at an average density of 1, per square mile (/km2). There were , households, out of which % had children under the age of 18 living with them, % were married couples living together, % had a female householder with no husband present, and % were non-families. % of all households were made up of individuals, and % had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was and the average family size was

In the city, the population was spread out, with % under the age of 18, % from 18 to 24, % from 25 to 44, % from 45 to 64, and % who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every females, there were males.

The median income for a household in the city was US$42,, and the median income for a family was $54, Males had a median income of $35, vs. $30, for females. The per capita income for the city was $24, About % of families and % of the population were below the poverty line, including % of those under age 18 and % of those age 65 or over. The median house price was $, in , and it has increased every year since [needs update][] The median value of a house which the owner occupies was $, in —higher than the average American home value of $,[]

A University of Texas study stated that Austin was the only U.S. city with a fast growth rate between and with a net loss in African Americans. As of [update], Austin's African American and non-Hispanic white percentage share of the total population was declining despite the actual numbers of both ethnic groups increasing, as the rapid growth of the Latino or Hispanic and Asian populations has outpaced all other ethnic groups in the city. Austin's non-Hispanic white population first dropped below 50% in [][][]

According to a survey completed in by Gallup, it is estimated that % of residents in the Austin metropolitan area identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender.[] The Austin metropolitan area had the third-highest rate in the nation.[]

Religion[edit]

According to Sperling's BestPlaces, % of Austin's population are religious.[] The majority of Austinites identified themselves as Christians, about % of whom claimed affiliation with the Catholic Church.[] The city's Catholic population is served by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Austin, headquartered at the Cathedral of Saint Mary. Nationwide, 23% of Americans identified as Catholic in [] Other significant Christian groups in Austin include Baptists (%), followed by Methodists (%), Latter-Day Saints (%), Episcopalians or Anglicans (%), Lutherans (%), Presbyterians (%), Pentecostals (%), and other Christians such as the Disciples of Christ and Eastern Orthodox Church (%).[] The second largest religion Austinites identify with is Islam (%); roughly % of Americans nationwide claimed affiliation with the Islamic faith.[] The dominant branch of Islam is Sunni Islam. Established in , the largest mosque in Austin is the Islamic Center of Greater Austin. The community is affiliated with the Islamic Society of North America. The same study says that eastern faiths including Buddhism, Sikhism, and Hinduism made up % of the city's religious population.[] Several Hindu temples exist in the Austin Metropolitan area with the most notable one being Radha Madhav Dham. Judaism forms less than % of the religious demographic in Austin. Orthodox, Reform, and Conservative congregations are present in the community.[] In addition to those religious groups, Austin is also home to an active secular humanist community, hosting nationwide television shows and charity work.[]

Homelessness[edit]

As of , there were 2, individuals experiencing homelessness in Travis County. Of those, 1, were sheltered and 1, were unsheltered.[] In September , the Austin City Council approved $&#;million for programs aimed at homelessness, which includes housing displacement prevention, crisis mitigation, and affordable housing; the city council also earmarked $, for crisis services and encampment cleanups.[]

In June , following a federal court ruling on homelessness sleeping in public,[] the Austin City Council lifted a year-old ban on camping, sitting, or lying down in public unless doing so causes an obstruction. The resolution also included the approval of a new housing-focused shelter in South Austin.[] In early October , Texas Governor Greg Abbott sent a letter to Mayor Steve Adler threatening to deploy state resources to combat the camping ban repeal.[] On October 17, , the City Council revised the camping ordinance, which imposed increased restrictions on sidewalk camping.[] In November , the State of Texas opened a temporary homeless encampment on a former vehicle storage yard owned by the Texas Department of Transportation.[]

In May , the camping ban was reinstated after a ballot proposition was approved by 57% of voters. The ban introduces penalties for camping, sitting, or lying down on a public sidewalk or sleeping outdoors in or near Downtown Austin or the area around the University of Texas campus. The ordinance would also prohibit solicitation at certain locations.[]

Economy[edit]

See also: Silicon Hills and List of companies based in Austin, Texas

Downtown Austin from Congress Avenue Bridge, with Texas State Capitol in background,

The Greater Austinmetropolitan statistical area had a gross domestic product (GDP) of $86&#;billion in [] Austin is considered to be a major center for high tech.[] Thousands of graduates each year from the engineering and computer science programs at the University of Texas at Austin provide a steady source of employees that help to fuel Austin's technology and defense industry sectors. The region's rapid growth has led Forbes to rank the Austin metropolitan area number one among all big cities for jobs for in their annual survey and WSJ Marketwatch to rank the area number one for growing businesses.[][] By , Austin was ranked No. 14 on Forbes' list of the Best Places for Business and Careers (directly below Dallas, No. 13 on the list).[] As a result of the high concentration of high-tech companies in the region, Austin was strongly affected by the dot-com boom in the late s and subsequent bust.[] Austin's largest employers include the Austin Independent School District, the City of Austin, Dell, the U.S. Federal Government, NXP Semiconductors, IBM, St. David's Healthcare Partnership, Seton Family of Hospitals, the State of Texas, the Texas State University, and the University of Texas at Austin.[]

Other high-tech companies with operations in Austin include 3M, Apple, Amazon, AMD, Apartment Ratings, Applied Materials, Arm Holdings, Bigcommerce, BioWare, Blizzard Entertainment, Buffalo Technology, Cirrus Logic, Cisco Systems, Dropbox, eBay, Electronic Arts, Flextronics, Facebook, Google, Hewlett-Packard, Hoover's, HomeAway, HostGator, Intel Corporation, National Instruments, Nintendo, Nvidia, Oracle, PayPal, Polycom, Qualcomm, Rackspace, RetailMeNot, Rooster Teeth, Samsung Group, Silicon Laboratories, Spansion, Tesla, United Devices, VMware, and Xerox. In , Facebook accepted a grant to build a downtown office that could bring as many as jobs to the city.[] The proliferation of technology companies has led to the region's nickname, "Silicon Hills", and spurred development that greatly expanded the city.

Austin is also emerging as a hub for pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies; the city is home to about 85 of them.[] In , the city was ranked by the Milken Institute as the #12 biotech and life science center in the United States[] and in , CBRE Group ranked Austin as #3 emerging life sciences cluster.[] Companies such as Hospira, Pharmaceutical Product Development, and ArthroCare Corporation are located there.

Whole Foods Market, an international grocery store chain specializing in fresh and packaged food products, was founded and is headquartered in Austin.[]

Other companies based in Austin include NXP Semiconductors, GoodPop, Temple-Inland, Sweet Leaf Tea Company, Keller Williams Realty, National Western Life, GSD&M, Dimensional Fund Advisors, Golfsmith, Forestar Group, EZCorp, Outdoor Voices, Tito's Vodka, Indeed, Speak Social, and YETI.

In , Austin metro-area companies saw a total of $&#;billion invested. Austin's VC numbers were so strong in that they accounted for more than 60 percent of Texas' total investments.[]

Culture and contemporary life[edit]

Museum of the Weird on Sixth Street
The Emma S. Barrientos Mexican American Cultural Center, located on Lady Bird Lake at River Street

"Keep Austin Weird" has been a local motto for years, featured on bumper stickers and T-shirts. This motto has not only been used in promoting Austin's eccentricity and diversity, but is also meant to bolster support of local independent businesses.[21] According to the book Weird City the phrase was begun by a local Austin Community College librarian, Red Wassenich, and his wife, Karen Pavelka, who were concerned about Austin's "rapid descent into commercialism and overdevelopment."[17] The slogan has been interpreted many ways since its inception, but remains an important symbol for many Austinites who wish to voice concerns over rapid growth and irresponsible development. Austin has a long history of vocal citizen resistance to development projects perceived to degrade the environment, or to threaten the natural and cultural landscapes.[]

According to the Nielsen Company, adults in Austin read and contribute to blogs more than those in any other U.S. metropolitan area.[] Austin residents have the highest Internet usage in all of Texas.[] In , Austin was the most active city on Reddit, having the largest number of views per capita.[] Austin was selected as the No. 2 Best Big City in "Best Places to Live" by Money magazine in , and No. 3 in , and also the "Greenest City in America" by MSN.[][]

South Congress is a shopping district stretching down South Congress Avenue from Downtown. This area is home to coffee shops, eccentric stores, restaurants, food trucks, trailers, and festivals. It prides itself on "Keeping Austin Weird," especially with development in the surrounding area(s). Many Austinites attribute its enduring popularity to the magnificent and unobstructed view of the Texas State Capitol.[36]

The Rainey Street Historic District is a neighborhood in Downtown Austin consisting mostly of bungalow style homes built in the early 20th century. Since the early s, the former working class residential street has turned into a popular nightlife district. Much of the historic homes have been renovated into bars and restaurants, many of which feature large porches and outdoor yards for patrons.[] The Rainey Street district is also home to the Emma S. Barrientos Mexican American Cultural Center.

Austin has been part of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network under Media Arts the category.[]

Old Austin[edit]

"Old Austin" is an adage often used by nostalgic natives.[] The term "Old Austin" refers to a time when the city was smaller and more bohemian with a considerably lower cost of living and better known for its lack of traffic, hipsters, and urban sprawl.[] It is often employed by longtime residents expressing displeasure at the rapidly changing culture,[] or when referencing nostalgia of Austin culture.[]

The growth and popularity of Austin[] can be seen by the expansive development taking place in its downtown landscape.[] Forbes ranked Austin as the second fastest-growing city in [] This growth can have a negative impact on longtime small businesses that cannot keep up with the expenses associated with gentrification and the rising cost of real estate.[] A former Austin musician, Dale Watson, described his move away from Austin, "I just really feel the city has sold itself. Just because you're going to get $45 million for a company to come to town – if it's not in the best interest of the town, I don't think they should do it. This city was never about money. It was about quality of life."[]

Annual cultural events[edit]

See also: Category:Festivals in Austin, Texas

The O. Henry House Museum hosts the annual O. Henry Pun-Off, a pun contest where the successful contestants exhibit wit akin to that of the author William Sydney Porter.

Other annual events include Eeyore's Birthday Party, Spamarama, Austin Pride Festival & Parade in August, the Austin Reggae Festival in April,[] Kite Festival, Texas Craft Brewers Festival in September,[] Art City Austin in April,[] East Austin Studio Tour in November,[] and Carnaval Brasileiro in February. Sixth Street features annual festivals such as the Pecan Street Festival and Halloween night. The three-day Austin City Limits Music Festival has been held in Zilker Park every year since Every year around the end of March and the beginning of April, Austin is home to "Texas Relay Weekend."

Austin's Zilker Park Tree is a Christmas display made of lights strung from the top of a Moonlight tower in Zilker Park. The Zilker Tree is lit in December along with the "Trail of Lights," an Austin Christmas tradition. The Trail of Lights was canceled four times, first starting in and due to the September 11 Attacks, and again in and due to budget shortfalls, but the trail was turned back on for the holiday season.[]

Cuisine and breweries[edit]

A food truck trailer park in South Austin

Austin is perhaps best known for its Texas barbecue and Tex-Mex cuisine. Franklin Barbecue

Источник: traitortrump.us,_Texas

This little-known Texas 'war' is the reason why Austin is the capital of Texas

In the days of Texas' independence, the capital city changed hands fairly often. Houston held the seat a few times, but by , years after Texans won the Battle of San Jacinto, the capital was in Austin. 

Because the republic's independence was challenged by Mexico, Texas was under constant fear of attack. In March , a battalion of Mexican forces made its way into San Antonio and threatened to advance to Austin and possibly take the capital, according to the Texas State Historical Association. 

President Sam Houston ordered the Texas congress to meet and discuss a plan of action – but not in the capital city. Instead, he ordered congress to meet in Houston and wanted the state's official archives moved, too, so they wouldn't fall in the hands of the advancing Mexican forces. 

Of course, that upset Austinites. In an apparent knee-jerk reaction, a "vigilante committee of residents" took arms and threatened to turn their guns on their fellow Texans tasked with moving the official documents, according to the historical association. 

Yes, Austin's hatred for Houston was so strong that they threatened to shoot Texas rangers sent by the president to grab some papers. Houston ordered the rangers to grab the documents but not cause any bloodshed. 

In a not-at-all-surprising move, the so-called committee was unprepared to take any action by the time the rangers arrived. Houston's crew secured the archives and left the city in December  

By January , the committee of vigilantes had stolen more firepower and cornered the rangers just outside the city. There, they fired several rounds at the ranger who, under orders not to cause bloodshed, gave up the papers to the group and made their way back to Houston. 

The committee took the papers back to Austin, where they remain to this day. Texans voted to make Austin the permanent capital years later. 

In the days when we're rethinking how we view Texas' history, including the recent retelling of the history of the Alamo Mission, maybe this intrastate uprising is one of them. 

It's a saga known as the Archives War to historians, but I'd like to call it the War of Austin's Aggression. 

Источник: traitortrump.us

Why Some Americans Are Leaving California for Texas

The two most populous states in the United States, California and Texas, have long competed to attract companies and talent. Data from the U.S. census show that Texas is drawing more people, including Californians.

Texans have a saying: "Everything is bigger in Texas." By size, it is the largest state in the contiguous U.S. There are many reasons why the state's population is also getting bigger.

"Your quality of life is so much higher here in Austin," said Alex Backus, who moved with his teenage daughter from San Jose, California, to the Texas capital almost two years ago.

Backus has been bouncing back and forth between the two states over the years. He said that while he missed the outdoor activities and mild weather in California's Bay Area, it is not a financially friendly place for young adults such as his daughter.

"Most of the kids that are in the Bay Area and they graduate, they kind of need to leave the Bay Area because it's so expensive. I kind of figured in Austin, there was a shot that she might actually choose to try to stay in Austin to go to college and start her life," Backus explained.

Correlation between states

"They each have a singular history. Both of them were governed by Spain and Mexico. They both have a sort of a nation-state identity unlike any other state," said Bill Fulton, director of Rice University's Kinder Institute for Urban Research, in Houston.

Fulton moved to Texas from California for his current job. He has been studying the migration patterns between the two states through census data and noticed a correlation.

"When home prices in California go up, more people move to Texas. When home prices in California go down, fewer people move to Texas," Fulton said.

James, 9, and Will, 11, the children of Kate Sullivan Morgan and William Morgan, who relocated so children could attend school in-person, play in the family's new home in Austin, Texas, March 12,

Census and politics

While California still has 10 million more residents than Texas, the migration patterns of each state have been going on for years, and Texas has won the popularity contest, according to the census results.

For the first time in the state's history, California, a Democratic bastion, lost one U.S. congressional seat determined by the state's population. Republican-leaning Texas, the biggest winner of all 50 states, gained two seats.

While the impact will be felt in Washington, Fulton said its political significance depends on who is moving from California to Texas — whether they are conservative Republicans who do not like liberal-leaning California with its state tax and more regulations, or Democrats from California looking for better opportunities in Texas.

"It may well be that a flow from California to Texas increases the likelihood that at some point in the future, Texas will turn blue. And if it does, of course, that's good news for the Democrats and bad news for the Republicans nationally because then the two largest states are locked in to be Democratic states. But that would still be a way off if it happens," Fulton said.

Impact of pandemic

During the pandemic, out-migration from expensive states such as California and New York picked up. States with lower costs of living, including Texas and Florida, are seeing an influx of new residents, said Los Angeles-based Eric Willett, director of research and thought leadership for the Pacific Southwest division at commercial real estate firm CBRE.

He studied the impact of the pandemic on people's decision to move by looking at data from the U.S. Postal Service. With people working from home, there was a trend of people across the U.S. leaving denser urban regions for homes in the suburbs.

"Whether it's a backyard or an extra bedroom, those sorts of living environments became much more highly desired during the pandemic," Willett said.

The urban dwellers who moved tend to be young, affluent, highly educated and childless.

While Willett found that most Californians who moved did so within the state, the migration patterns of people who chose to move out of state were consistent with pre-pandemic trends.

"The states that saw the most out-migration last year are also the states that saw the most outmigration in It just was an accelerated path of out-migration," Willett said.

FILE - Tesla CEO Elon Musk speaks before unveiling the Model Y at Tesla's design studio in Hawthorne, California, March 14,

Texas appeal

Elon Musk, co-founder of Tesla and SpaceX, moved last year from California to Texas, where his business priorities are located.

Tesla Cybertruck and SpaceX's spaceport are in Texas. Tech companies Oracle and HP Inc., as well as CBRE, have relocated their headquarters to Texas. Japanese automaker Toyota also chose to relocate its North American headquarters from California to Texas, which is not only known for its ample housing and lower cost of living but also its business-friendly environment.

Nicknamed "Silicon Hills," Austin has been an attractive location for many tech companies.

"There's no question that Texas has fewer business regulations than California," Fulton said.

Texas may be popular, but Willett said it does not mean there is a mass exodus of businesses from California.

"Increasingly, companies are looking to diversify their talent base, and California is a mature market in many industries. And it makes sense for these companies to look elsewhere to continue to expand their access to talent," Willett explained.

"Facebook and Google are constantly fighting for downtown office space of more than a million square feet (92, square meters). They're looking for additional properties, and it just seems like every company is trying to expand their presence here in Austin," said Job Hammond of the Austin Board of Realtors.

Hammond, originally from Northern California, moved to Austin 14 years ago when he relocated for his then-employer Oracle. He is now a relocation expert who helps people from other cities find homes in Austin.

"They all seemingly want the same sort of thing — a good quality of life, a reasonable price in terms of a home, and, in some cases, to avoid state income tax," Hammond said.

Texas Realtors, the state-level association of realtors, reported that in the first quarter of , the median sales price of single-family homes in the state reached $,

In contrast, the California Association of Realtors reported that the median price of a single-family home in the state in March was $,

"A California family will cash in their home equity to get a bigger house in Texas, and they're probably not going to reverse that pattern," Fulton said.

Foreign investors are also noticing Texas. Hammond has helped investors from Malaysia, Nepal, China, Europe and Mexico find properties.

"I was on the phone about 12 o'clock midnight with somebody in Shanghai who's interested in not having cash in the bank because she's worried about things like inflation," Hammond said.

California dreaming

Backus has enjoyed the live music and arts scene in Austin and picked up surfing on Lake Austin.

But Texas summers are a lot hotter than they are in Northern California, with its milder climate, diverse geography, and plentiful biking opportunities and outdoor activities, which Backus misses.

"I still have my home there. It's rented out there, and I'm questioning whether I should keep it, because I might want to go back. I do miss going snow skiing," he said.

Источник: traitortrump.us

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