Skip to content

Archives

What is the first capital of japan


what is the first capital of japan

in the early a.d. 700's, Japan's emperors built a new capital city called Nara. For the next 100 years, Nara was the center of government and religion in. Originally named Edo, the city started to flourish after Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Tokugawa Shogunate here in 1603. The Emperor moved to Edo, which was. The national capital and largest city is Tokyo. Other major cities are Fukuoka, Fukushima, Kobe, Kyoto, Nagoya, Osaka, Sapporo, Sendai, and Yokohama. The.
what is the first capital of japan

What is the first capital of japan -

Japan country profile

Japan has the world's third-largest economy, having achieved remarkable growth in the second half of the 20th Century after the devastation of the Second World War.

Its role in the international community is considerable. It is a major aid donor, and a source of global capital and credit.

More than three quarters of the population live in sprawling cities on the coastal fringes of Japan's four mountainous, heavily-wooded islands.

Japan's rapid post-war expansion - propelled by highly successful car and consumer electronics industries - ran out of steam by the 1990s under a mounting debt burden that successive governments have failed to address.

Japan's relations with its neighbours are still heavily influenced by the legacy of Japanese actions before and during the Second World War. Japan has found it difficult to accept and atone for its treatment of the citizens of countries it occupied.

  • Population 126.4 million

  • Area 377,864 sq km (145,894 sq miles)

  • Major language Japanese

  • Major religions Shintoism, Buddhism

  • Life expectancy 81 years (men), 87 years (women)

  • Currency yen

Head of State: Emperor Naruhito

Image source, AFP/GETTY IMAGES

Crown Prince Naruhito succeeded to the throne as emperor when his father Akihito abdicated on the last day of April 2019, after a reign of 30 years.

Akihito had no political power, but played an important role in working to heal the wounds of a war waged across Asia in the name of his own father, the Emperor Hirohito.

He also promoted a more approachable image of the imperial family among the Japanese public, a style that the new emperor is expected to continue.

Emperor Naruhito, who studied at Oxford University, has said that his reign will bear the name Reiwa, which "beautiful harmony".

Prime minister: Fumio Kishida

Image source, Toru Hanai/Getty Images

This scion of a political dynasty was elected leader of the conservative Liberal Democratic Party on the resignation of Yoshihide Suga, who had beaten him to the post and the premiership a year earlier.

Mr Suga resigned over his handling of the coronavirus pandemic, allowing the former foreign minister to take over.

Mr Kishida is seen as more liberal than his recent predecessors, and is expected to steer the government slightly to the left after winning a snap election in October 2021.

Image source, Getty Images

Japan's broadcasting scene is competitive and technologically-advanced.

While the use of online media and social platforms is ubiquitous, the printed press has a very high readership and is highly trusted.

Some key dates in Japan's history:

1853 - US fleet forces Japan to open up to foreign influence after over 200 years of self-imposed isolation.

1868 - Empire of Japan proclaimed, and country enters period of rapid industrialisation and imperial expansion.

1910 - Japan annexes Korea, becoming one of the world's leading powers.

1914 - Japan joins First World War on the side of Britain and her allies, gaining some Pacific islands from Germany.

1925 - Universal male suffrage is instituted.

1930s - Seizes Chinese province of Manchu, Shanghai, Beijing and Nanjing amid atrocities such as the "Rape of Nanjing".

1939-45 - Second World War sees Japan occupying several Asian countries. It is defeated when US drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

1945 - US occupation of devastated country; post-war recovery and political reform. Economy recovers, eventually flourishes.

Image source, Getty Images

Around the BBC

Related Internet Links

The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites.
Источник: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-14918801

What was the first capital city of Japan?

What was the first capital city of Japan?

Nara

What is the previous capital of Japan?

Kyoto

What was the capital of Japan before Kyoto?

Tokyo

How many times has Japan changed capitals?

Historical capitals and the former name of Japan The capital was considered to be a current, permanent seat of the emperor, and Japanese emperors liked to move from place to place. Still, they usually moved within certain regions so 4 periods of former capitals can be identified in the history of Japan.

Why did Edo become Tokyo?

Originally named Edo, the city started to flourish after Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Tokugawa Shogunate here in 1603. The Emperor moved to Edo, which was renamed Tokyo. Thus, Tokyo became the capital of Japan. During the Meiji era (1868-1912), Japan began its avid assimilation of Western civilization.

What is the biggest city in history?

From Jericho to Tokyo: the world’s largest cities through history – mapped. Today, Tokyo is the most populous city in the world; through most of the 20th century it was New York. A century earlier London was the world’s population centre, and Baghdad a millennium before that.

What is the greatest city?

Check out the world’s most influential cities below.

  1. New York City, New York. It’s no surprise that New York City, home of Wall Street and the United Nations, is viewed as the world’s most important city.
  2. London, UK.
  3. Paris, France.
  4. Tokyo, Japan.
  5. Hong Kong.
  6. Singapore.
  7. Los Angeles, California.
  8. Chicago, Illinois.

Which is world’s first million city?

In 133 BC, Rome, Italy was the first city to reach the population of one million inhabitants. London, England reached the mark in 1810 and New York, USA found its millionth citizen in 1875. Currently, China has the world’s largest population (1.4 billion), followed by India (1.3 billion).

Is Tokyo bigger than NYC?

Tokyo is the most populated metropolitan area in the world, so it’s appropriate that it’s much larger than NYC in terms of land area. Still, it’s noteworthy that Tokyo is SO large that its population density is 15,604 people per square mile, as compared to New York’s 27,578 people per square mile.

What’s the densest city in the world?

Manila

02/27/2020Alex DopicoWorld war 2

Источник: https://janetpanic.com/what-was-the-first-capital-city-of-japan/

Kyoto

Kyoto was the former imperial capital of Japan until the Meiji Restoration in 1868, and was named Heian-kyo in its early days. Kyoto is one of the favorite cities of travelers in Japan.

Despite its modest size compared to other neighboring cities of the Kansai area and with fewer than one and half million inhabitants living in just over 300 square miles (800 km²), Kyoto primarily attracts visitors thanks to its traditional environment and its countless temples, shrines and Japanese gardens (about two thousand!) that have shaped its architecture as well as its identity.

Considered the cultural capital of Japan, it is home to many sites inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List and is loved by tourists who come every year in increasing numbers. In 2019, they were 87,9 million sightseers to discover Kyoto, compared to the approximately 56,84 million in 2015, of all nationalities, and they spent one trillion Yens (~8.8 billions dollars), a raise of 30% in regard to the previous year.

In fall 🍁 2020, Kyoto was ranked among the world’s best cities by the highly respected Condé Nast Traveler magazine, after 4 years of domination by Tokyo.

A museum-city for tourists?

Interestingly, in 2014 more than half of foreign visitors in Kyoto were Westerners (North Americans or Europeans), a proportion that is twice the national average in Japan.

On a side note, Kyoto and Paris have signed a Pact of Friendship in 1958.

Since 2015, the city has undertaken long-expected and commendable works and developments to the benefit of residents as well as tourists who are now extremely numerous:

  • On the bus network with extension of the schedules and of the routes for some lines,
  • Unblocking traffic in the city center by narrowing the ways solely dedicated to motor vehicles (cars, bus and taxis),
  • Creation of bicycle paths and parking spaces (to reduce carbon emissions as well).

However over the last years, the population and the municipality have been complaining about the negative aspects of the spectacular touristic boom. The sightseeing influx indeed tends to overwhelm a city that is already dense, and unable to spread further, with the risk of making it lose some of its traditional atmosphere.

With an accumulated debt amounting to ¥860 billion (~7.5 billions dollars) in 2020, Kyoto is facing crucial financial problems that worsened with the loss of the international tourists’ income during the Coronavirus🦠 pandemic. As the bankruptcy risk is real, Kyoto’s mayor Daisaku Kadokawa has announced drastic budget cuts in the administrative services to be implemented from 2021 to 2025. The city is trying to attract companies, a younger working population as well as raise more taxes, especially from temples that are currently exempted.

Follow the pace of Kyoto’s inhabitants during your stay

To better enjoy the city, we recommend adapting to the rhythm of its inhabitants and adopt some of their habits to avoid sightseers’ crowds during your visits, such as:

  • Visit the most popular touristic spot outside peak hours, that is to say, as soon as sunrise for the places opening this early, or one hour before closing time,
  • Choose alternate itineraries such as the cycling paths running towards the north of Kyoto along the Kamo-gawa River, or the hiking trails crossing the mountains around the city and giving access to wonderful temples and shrines,
  • Wander in the residential neighborhoods away from the touristic hubs of the city and discover sites that are smaller but preserved from mass-tourism,
  • Book a ticket for a theater play or an odori dance performance by Kyoto’s Geisha (maiko and geiko) in one of the iconic theaters of the city (Minami-za, Kaburenjo, Shunju-za, Gion Kaikan theaters),
  • Attend a traditional tea ceremony and enjoy a matcha green tea with the proper etiquette,
  • Place a reservation in a lovely tearoom to enjoy wagashi traditional confectioneries and other seasonal sweets.

The accommodation’s location also plays a large part in the enjoyment of your stay and should be chosen considering the intended visits and the ambiance expected at night.

How to travel in the city?

Traveling in Kyoto is always a difficult matter. There is no ideal transportation method, and we recommend combining or using alternatively several of them, depending on the visited areas. Bus transportation is nonetheless the most convenient, but the most central lines are overcrowded during holidays periods. There are only two subway🚇 lines in Kyoto, and they have not been designed to serve the touristic center. Many taxis patrol the streets and avenues, but traffic jams are frequent at rush hours.

We don’t recommend renting a car 🚙, unless having found beforehand a dedicated parking space, be it at the accommodation or at the different places you would like to visit. Those in good physical shape may choose riding a bicycle, which is quite pleasant along the rivers but can be very tiring when going up to the heights of the city. Also, be aware that some behaviors usually tolerated throughout Japan are forbidden in Kyoto’s center, such as riding a bicycle on the sidewalks.

Top destinations in Kyoto

Despite an important touristic boom since the middle of the 2010s, Kyoto remains a unique destination and a must-see for anyone discovering Japan. The charm of its religious and historical architecture is to be found at every street corner. The secret and aristocratic power of the former imperial capital is still present in the culture and craftsmanship, two fields dear to the city and its inhabitants.

Among the must-sees in Kyoto, the following short list can help deciding on a first selection:

  • Temples: Kinkaku-ji, Ginkaku-ji, Kiyomizu-dera, Eikan-do, Genko-an, Enko-ji, Konkai Komyo-ji, Daigo-ji,
  • Shrines: Fushimi Inari Taisha, Heian-jingu, Kitano Tenmangu, Shimogamo,
  • Japanese gardens: Kokedera Moss Garden, dry gardens of the Shoden-ji and Entsu-ji, Murin-an, Tenju-an,
  • Villas: Shugaku-in, Katsura, Okochi Sanso and the Old Mitsui Family Shimogamo Villa,
  • Museums: Kyoto International Manga Museum, Kyoto National Museum, Gekkeikan Okura Sake Museum, Kawai Kanjiro’s House,
  • Hikes: Kurama / Kibune, Takao, Ohara, Yoshimine-dera, and,
  • Unique places: Gion and the various Geisha neighborhoods of Kyoto (hanamachi), Pontocho Alley, Teramachi and Shinkyogoku shopping arcades, the modern Kyoto station and Arashiyama Bamboo Grove in the western suburb.

Discover Kyoto and its endless heritage thanks to our numerous visits listed by districts of the city. Let the past-time Kyoto mesmerize your eyes, while continuing to honor its traditions along with the passing of the seasons.

Источник: https://www.kanpai-japan.com/kyoto

Best cities to visit in Japan

The Japanese archipelago consists of more than 6,000 islands in the Pacific Ocean, forming one of the most populated countries in the world with a population of approximately 127 million people. The four largest islands are Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, and Shikoku, and are divided into eight regions.

Japan is a country rich with tradition, culture, and technology. Each city offers visitors its unique take on Japanese culture. In this section, you will find everything you need to know about the best cities to visit while in Japan. What to do, where to eat, shop, when to go and how to use your JR Pass to move around from city to city.

Table of Contents

Tokyo

Shibuya crossing in Tokyo

Tokyo is the capital city of Japan and the most populous metropolitan area in the world. It is one of the most captivating cities in the world, from the majestic temples of traditional Japan to the bright neon lights of Shibuya.

Tokyo has something for everyone and it is definitely a place to visit once in a lifetime. Plan your trip to Tokyo to perfection by reading our guides.

Kyoto

Golden Pavilion in Kyoto (Kansai)Kyoto, considered by many as Japan’s most beautiful city, was the Japanese capital until the government was moved to Tokyo in 1868. However, the city is still Japan’s religious center with over 1000 Buddhist temples.

Kyoto is also home to some of Japan’s most iconic landmarks, with some of the most sublime and exquisite gardens, temples and masterpieces you will ever see.

Osaka

Dotonbori neon lights in OsakaOsaka is Japan’s third-largest city and was the country’s first capital. It is considered a vital economic center in Japan. It is home to the largest seaport in Japan and many leading Japanese manufacturers.

Osaka city is also deemed a culinary paradise: its nickname Tenka no Daidokoro means the nation’s kitchen.

Book your Japan Rail Pass now

Yokohama

Yokohama and Mount FujiLocated in the Tokyo urban area, Yokohama is actually Japan’s second most populated city. 20 minutes south of Tokyo Station by train, Yokohama’s bay and Chinatown are not to be missed by curious travelers and food lovers.

Nagoya

Nagoya city and skylineThe largest city in the central Chubu region, Nagoya is one of Japan’s major ports and also an important Shinkansen bullet trains hub. From shopping to science and kid-friendly amusement parks, Nagoya’s attractions are certainly not to be missed.

Kobe

Kobe maritime museumEnclosed by the sea on one side and a majestic mountain range on the other, Kobe is close to Osaka and Kyoto, and also considered one of Japan’s most beautiful port cities… lest we forget the delicious Kobe beef!

Fukuoka


The city of Fukuoka is one of the main tourist destinations in southern Japan, and it is listed among Japan’s ten most populous cities. It is the largest city on the island of Kyushu, and packed with amazing travel experiences.

Hiroshima

Hiroshima‘s deep historical roots are evident in its ancient gardens and castles, as well as the remains of the atomic bombing during the World War II. Nowadays, Hiroshima and its neighbour island, Miyajima, are home to over one million people and a favorite stop for tourists.

Sapporo

Odori Park in SapporoSapporo is the fifth largest city in Japan and capital of the northern island of Hokkaido. In less than two centuries, Sapporo has enjoyed rapid growth and now it is known for its winter sports venues, great outdoor areas, ramen, and beer.

Nara

Odori Park in SapporoNara was the first “real” capital of Japan, remaining such for less than a century. This historic location is home to a nearly unmatched eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including numerous Buddhist temples and the mighty Todai-ji, home of the world’s largest bronze statue of the Buddha.

Takayama

Downtown TakayamaTakayama, in the area of the Japanese Alps, offers a taste of the Japanese culture of yesterday and today. The area holds plenty of indulgences for the avid sightseer – green fields dotted with rustic farmhouses, Japanese gardens, shrines, temples, castle ruins, and well preserved historic buildings, such as Edo period houses and samurai dwellings.

Related Posts

Источник: https://www.jrailpass.com/blog/cities

Capital of Japan

Historical aspects of the capital cities of Japan

The current de facto capital of Japan is Tokyo.[1][2][3] In the course of history, the national capital has been in many locations other than Tokyo.

History[edit]

Traditionally, the home of the Emperor is considered the capital. From 794 through 1868, the Emperor lived in Heian-kyō, modern-day Kyoto.[4][5] After 1868, the seat of the Government of Japan and the location of the Emperor's home was moved to Edo, which it renamed Tokyo.[6]

In 1941, the Ministry of Education published the "designation of Tokyo as capital" (東京奠都, Tōkyō-tento).[7]

Law and custom[edit]

While no laws have designated Tokyo as the Japanese capital, many laws have defined a "capital area" (首都圏, shuto-ken) that incorporates Tokyo. Article 2 of the Capital Area Consolidation Law (首都圏整備法) of 1956 states: "In this Act, the term 'capital area' shall denote a broad region comprising both the territory of the Tokyo Metropolis as well as outlying regions designated by cabinet order." This implies that the government has designated Tokyo as the capital of Japan, although (again) it is not explicitly stated, and the definition of the "capital area" is purposely restricted to the terms of that specific law.[8]

Other laws referring to this "capital area" include the Capital Expressway Public Corporation Law (首都高速道路公団法) and the Capital Area Greenbelt Preservation Law (首都圏近郊緑地保全法).[9]

This term for capital was never used to refer to Kyoto. Indeed, shuto came into use during the 1860s as a gloss of the English term "capital".

The Ministry of Education published a book called "History of the Restoration" in 1941. This book referred to "designating Tokyo as capital" (東京奠都, Tōkyō-tento) without talking about "relocating the capital to Tokyo" (東京遷都, Tōkyō-sento). A contemporary history textbook states that the Meiji government "moved the capital (shuto) from Kyoto to Tokyo" without using the sento term.[7]

As of 2007, there is a movement to transfer the government functions of the capital from Tokyo while retaining Tokyo as the de facto capital, with the Gifu-Aichi region, the Mie-Kio region and other regions submitting bids for a de jure capital. Officially, the relocation is referred to as "capital functions relocation" instead of "capital relocation", or as "relocation of the Diet and other organizations".[10][11]

In 2017, the Government of Japan decided to move the Agency for Cultural Affairs to Kyoto.[12][13]

List of capitals[edit]

Legendary[edit]

This list of legendary capitals of Japan begins with the reign of Emperor Jimmu. The names of the Imperial palaces are in parentheses:

  1. Kashihara, Yamato at the foot of Mount Unebi during reign of Emperor Jimmu[14]
  2. Kazuraki, Yamato during reign of Emperor Suizei[15]
  3. Katashiha, Kawachi during the reign of Emperor Annei[15]
  4. Karu, Yamato during reign of Emperor Itoku.[16]
  5. Waki-no-kami, Yamato during the reign of Emperor Kōshō[17]
  6. Muro, Yamato during reign of Emperor Kōan[17]
  7. Kuruda, Yamato during the reign of Emperor Kōrei[17]
  8. Karu, Yamato during reign of Emperor Kōgen[17]
  9. Izakaha, Yamato during reign of Emperor Kaika[17]
  10. Shika, Yamato (Palace of Mizugaki) during reign of Emperor Sujin[18]
  11. Shika, Yamato (Palace of Tamagaki) during reign of Emperor Suinin[19]
  12. Makimuko, Yamato (Palace of Hishiro) during reign of Emperor Keikō[20]
  13. Shiga, Ōmi (Palace of Takaanaho) during reign of Emperor Seimu[21]
  14. Ando, Nara (Palace of Toyoura) and Kashiki on the island of Kyushu during reign of Emperor Chūai[21]

Historical[edit]

This list of capitals includes the Imperial palaces names in parentheses.

Kofun period

  • Karushima, Yamato (Palace of Akira), reign of Emperor Ōjin[22]
  • Naniwa, Settsu (Palace of Takatsu), reign of Emperor Nintoku[23]
  • Iware, Yamato (Palace of Wakasakura), reign of Emperor Richū[24]
  • Tajihi, Kawachi (Palace of Shibakaki), reign of Emperor Hanzei[25]
  • Asuka, Yamato (Palace of Tohotsu), reign of Emperor Ingyō[26]
  • Isonokami, Yamato (Palace of Anaho), reign of Emperor Ankō[27]
  • Sakurai, Nara (Hatsuse no Asakura Palace), 457–479[28] in reign of Emperor Yūryaku[29]
  • Sakurai, Nara (Iware no Mikakuri Palace), 480–484[28] in reign of Emperor Seinei[30]
  • Asuka, Yamato (Chikatsu-Asuka-Yatsuri Palace), 485–487[31] in reign of Emperor Kenzō[30]
  • Tenri, Nara (Isonokami Hirotaka Palace), 488–498[28] in reign of Emperor Ninken[32]
  • Sakurai, Nara (Nimiki Palace), 499–506 in reign of Emperor Buretsu[32]
  • Hirakata, Osaka (Kusuba Palace), 507–511[citation needed][33]
  • Kyōtanabe, Kyoto (Tsutsuki Palace), 511–518 in reign of Emperor Keitai[28][34]
  • Nagaoka-kyō (Otokuni Palace), 518–526 in reign of Keitai[28][35]
  • Sakurai, Nara (Iware no Tamaho Palace), 526–532[28] in reign of Keitai[36]
  • Kashihara, Nara (Magari no Kanahashi Palace), 532–535[28] in reign of Emperor Ankan[37]
  • Sakurai, Nara (Hinokuma no Iorino Palace), 535–539[28] in reign of Emperor Senka[37]

Asuka period

  • Asuka, Yamato (Shikishima no Kanasashi Palace), 540–571[28] in reign of Emperor Kinmei[37]
  • Kōryō, Nara (Kudara no Ohi Palace), 572–575[citation needed]
  • Sakurai, Nara (Osata no Sakitama Palace or Osada no Miya), 572–585[38] in reign of Emperor Bidatsu[39]
  • Shiki District, Nara (Iwareikebe no Namitsuki Palace), 585–587[40] in the reign of Emperor Yōmei[41]
  • Shiki District, Nara (Kurahashi no Shibagaki Palace), 587–592[28] in the reign of Emperor Sushun[41]
  • Asuka, Yamato (Toyura Palace or Toyura-no-miya), 593–603[42] in the reign of Empress Suiko[43]
  • Asuka, Yamato (Oharida Palace or Oharida-no-miya), 603–629[42] in the reign of Suiko[43]
  • Asuka, Yamato (Okamoto Palace or Oakmoto-no-miya), 630–636[42] in the reign of Emperor Jomei[44]
  • Kashihara, Nara (Tanaka Palace or Tanaka-no-miya), 636–639[42]
  • Kōryō, Nara (Umayasaka Palace or Umayasaka-no-miya, 640[42]
  • Kōryō, Nara (Kudara Palace or Kudara-no-miya), 640–642[42]
  • Asuka, Yamato (Oharida Palace), 642–643
  • Asuka, Yamato (Itabuki Palace or Itabuki no miya), 643–645[42] in the reign of Empress Kōgyoku[44]
  • Osaka (Naniwa Nagara-Toyosaki Palace), 645–654[45] in the reign of Emperor Kōtoku[46]
  • Asuka, Yamato (Itabuki Palace), 655–655[42] in the reign of Kōtoku[46]
  • Asuka, Yamato (Kawahara Palace or Kawahara-no-miya), 655–655[42]
  • Asuka, Yamato (Okamoto Palace or Nochi no Asuka-Okamoto-no-miya), 656–660[42] in the reign of Emperor Saimei[47]
  • Asakura, Fukuoka (Asakura no Tachibana no Hironiwa Palace or Asakure no Tachibana no Hironiwa-no-miya), 660–661[42]
  • Osaka, (Naniwa Nagara-Toyosaki Palace), 661–667[45]
  • Ōtsu, Shiga (Ōmi Ōtsu Palace or Ōmi Ōtsu-no-miya), 667–672[48] in reign of Emperor Tenji[47] and the reign of Emperor Kōbun[49]
  • Asuka, Yamato (Kiyomihara Palace or Kiomihara-no-miya), 672–694[42] in the reign of Emperor Tenmu[50] and in the reign of Empress Jitō[51]
1/1000 scale model of Fujiwara-kyō, held by Kashihara-shi Fujiwara-kyō reference room

Nara period

1/1000 scale model of Heijō-kyō, held by Nara City Hall
  • Heijō-kyō (Heijō Palace), 710–740[53] in the reigns of Empress Genmei,[54]Empress Genshō,[55] and Emperor Shōmu[55]
  • Kuni-kyō (Kuni Palace), 740–744[56] in the reign of Shomu[57]
  • Naniwa-kyō (Naniwa Palace [ja]), 744[58]
  • Naniwa-kyō, Shigaraki Palace, 744–745[58]
  • Heijō-kyō (Heijō Palace), 745–784[53]
  • Nagaoka-kyō (Nagaoka Palace), 784–794[59] in the reign of Emperor Kanmu[60][61]

Heian period

1/1000 scale model of Heian-kyō, held by Kyoto City Heiankyo Sosei-Kan Museum

Medieval Japan and Early modern period (see also: History of Japan)

Modern Japan (see also: History of Japan)

Historical capitals[edit]

  • Hiraizumi was the capital of totally independent Northern Fujiwara polity (Ōshū) based in Tōhoku region, having defeated Emishi tribes. This polity existed as Kyoto's internal politics prevented Kyoto's authority from 1100 to 1189.
  • Hakodate was the capital of the short lived Republic of Ezo (1869)
  • Shuri was the capital of Ryukyu Kingdom (1429–1879) and Urasoe was capital of Chuzan from at least 1350, which predated the Ryukyu Kingdom.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"Facts about Japan". The Government of Japan. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  2. ^"The World Factbook" (section "Government :: JAPAN"). CIA. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  3. ^"Japan country profile". BBC News. 9 September 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  4. ^Nussbaum, "Kyōto" at pp. 585-587.
  5. ^Wendy, Frey. History Alive!: The Medieval World and beyond. Palo Alto, CA: Teacher's Curriculum Institute, 2005.
  6. ^ abNussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Tokyo", Japan Encyclopedia, pp. 981–982.
  7. ^ ab国会等の移転ホームページ – 国土交通省. Mlit.go.jp. Retrieved on 2011-04-29.
  8. ^首都圏整備法Archived 2016-05-23 at the Portuguese Web Archive. Law.e-gov.go.jp. Retrieved on 2011-04-29.
  9. ^首都圏近郊緑地保全法Archived 2005-03-01 at the Wayback Machine. Law.e-gov.go.jp. Retrieved on 2011-04-29.
  10. ^"Shift of Capital from Tokyo Committee". Japan Productivity Center for Socio-Economic Development. Archived from the original on August 25, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-14.
  11. ^"Policy Speech by Governor of Tokyo, Shintaro Ishihara at the First Regular Session of the Metropolitan Assembly, 2003". Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Archived from the original on 2007-11-03. Retrieved 2007-10-17.
  12. ^"文化庁の機能強化・京都移転" [Enhancement of the Agency for Cultural Affairs and relocation to Kyoto] (in Japanese). Retrieved 2018-06-22.
  13. ^Hiroshi Kajiyama (August 7, 2018). 5th meeting of the Agency for Cultural Affairs Relocation Council (Speech) (in Japanese). MEXT. Archived from the original on August 11, 2018. Retrieved August 11, 2018.
  14. ^Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1915). The Imperial Family of Japan, p. 1.
  15. ^ abPonsonby-Fane, p. 2.
  16. ^Ponsonby-Fane, pp. 2-3.
  17. ^ abcdePonsonby-Fane, p. 3.
  18. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 4.
  19. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 5.
  20. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 6.
  21. ^ abPonsonby-Fane, p. 7.
  22. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 8.
  23. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 9.
  24. ^コトバンク「履中天皇」
  25. ^コトバンク「反正天皇」
  26. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 10.
  27. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 12.
  28. ^ abcdefghijKoch, W. (1904). Japan; Geschichte nach japanischen Quellen und ethnographische Skizzen. Mit einem Stammbaum des Kaisers von Japan, p. 13.
  29. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 13.
  30. ^ abPonsonby-Fane, p. 14; excerpt, "Mikaguri Palace"
  31. ^Nussbaum, "Asuka" at p. 59.
  32. ^ abPonsonby-Fane, p. 15.
  33. ^"枚方八景 樟葉宮跡の杜" (in Japanese). Retrieved 2018-06-22.
  34. ^"筒城宮伝承地(Tsutsuki-no-miya denshochi)" (in Japanese). Retrieved 2018-06-22.
  35. ^"弟国宮(Otokuni-no-miya)遷都1500年記念事業" (in Japanese). Retrieved 2018-06-22.
  36. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 16.
  37. ^ abcPonsonby-Fane, p. 17; except, "Palace of Kanahashi at Magari, Yamato"
  38. ^Brown, Delmer. (1979). Gukanshō, pp. 262–263; excerpt, "... palace was Osada no Miya of Iware in the province of Yamato."
  39. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 18.
  40. ^Brown, p. 263; excerpt, "... palace was Namitsuki no Miya at Ikebe in the province of Yamato."
  41. ^ abPonsonby-Fane, p. 19.
  42. ^ abcdefghijklAsuka Historical Museum, Palaces of the Asuka Period," 1995; retrieved 2011-11-25.
  43. ^ abPonsonby-Fane, p. 20.
  44. ^ abPonsonby-Fane, p. 21.
  45. ^ abなにわ活性化プロジェクト (Naniwa Revialization Project)[permanent dead link], August 24, 201; retrieved 2011-11-24.
  46. ^ abPonsonby-Fane, p. 23.
  47. ^ abPonsonby-Fane, p. 24.
  48. ^Nussbaum, "Ōtsu mo Miya" at p. 216.
  49. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 25.
  50. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 26.
  51. ^ abPonsonby-Fane, p. 27.
  52. ^Nussbaum, "Fujiwara" at pp. 200–201.
  53. ^ abNussbaum, "Heijō-kyō" at p. 304.
  54. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 28.
  55. ^ abPonsonby-Fane, p. 29.
  56. ^Nussbaum, "Kuni-kyō" at p. 574.
  57. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 30.
  58. ^ abNussbaum, "Naniwa" at p. 697.
  59. ^Nussbaum, "Nagaoka-kyō" at p. 216–217.
  60. ^ abPonsonby-Fane, p. 34.
  61. ^"長岡京とは" [About Nagaoka Palace] (in Japanese). Retrieved 2018-06-22.
  62. ^ abNussbaum, "Heian-kyō" at pp. 303–304.
  63. ^Nussbaum, "Fukuhara" at pp. 216.
  64. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 37.

Further reading[edit]

  • Fiévé, Nicolas and Paul Waley. (2003). Japanese Capitals in Historical Perspective: Place, Power and Memory in Kyoto, Edo and Tokyo. New York: Psychology Press. ISBN 9780700714094

External links[edit]

Media related to Capital of Japan at Wikimedia Commons

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capital_of_Japan
what is the first capital of japan

Related Videos

: What is the first capital of japan

DEATH AT A FUNERAL 2010 BATHROOM SCENE
Usps office open today
TARRANT COUNTY PROPERTY LIEN SEARCH
America ferrera porn

Kyoto

Kyoto was the former imperial capital of Japan until the Meiji Restoration in 1868, and was named Heian-kyo in its early days. Kyoto is one of the favorite cities of travelers in Japan.

Despite its modest size compared to other neighboring cities of the Kansai area and with fewer than one and half million inhabitants living in just over 300 square miles (800 km²), Kyoto primarily attracts visitors thanks to its traditional environment and its countless temples, shrines and Japanese gardens (about two thousand!) that have shaped its architecture as well as its identity.

Considered the cultural capital of Japan, it is home to many sites inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List and is loved by tourists who come every year in increasing numbers. In 2019, they were 87,9 million sightseers to discover Kyoto, compared to the approximately 56,84 million in 2015, of all nationalities, and they spent one trillion Yens (~8.8 billions dollars), a raise of 30% in regard to the previous year.

In fall 🍁 2020, Kyoto was ranked among the world’s best cities by the highly respected Condé Nast Traveler magazine, after 4 years of domination by Tokyo.

A museum-city for tourists?

Interestingly, in 2014 more than half of foreign visitors in Kyoto were Westerners (North Americans or Europeans), a proportion that is twice the national average in Japan.

On a side note, Kyoto and Paris have signed a Pact of Friendship in 1958.

Since 2015, good morning america com city has undertaken long-expected and commendable works and developments to the benefit of residents as well as tourists who are now extremely numerous:

  • On the bus network with extension of the schedules and of the routes for some lines,
  • Unblocking traffic in the city center by what is the first capital of japan the ways solely dedicated to motor vehicles (cars, bus and taxis),
  • Creation of bicycle paths and parking spaces (to reduce carbon emissions as well).

However over the last years, the population and the what is the first capital of japan have been complaining about the negative aspects of the spectacular touristic boom. The sightseeing influx indeed tends to overwhelm a city that is already dense, and unable to spread further, with the risk of making it lose some of its traditional atmosphere.

With an accumulated debt amounting to ¥860 billion (~7.5 billions dollars) in 2020, Kyoto is facing crucial financial problems that worsened with the loss of the international tourists’ income during the Coronavirus🦠 pandemic. As the bankruptcy risk is real, Kyoto’s mayor Daisaku Kadokawa has announced drastic budget cuts in the administrative services to be implemented from 2021 to 2025. The city is trying to attract companies, a younger working population as well as raise more taxes, especially from temples that are currently exempted.

Follow the pace of Kyoto’s inhabitants during your stay

To better enjoy the city, we recommend adapting to the rhythm of its inhabitants and adopt some of their habits to avoid sightseers’ crowds during your visits, such as:

  • Visit the most popular touristic spot outside peak hours, that is to say, as soon as sunrise for the places opening this early, or one hour before closing time,
  • Choose alternate itineraries such as the cycling paths running towards the north of Kyoto along the Kamo-gawa River, or the boone county ky school closings trails crossing the mountains around the city and giving access to wonderful temples and shrines,
  • Wander in the residential neighborhoods away from the touristic hubs of the city and discover sites that are smaller but preserved from mass-tourism,
  • Book a ticket for a theater play or an odori dance performance by Kyoto’s Geisha (maiko and geiko) in one of the iconic theaters of the city what is the first capital of japan, Kaburenjo, Shunju-za, Gion Kaikan theaters),
  • Attend a traditional tea ceremony and enjoy a matcha green tea with the proper etiquette,
  • Place a reservation in a lovely tearoom to enjoy wagashi traditional confectioneries and other seasonal sweets.

The accommodation’s location also plays a large part in the enjoyment of your stay and should be chosen considering the intended visits and the ambiance expected at night.

How to travel in the city?

Traveling in Kyoto is always a difficult matter. There is no ideal transportation method, and we recommend combining or using alternatively several of them, depending on the visited areas. Bus transportation is nonetheless the most convenient, but the most central lines are overcrowded during holidays periods. There are only two subway🚇 lines in Kyoto, and they have not been designed to serve the touristic center. Many taxis patrol the streets and avenues, but traffic jams are frequent at rush hours.

We don’t recommend renting a car 🚙, unless having found beforehand a dedicated parking space, be it at the accommodation or at the different places you would like to visit. Those in good physical shape may choose riding a bicycle, which is quite pleasant along the rivers but can be very tiring when going up to the heights of the city. Also, be aware that some behaviors usually tolerated throughout Japan are forbidden in Kyoto’s center, such as riding a bicycle on the sidewalks.

Top destinations in Kyoto

Despite an important touristic boom since the middle of the 2010s, Kyoto remains a unique destination and a must-see for anyone discovering Japan. The charm of its religious and historical architecture is to be found at every street corner. The secret and aristocratic power of the former imperial capital is still present in the culture and craftsmanship, two fields dear to the city and its inhabitants.

Among the must-sees in Kyoto, the following short list can help deciding on a first selection:

  • Temples: Kinkaku-ji, Ginkaku-ji, Kiyomizu-dera, Eikan-do, Genko-an, Enko-ji, Konkai Komyo-ji, Daigo-ji,
  • Shrines: Fushimi Inari Taisha, Heian-jingu, Kitano Tenmangu, Shimogamo,
  • Japanese gardens: Kokedera Moss Garden, dry gardens of the Shoden-ji and Entsu-ji, Murin-an, Tenju-an,
  • Villas: Shugaku-in, Katsura, Okochi Sanso and the Old Mitsui Family Shimogamo Villa,
  • Museums: Kyoto International Manga Museum, Kyoto National Museum, Gekkeikan Okura Sake Museum, Kawai Kanjiro’s House,
  • Hikes: Kurama / Kibune, Takao, Ohara, Yoshimine-dera, and,
  • Unique places: Gion and the various Geisha neighborhoods of Kyoto (hanamachi), Pontocho Alley, Teramachi and Shinkyogoku shopping arcades, the modern Kyoto station and Arashiyama Bamboo Grove in the western suburb.

Discover Kyoto and its endless heritage thanks to our numerous visits listed by districts of the city. Let the past-time Kyoto mesmerize your eyes, while continuing to honor its traditions along with the passing of the seasons.

Источник: https://www.kanpai-japan.com/kyoto

Best usps office open today to visit in Japan

The Japanese archipelago consists of more than 6,000 islands in the Pacific Ocean, forming one of capital one online business banking login most populated countries in the world with a population of approximately 127 million people. The four largest islands are Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, and Shikoku, and are divided into eight regions.

Japan is a country rich with tradition, culture, and technology. Each city offers visitors its unique take on Japanese culture. In this section, you will find everything you need to know about the best cities to visit while in Japan. What to do, where to eat, shop, when to go and how to use your JR Pass to move around from city to city.

Table of Contents

Tokyo

Shibuya crossing in Tokyo

Tokyo is the capital city of Japan and the most populous metropolitan area in the world. It is one of the most captivating cities in the world, from the majestic temples of traditional Japan to the bright neon lights of Shibuya.

Tokyo has something for everyone and it is definitely a place to visit once in a lifetime. Plan your trip to Tokyo to perfection by reading our guides.

Kyoto

Golden Pavilion in Kyoto (Kansai)Kyoto, considered by many as Japan’s most beautiful city, was the Japanese capital until the government was moved to Tokyo in 1868. However, the city is still Japan’s religious center with over 1000 Buddhist temples.

Kyoto is also home to some of Japan’s most iconic landmarks, with some of the most sublime and exquisite gardens, temples and masterpieces you will ever see.

Osaka

Dotonbori neon lights in OsakaOsaka is Japan’s third-largest city and was the country’s first capital. It is considered a vital economic center in Japan. It is home to the largest seaport in Japan and many leading Japanese manufacturers.

Osaka city is also deemed a culinary paradise: its nickname Tenka no Daidokoro means the nation’s kitchen.

Book your Japan Rail Pass now

Yokohama

Yokohama and Mount FujiLocated in the Tokyo urban area, Yokohama is actually Japan’s second most populated city. 20 minutes south of Tokyo Station by train, Yokohama’s bay and Chinatown are not to be missed by curious travelers and food lovers.

Nagoya

Nagoya city and skylineThe largest city in the central Chubu region, Nagoya is one of Japan’s major ports and also an important Shinkansen bullet trains hub. From shopping to science and kid-friendly amusement parks, Nagoya’s attractions are certainly not to be missed.

Kobe

Kobe maritime museumEnclosed by the sea on one side and a majestic mountain range on the other, Kobe is close to Osaka and Kyoto, and also considered one of Japan’s most beautiful port cities… lest we forget the delicious Kobe beef!

Fukuoka


The city of Fukuoka is one of the main tourist destinations in southern Japan, and it is listed among Japan’s ten most populous cities. It is the largest city on the island of Kyushu, and packed with amazing travel experiences.

Hiroshima

what is the first capital of japan deep historical roots are evident in its ancient gardens and castles, as well as the remains of the atomic bombing during the World War II. Nowadays, Hiroshima and its neighbour island, Miyajima, are home to over one million people and a favorite stop for tourists.

Sapporo

Odori Park in SapporoSapporo is the fifth largest city in Japan and capital of the northern island of Hokkaido. In less than two centuries, Sapporo has enjoyed rapid growth and now it is known for its winter sports venues, great outdoor areas, ramen, and beer.

Nara

Odori Park in SapporoNara was the first “real” capital of Japan, remaining such for less than a century. This historic location is home to a nearly unmatched eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including numerous Buddhist temples and the mighty Todai-ji, home of the world’s largest bronze statue of the Buddha.

Takayama

Downtown TakayamaTakayama, in the area of the Japanese Alps, offers a taste of the Japanese culture of yesterday and today. The area holds plenty of indulgences for the avid sightseer – green fields dotted with rustic farmhouses, Japanese gardens, shrines, temples, castle ruins, and well preserved historic buildings, such as Edo period houses and samurai dwellings.

Related Posts

Источник: https://www.jrailpass.com/blog/cities

A Guide to the United States’ History of Recognition, Diplomatic, and Consular Relations, by Country, since 1776: Japan

Japan - Countries

Summary

Beginning in the early 19th century, American merchants in first united mortgage login China became interested in extending their activities fnaf jumpscares 1 2 3 4 5 6 Japan. At this time, however, the shoguns that ruled Japan had implemented a policy of closed borders that made it very difficult for U.S. citizens and the bank of eastman magnolia state bank Japanese to interact. There were, however, isolated cases of interaction. By the 1850s, a combination of growing U.S. interests in expanding a regional presence and internal shifts in Japan brought about a dramatic opening in U.S.-Japanese relations.

Modern Flag of Japan

Recognition

Mutual Recognition, 1854.

The United States and Japan granted each other formal recognition on March 31, 1854 when Hotels near university at buffalo Ambassador of the United States to Japan nickelodeon universe mall of america Matthew C. Perry and Japanese representatives signed a Treaty of Peace and Amity at Kanagawa, Japan. On July 8, 1853, Commodore Perry had sailed into the harbor of Japan’s capital of Edo (now Tokyo) and delivered a letter from President Millard Fillmore to the Emperor of Japan announcing that the United States sought to open relations with Japan and that Perry would return what is the first capital of japan to do so. However, this letter did not carry the force of formal recognition, which had to wait until the treaty of 1854.

Consular Presence

Establishment of Consular Relations, 1855.

The United States established consular relations with Japan when Townsend Harris accepted an appointment as Consul to Shimoda on August 4, 1855. The Consulate was established in Shimoda soon thereafter.

Diplomatic Relations

Establishment of Additional Consular Posts, 1862-1950.

The United States established additional Consulates in Japan:

  • Kanagawa (1862);
  • Nagasaki (1862);
  • Hakodate (1865);
  • Osaka (1868);
  • Tokyo (1869);
  • Yokohama (1897);
  • Kobe (1902);
  • Shimonoseki (1918);
  • Yokkaichi (1918);
  • Fukuoka (1950);
  • Sapporo (1950).

These dates reflect the earliest date at which a consul or consul general (as opposed to a vice consul, consular agent, or commercial agent) was either appointed to or arrived at each post.

Establishment of Diplomatic Relations, 1858.

Full diplomatic relations were established on July 29, 1858 with the signing of a Treaty of Amity and Commerce by U.S. Consul General Townsend Harris and Japanese representatives at the Japanese capital of Edo (Tokyo) .

Establishment of the U.S. Diplomatic Presence in Japan, 1859.

The United States established its first legation in Japan when Minister Resident Townsend Harris presented his credentials to the Government of Japan on November 5, 1859.

Elevation from Legation to Embassy, 1906.

The United States diplomatic presence in Tokyo was elevated to the status of an Embassy on May 26, 1906, when Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary Luke E. Wright presented his credentials to the Japanese Government.

Suspension of Diplomatic Relations, 1941.

Diplomatic relations between Japan and the United States were severed on first united bank lubbock tx December 8, 1941, when both nations declared war on each other in the wake of Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor. Ambassador Joseph Grew and other diplomatic staff remained in Japan for several months, including a period of internment, before departing the country on June 25, 1942.

Resumption of Diplomatic Relations, 1952.

Normal diplomatic relations were reestablished between the United States and Japan on April 28, 1952, when the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP), which had overseen the postwar Allied occupation of Japan since 1945, disbanded. On the same day, the United States deposited the skeleton key in hindi download ratification of the multilateral Japanese thank you letter for face to face interview Peace Treaty, Japan’s Chargé d’AffairesRyuji Takeuchi presented his credentials to Secretary of State Dean Acheson, and the United States and Japan exchanged their ratifications of the United States-Japan Security Treaty. The U.S. Embassy in Tokyo reopened on May 9, 1952, when Ambassador Robert D. Murphy presented his credentials to the Government of Japan.

Resources

  • Department of State Country Fact Sheet: Japan
  • Department of State Country Information: Japan
Источник: https://history.state.gov/countries/japan

Japan country profile

Japan has the world's third-largest economy, having achieved remarkable growth in the second half of the 20th Century after the devastation of the Second World War.

Its role in the international community is considerable. It is a major aid donor, and a source of global capital and credit.

More than three quarters of the population live in sprawling cities on the coastal fringes of Japan's four mountainous, heavily-wooded islands.

Japan's rapid post-war expansion - propelled by highly successful car and consumer electronics industries - ran out of steam by the 1990s under a mounting debt burden that successive governments have failed to address.

Japan's relations with its neighbours are still heavily influenced by the legacy of Japanese actions before and during the Second World War. Japan has found it difficult to accept and atone for its treatment of the citizens of countries it occupied.

  • Population 126.4 million

  • Area 377,864 sq km (145,894 sq miles)

  • Major language Japanese

  • Major religions Shintoism, Buddhism

  • Life expectancy 81 years (men), 87 years (women)

  • Currency yen

Head of State: Emperor Naruhito

Image source, AFP/GETTY IMAGES

Crown Prince Naruhito succeeded to the throne as emperor when his father Akihito abdicated on the last day of April 2019, after a reign of 30 years.

Akihito had no political power, but played an important role in working to heal the wounds of a war waged across Asia in the name of his own father, the Emperor Hirohito.

He also promoted a more approachable image of the imperial family among the Japanese public, a style that the new emperor is expected to continue.

Emperor Naruhito, who studied at Oxford University, has said that his reign will bear the name Reiwa, which "beautiful harmony".

Prime minister: Fumio Kishida

Image source, Toru Hanai/Getty Images

This scion of a political dynasty was elected leader of the conservative Liberal Democratic Party on the resignation of Yoshihide Suga, who had beaten him to the post and the premiership a year earlier.

Mr Suga resigned over his handling of the coronavirus pandemic, allowing the former foreign minister to take over.

Mr Kishida is seen as more liberal than his recent predecessors, and is expected to steer the government slightly to the left after winning a snap election in October 2021.

Image source, Getty Images

Japan's broadcasting scene is competitive and technologically-advanced.

While the use of online media and social platforms is ubiquitous, the printed press has a very high readership and is highly trusted.

Some key dates in Japan's history:

1853 - US fleet forces Japan to open up to foreign influence after over 200 years of self-imposed isolation.

1868 - Empire of Japan proclaimed, and country enters period of rapid industrialisation and imperial expansion.

1910 - Japan annexes Korea, becoming one of the world's leading powers.

1914 - Japan joins First World War on the side of Britain and her allies, gaining some Pacific islands from Germany.

1925 - Universal male suffrage is instituted.

1930s - Seizes Chinese province of Manchu, Shanghai, Beijing and Nanjing amid atrocities such as the "Rape of Nanjing".

1939-45 - Second World War sees Japan occupying several Asian countries. It is defeated when US drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

1945 - US occupation of devastated country; post-war recovery and political reform. Economy recovers, eventually flourishes.

Image source, Getty Images

Around the BBC

Related Internet Links

The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites.
Источник: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-14918801

Capital of Japan

Historical aspects of the capital cities of Japan

The current de facto capital of Japan is Tokyo.[1][2][3] In the course of history, the national capital has been in many locations other than Tokyo.

History[edit]

Traditionally, the home of the Emperor is considered the capital. From 794 through 1868, the Emperor lived in Heian-kyō, modern-day Kyoto.[4][5] After 1868, the seat of the Government of Japan and the location of the Emperor's home was moved to Edo, which it renamed Tokyo.[6]

In 1941, the Ministry of Education published the "designation of Tokyo as capital" (東京奠都, Tōkyō-tento).[7]

Law and custom[edit]

While no laws have designated Tokyo as the Japanese capital, many laws have defined a "capital area" (首都圏, shuto-ken) that incorporates Tokyo. Article 2 of the Capital Area Consolidation Law (首都圏整備法) of 1956 states: "In this Act, the term 'capital area' shall denote a broad region comprising both the territory of the Tokyo Metropolis as well as outlying regions designated by cabinet order." This implies that the government has designated Tokyo as the capital of Japan, although (again) it is not explicitly stated, and the definition of the "capital area" is purposely restricted to the terms of that specific law.[8]

Other laws referring to this "capital area" include the Capital Expressway Public Corporation Law (首都高速道路公団法) and the Capital Area Greenbelt Preservation Law (首都圏近郊緑地保全法).[9]

This term for capital was never used to refer to Kyoto. Indeed, shuto came into use during the 1860s as a gloss of the English term "capital".

The Ministry of Education published a book called "History of what is the first capital of japan Restoration" in 1941. This book referred to "designating Tokyo as capital" (東京奠都, Tōkyō-tento) without talking about "relocating the capital first national bank severna park Tokyo" (東京遷都, Tōkyō-sento). A contemporary history textbook states that the Meiji government "moved the capital (shuto) from Kyoto to Tokyo" without using the sento term.[7]

As of 2007, there is a movement to transfer the government functions of the capital from Tokyo while retaining Tokyo as the de facto capital, with the Gifu-Aichi region, the Mie-Kio region and other regions submitting bids for a de jure capital. Officially, the relocation is referred to as "capital functions relocation" instead of "capital relocation", or as "relocation of the Diet and other organizations".[10][11]

In 2017, the Government of Japan decided to move the Agency for Cultural Affairs to Kyoto.[12][13]

List of capitals[edit]

Legendary[edit]

This list of legendary capitals of Japan begins with the reign of Emperor Jimmu. The names of the Imperial palaces are in parentheses:

  1. Kashihara, Yamato at the foot of Mount Unebi during reign of Emperor Jimmu[14]
  2. Kazuraki, Yamato during reign of Emperor Suizei[15]
  3. Katashiha, Kawachi during the reign of Emperor Annei[15]
  4. Karu, Yamato during reign of Emperor Itoku.[16]
  5. Waki-no-kami, Yamato during the reign of Emperor Kōshō[17]
  6. Muro, Yamato during reign of Emperor Kōan[17]
  7. Kuruda, Yamato during the reign of Emperor Kōrei[17]
  8. Karu, Yamato during reign of Emperor Kōgen[17]
  9. Izakaha, Yamato during reign of Emperor Kaika[17]
  10. Shika, Yamato (Palace of Mizugaki) during reign of Emperor Sujin[18]
  11. Shika, Yamato (Palace of Tamagaki) during reign of Emperor Suinin[19]
  12. Makimuko, Yamato (Palace of Hishiro) during reign of Emperor Keikō[20]
  13. Shiga, Ōmi (Palace of Takaanaho) during reign of Emperor Seimu[21]
  14. Ando, Nara (Palace of Toyoura) and Kashiki on the island of Kyushu during reign of Emperor Chūai[21]

Historical[edit]

This list of capitals includes the Imperial palaces names in parentheses.

Kofun period

  • Karushima, Yamato (Palace of Akira), reign of Emperor Ōjin[22]
  • Naniwa, Settsu (Palace of Takatsu), reign of Emperor Nintoku[23]
  • Iware, Yamato (Palace of Wakasakura), reign of Emperor Richū[24]
  • Tajihi, Kawachi (Palace of Shibakaki), reign of Emperor Hanzei[25]
  • Asuka, Yamato (Palace of Tohotsu), reign of Emperor Ingyō[26]
  • Isonokami, Yamato (Palace of Anaho), reign of Emperor Ankō[27]
  • Sakurai, Nara (Hatsuse no Asakura Palace), 457–479[28] in reign of Emperor Yūryaku[29]
  • Sakurai, Nara (Iware no Mikakuri Palace), 480–484[28] in reign of Emperor Seinei[30]
  • Asuka, Yamato (Chikatsu-Asuka-Yatsuri Palace), 485–487[31] in reign of Emperor Kenzō[30]
  • Tenri, Nara (Isonokami Hirotaka Palace), 488–498[28] in reign of Emperor Ninken[32]
  • Sakurai, Nara (Nimiki Palace), 499–506 in reign of Emperor Buretsu[32]
  • Hirakata, Osaka (Kusuba Palace), 507–511[citation needed][33]
  • Kyōtanabe, Kyoto (Tsutsuki Palace), 511–518 in reign of Emperor Keitai[28][34]
  • Nagaoka-kyō (Otokuni Palace), 518–526 in reign of Keitai[28][35]
  • Sakurai, Nara (Iware no Tamaho Palace), 526–532[28] in reign of Keitai[36]
  • Kashihara, Nara (Magari no Kanahashi Palace), 532–535[28] in reign of Emperor Ankan[37]
  • Sakurai, Nara (Hinokuma no Iorino Palace), 535–539[28] in reign of Emperor Senka[37]

Asuka period

  • Asuka, Yamato (Shikishima no Kanasashi Palace), 540–571[28] in reign of Emperor Kinmei[37]
  • Kōryō, Nara (Kudara no Ohi Palace), 572–575[citation needed]
  • Sakurai, Nara (Osata no Sakitama Palace or Osada no Miya), 572–585[38] in reign of Emperor Bidatsu[39]
  • Shiki District, Nara (Iwareikebe no Namitsuki Palace), 585–587[40] in the reign of Emperor Yōmei[41]
  • Shiki District, Nara (Kurahashi no Shibagaki Palace), 587–592[28] in the reign of No way jose pigeon forge menu Sushun[41]
  • Asuka, Yamato (Toyura Palace or Toyura-no-miya), 593–603[42] in the reign of Empress Suiko[43]
  • Asuka, Yamato (Oharida Palace or Oharida-no-miya), 603–629[42] in the reign of Suiko[43]
  • Asuka, Yamato (Okamoto Palace or Oakmoto-no-miya), 630–636[42] in the reign of Emperor Jomei[44]
  • Kashihara, Nara (Tanaka Palace or Tanaka-no-miya), 636–639[42]
  • Kōryō, Nara (Umayasaka Palace or Umayasaka-no-miya, 640[42]
  • Kōryō, Nara (Kudara Palace or Kudara-no-miya), 640–642[42]
  • Asuka, Yamato (Oharida Palace), what is the first capital of japan, Yamato (Itabuki Palace or Itabuki no miya), 643–645[42] in the reign of Empress Kōgyoku[44]
  • Osaka (Naniwa Nagara-Toyosaki Palace), 645–654[45] in the reign of Emperor Kōtoku[46]
  • Asuka, Yamato (Itabuki Palace), 655–655[42] in the reign of Kōtoku[46]
  • Asuka, Yamato (Kawahara Palace or Kawahara-no-miya), 655–655[42]
  • Asuka, Yamato (Okamoto Palace or Nochi no Asuka-Okamoto-no-miya), 656–660[42] in the reign of Emperor What is the first capital of japan, Fukuoka (Asakura no Tachibana no Hironiwa Palace or Asakure no Tachibana no Hironiwa-no-miya), 660–661[42]
  • Osaka, (Naniwa Nagara-Toyosaki Palace), 661–667[45]
  • Ōtsu, Shiga (Ōmi Ōtsu Palace or Ōmi Ōtsu-no-miya), 667–672[48] what is the first capital of japan reign of Emperor Tenji[47] and the reign of Emperor Kōbun[49]
  • Asuka, Yamato (Kiyomihara Palace or Kiomihara-no-miya), 672–694[42] in the reign of Emperor Tenmu[50] and in the reign of Empress Jitō[51]
1/1000 scale model of Fujiwara-kyō, held by Kashihara-shi Fujiwara-kyō reference room

Nara period

1/1000 scale model of Heijō-kyō, held by Nara City Hall
  • Heijō-kyō (Heijō Palace), 710–740[53] in the reigns of Empress Genmei,[54]Empress Genshō,[55] and Emperor Shōmu[55]
  • Kuni-kyō (Kuni Palace), 740–744[56] in the reign of Shomu[57]
  • Naniwa-kyō (Naniwa Palace [ja]), 744[58]
  • Naniwa-kyō, Shigaraki Palace, 744–745[58]
  • Heijō-kyō (Heijō Palace), 745–784[53]
  • Nagaoka-kyō (Nagaoka Palace), 784–794[59] in the reign of Emperor Kanmu[60][61]

Heian period

1/1000 scale model of Heian-kyō, held by Kyoto City Heiankyo Sosei-Kan Museum

Medieval Japan and Early modern period (see also: History of Japan)

Modern Japan (see also: History of Japan)

Historical capitals[edit]

  • Hiraizumi was what is the first capital of japan capital of totally independent Northern Fujiwara polity (Ōshū) based in Tōhoku region, having defeated Emishi tribes. This polity existed as Kyoto's internal politics prevented Kyoto's authority from 1100 to 1189.
  • Hakodate was the capital of the short lived Republic of Ezo (1869)
  • Shuri was the capital of Ryukyu Kingdom (1429–1879) and Urasoe was capital of Chuzan from at least 1350, which predated the Ryukyu Kingdom.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"Facts about Japan". The Government of Japan. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  2. ^"The World Factbook" (section "Government :: JAPAN"). CIA. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  3. ^"Japan country profile". BBC News. 9 September 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  4. ^Nussbaum, "Kyōto" at pp. 585-587.
  5. ^Wendy, Frey. History Alive!: The Medieval World and beyond. Palo Alto, CA: Teacher's Curriculum Institute, 2005.
  6. ^ abNussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Tokyo", Japan Encyclopedia, pp. 981–982.
  7. ^ ab国会等の移転ホームページ – 国土交通省. Mlit.go.jp. Retrieved on 2011-04-29.
  8. ^首都圏整備法Archived 2016-05-23 at the Portuguese Web Archive. Law.e-gov.go.jp. Retrieved on 2011-04-29.
  9. ^首都圏近郊緑地保全法Archived 2005-03-01 at the Wayback Machine. Law.e-gov.go.jp. Retrieved on 2011-04-29.
  10. ^"Shift of Capital from Tokyo Committee". Japan Productivity Center for Socio-Economic Development. Archived from the original on August 25, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-14.
  11. ^"Policy Speech by Governor of Tokyo, Shintaro Ishihara at the First What is the first capital of japan Session of the Metropolitan Assembly, 2003". Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Archived from the original on 2007-11-03. Retrieved 2007-10-17.
  12. ^"文化庁の機能強化・京都移転" [Enhancement of the Agency for Cultural Affairs and relocation to Kyoto] (in Japanese). Retrieved 2018-06-22.
  13. ^Hiroshi Kajiyama (August 7, 2018). 5th meeting of the Agency for Cultural Affairs Relocation Council (Speech) (in Japanese). MEXT. Archived from the original on August 11, 2018. Retrieved August 11, 2018.
  14. ^Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1915). The Imperial Family of Japan, p. 1.
  15. ^ abPonsonby-Fane, p. 2.
  16. ^Ponsonby-Fane, pp. 2-3.
  17. ^ abcdePonsonby-Fane, p. 3.
  18. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 4.
  19. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 5.
  20. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 6.
  21. ^ abPonsonby-Fane, p. 7.
  22. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 8.
  23. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 9.
  24. ^コトバンク「履中天皇」
  25. ^コトバンク「反正天皇」
  26. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 10.
  27. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 12.
  28. ^ abcdefghijKoch, W. (1904). Japan; Geschichte nach japanischen Quellen und ethnographische Skizzen. Mit einem Stammbaum usps office open today Kaisers von Japan, p. 13.
  29. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 13.
  30. ^ abPonsonby-Fane, p. 14; excerpt, "Mikaguri Palace"
  31. ^Nussbaum, "Asuka" at p. 59.
  32. ^ abPonsonby-Fane, p. 15.
  33. ^"枚方八景 樟葉宮跡の杜" (in Japanese). Retrieved 2018-06-22.
  34. ^"筒城宮伝承地(Tsutsuki-no-miya denshochi)" (in Japanese). Retrieved 2018-06-22.
  35. ^"弟国宮(Otokuni-no-miya)遷都1500年記念事業" (in Japanese). Retrieved 2018-06-22.
  36. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 16.
  37. ^ abcPonsonby-Fane, p. 17; except, "Palace of Kanahashi at Magari, Yamato"
  38. ^Brown, Delmer. (1979). Gukanshō, pp. 262–263; excerpt, ". palace was Osada no Miya of Iware in the province of Yamato."
  39. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 18.
  40. ^Brown, p. 263; excerpt, ". palace was Namitsuki no Miya at Ikebe in the province of Yamato."
  41. ^ abPonsonby-Fane, p. 19.
  42. ^ abcdefghijklAsuka Historical Museum, Palaces of the Asuka Period," 1995; retrieved 2011-11-25.
  43. ^ abPonsonby-Fane, p. 20.
  44. ^ abPonsonby-Fane, p. 21.
  45. ^ abなにわ活性化プロジェクト (Naniwa Revialization Project)[permanent dead link], August 24, 201; retrieved 2011-11-24.
  46. ^ abPonsonby-Fane, p. 23.
  47. ^ abPonsonby-Fane, p. 24.
  48. ^Nussbaum, "Ōtsu mo Miya" at p. 216.
  49. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 25.
  50. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 26.
  51. ^ abPonsonby-Fane, p. 27.
  52. ^Nussbaum, "Fujiwara" at pp. 200–201.
  53. ^ abNussbaum, "Heijō-kyō" at p. 304.
  54. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 28.
  55. ^ abPonsonby-Fane, p. 29.
  56. ^Nussbaum, "Kuni-kyō" at p. 574.
  57. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 30.
  58. ^ abNussbaum, "Naniwa" at p. 697.
  59. ^Nussbaum, "Nagaoka-kyō" at p. 216–217.
  60. ^ abPonsonby-Fane, p. 34.
  61. ^"長岡京とは" [About Nagaoka Palace] (in Japanese). Retrieved 2018-06-22.
  62. ^ abNussbaum, "Heian-kyō" at pp. 303–304.
  63. ^Nussbaum, "Fukuhara" at pp. 216.
  64. ^Ponsonby-Fane, p. 37.

Further reading[edit]

  • Fiévé, Nicolas and Paul Waley. (2003). Japanese Capitals in Historical Perspective: Place, Power and Memory in Kyoto, Edo and Tokyo. New York: Psychology Press. ISBN 9780700714094

External links[edit]

Media related to Capital of Japan at Wikimedia Commons

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capital_of_Japan

■ Capitals were the places where the Emperor lived.

The current capital of Japan is Tokyo. In Japan's history, the national capital has been in many locations other than Tokyo. 

Historically, the home of the Emperor was considered the capital.

Three major capitals are Heijo-kyo (present day Nara), Heian-kyo (present day Kyoto), and Edo (present day Tokyo).

■ Heijo-kyo, present day Nara 

Heijo-kyo became the capital in 710 and lasted for nearly 70 years. 

During this Nara period, the Imperial Court led by the Emperor governed the country.

■ Heian-kyo, present day Kyoto 

Heian-kyo became the capital in 794 and lasted a little more than 1,000 years.This period can be divided into two parts.

(1) Heian period

The former 300 years period is called as the Heian period when the Imperial Court had political power.

(2) Samurai dominated periods

The latter 700 years period can be called samurai dominated periods.

Samurai have established military governments called the Shogunate in Kamakura, then Muromachi (in Kyoto) and Edo, present Tokyo.

Kyoto has been the capital even after the emperors had lost political power. 

■ Tokyo 

In 1868, the Meiji Restoration occurred, and the political power was transferred from the Shogunate to the Imperial Court, which was the government lead by the Emperor. 

The Meiji Emperor moved to Tokyo from Kyoto. 

Tokyo has been the capital of Japan since then.

■■ 

I hope this helps you appreciate the transition of capitals in Japan. 

-

Источник: https://www.gbac123.com/2016/12/24/history-of-capitals-of-japan/
what is the first capital of japan

Comments

  1. Sir my debit card is blocked for 3d secure because I enterd lot of time wrong otp what should I do

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *