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first minister of jamestown virginia

The Jamestown Rediscovery archaeology team revealed its discovery at Robert Hunt, Jamestown's first Anglican minister who was known as a. Reverend Richard Buck was a minister to the Colony of Virginia at Jamestown, Virginia from 1610 to 1624. He was chaplain of the first session of the. Minister of the Colony which established the English Church and English Civilization at Jamestown His people, members of the Colony, left this testimony.

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What Happened to the Lost Colony at Roanoke? - National Geographic

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Pocahontas, daughter of the chief of the Powhatan Indian confederacy, marries English tobacco planter John Rolfe in Jamestown, Virginia. The marriage ensured peace between the Jamestown settlers and the Powhatan tribe for several years.

In May 1607, about 100 English colonists settled along the James River in Virginia to found Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in America. The settlers fared badly because of famine, disease and Native American attacks, but were aided by 27-year-old English adventurer John Smith, who directed survival efforts and mapped the area. While exploring the Chickahominy River in December 1607, Smith and two colonists were captured by Powhatan warriors. At the time, the Powhatan confederacy consisted of around 30 Tidewater-area tribes led by Chief Wahunsonacock, known as Chief Powhatan to the English. Smith’s companions were killed, but he was spared and released, (according to a 1624 account by Smith) because of the dramatic intercession of Pocahontas, Chief Powhatan’s 13-year-old daughter. Her real name was Matoaka, and Pocahontas was a pet name that has been translated variously as “playful one” and “my favorite daughter.”

READ MORE: 5 Myths About Pocahontas

In 1608, Smith became president of the Jamestown colony, but the settlement continued to suffer. An accidental fire destroyed much of the town, and hunger, disease, and Indian attacks continued. During this time, Pocahontas often came to Jamestown as an emissary of her father, sometimes bearing gifts of food to help the hard-pressed settlers. She befriended the settlers and became acquainted with English ways. In 1609, Smith was injured from a fire in his gunpowder bag and was forced to return to England.

After Smith’s departure, relations with the Powhatan deteriorated and many settlers died from famine and disease in the winter of 1609-10. Jamestown was about to be abandoned by its inhabitants when Baron De La Warr (also known as Delaware) arrived in June 1610 with new supplies and rebuilt the settlement–the Delaware River and the colony of Delaware were later named after him. John Rolfe also arrived in Jamestown in 1610 and two years later cultivated the first tobacco there, introducing a successful source of livelihood that would have far-reaching importance for Virginia.

READ MORE: What Was Life Like in Jamestown?

In the spring of 1613, English Captain Samuel Argall took Pocahontas hostage, hoping to use her to negotiate a permanent peace with her father. Brought to Jamestown, she was put under the custody of Sir Thomas Gates, the marshal of Virginia. Gates treated her as a guest rather than a prisoner and encouraged her to learn English customs. She converted to Christianity and was baptized Lady Rebecca. Powhatan eventually agreed to the terms for her release, but by then she had fallen in love with John Rolfe, who was about 10 years her senior. On April 5, 1614, Pocahontas and John Rolfe married with the blessing of Chief Powhatan and the governor of Virginia.

Their marriage brought a peace between the English colonists and the Powhatans, and in 1615 Pocahontas gave birth to their first child, Thomas. In 1616, the couple sailed to England. The so-called Indian Princess proved popular with the English gentry, and she was presented at the court of King James I. 

In March 1617, Pocahontas and Rolfe prepared to sail back to Virginia. However, the day before they were to leave, Pocahontas died, probably of smallpox, and was buried at the parish church of St. George in Gravesend, England. John Rolfe returned to Virginia and was killed in a Native American massacre in 1622. After an education in England, their son Thomas Rolfe returned to Virginia and became a prominent citizen.

John Smith returned to the Americas in 1614 to explore the New England coast. On another voyage of exploration in 1614, he was captured by pirates but escaped after three months of captivity. He then returned to England, where he died in 1631.

Источник: https://www.history.com

WASHINGTON – Archaeologists have uncovered human remains of four of the earliest leaders of the English colony that would become America, buried for more than 400 years near the altar of what was America’s first Protestant church in Jamestown, Virginia.

The four burial sites were uncovered in the floor of what’s left of Jamestown’s historic Anglican church from 1608, a team of scientists and historians announced Tuesday. The site is the same church where Pocahontas famously married Englishman John Rolfe, leading to peace between the Powhatan Indians and colonists at the first permanent English settlement in America.

Beyond the human remains, archaeologists also found artifacts buried with the colonial leaders — including a mysterious Catholic container for holy relics found in the Protestant church.

The Jamestown Rediscovery archaeology team revealed its discovery at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History. The museum is helping to study and identify those buried in the church. The burials were first uncovered in November 2013, but the scientific team wanted to trace and identify its findings with some certainty before announcing the discovery.

Archaeologists have been studying the site since 1994 when the original James Fort — long thought to be lost and submerged in the James River — was rediscovered.

The team identified the remains of the Rev. Robert Hunt, Jamestown’s first Anglican minister who was known as a peacemaker between rival colonial leaders; Capt. Gabriel Archer, a nemesis of one-time colony leader John Smith; Sir Ferdinando Wainman, likely the first knight buried in America; and Capt. William West, who died in a fight with the Powhatan Indians. The three other men likely died after brief illnesses. They were buried between 1608 and 1610.

“What we have discovered here in the earliest English church in America are four of the first leaders of America,” said historian James Horn who is president of the Jamestown Rediscovery Foundation. “There’s nothing like it anywhere else in this country.”

While the individuals buried at Jamestown were not royalty, they were considered pivotal figures in the early colony. Horn compared the find to the 2012 discovery of the lost grave of King Richard III in England.

Two years ago, the Jamestown team found evidence of survival cannibalism in the colony.

Perhaps just as interesting as the newly discovered human remains are some of the artifacts buried with the bodies. Burial items were rare in English culture at the time, archaeologists said.

In the remnants of Archer’s coffin, archaeologists found a captain’s leading staff as a symbol of Archer’s military status. Historical records indicate Archer helped lead some of the earliest expeditions to Jamestown. He died at the age of 34 during a six-month period known as the “starving time” when many perished due to disease, starvation and battles with Indians.

Mysteriously, a small silver box resting atop Archer’s coffin turns out likely to be a Catholic reliquary containing bone fragments and a container for holy water. Archer’s parents were Catholic in Protestant England, which became illegal. So the discovery raises the question of whether Archer was perhaps part of a secret Catholic cell — or even a Catholic spy on behalf of the Spanish.

Catholic relics have been found in the Jamestown archaeological site before, but the placement of this box seems particularly symbolic, the historians said. They used CT scans to see inside the box without damaging it — gaining a view that wouldn’t have been possible 10 years ago.

An alternative theory holds that the religious piece was simply repurposed for the Anglican church as a holdover from Catholic tradition as England waffled between Catholic and Protestant rule. Historians said more research must be done.

“It was a real kind of ah-ha moment for a lot of us,” said William Kelso, Jamestown’s director of archaeology. “It was oh, religion was a big deal here, and that’s often overlooked. Everyone thinks that people came to Jamestown to find gold and go home and live happily ever after.”

But the Church of England had a strong role in the creation of an English America with the Protestant church acting as a bulwark against the Spanish and Catholic colonies to the south, Horn said.

In West’s burial plot, archaeologists found remnants of the military leader’s silver-edged sash in a block of soil. The silk material was too delicate to remove from the dirt, so archaeologists removed an entire block of dirt for preservation.

The artifacts will go on display within weeks at Historic Jamestowne. The site also plans to memorialize the men and will keep their bones in an accessible place for future study.

The team is more than 90 percent certain of the colonists’ identities, Kelso said. Still they will work to complete more testing and potentially DNA analysis. One sample is in a DNA laboratory now at Harvard to determine whether any genetic information has been preserved.

The archaeology team said the discovery is like a riddle they must figure out over time. Records from the time period are limited.

“The things that we look at and can read from the bones are simply details that you’re not going to find in the history books,” said Douglas Owsley, a forensic anthropologist at the Smithsonian. “These are men that you might not know their name. But these are men that were critical to who we are in terms of America today.”

Источник: https://www.ocregister.com/2015/07/28/remains-of-4-early-colonial-leaders-discovered-at-jamestown/

Mundane Lives and Extreme Adventures

Question

Pot and platter of Miles Standish

What were the primary concerns of life in the New World?

Answer

Let me somewhat arbitrarily focus the question more specifically on the earliest English explorers, adventurers, and settlers in Virginia and Massachusetts in the first half of the 17th century.

Reading their published accounts gives one the impression that their lives alternated between extremes of feast and famine, between health and sickness, between sublime ease and almost unimaginable hardship, and between periods of contentment and even boredom and periods of sharp fear and terror interspersed with periods of sheer joy. Supplementing those accounts, however, with evidence from rather more mundane sources such as probate and account books, old court records, and modern excavations of kitchen middens from colonial sites, yields a larger story of people organizing and conducting their work and family lives in ways similar to ours today.

The "Commodities" of Life in the English Settlements in the New World

Captain John Smith published A Description of New England in 1616 in London, in which account he sought, among other things, to recruit English settlers. In it he declared:

Worthy is that person to starve that here cannot live; if he have sense, strength and health: for there is no such penury of these blessings in any place, but that a hundred men may, in one houre or two, make their provisions for a day: and he that hath experience to manage well these affaires, with fortie or thirtie honest industrious men, might well undertake (if they dwell in these parts) to subject the Salvages, and feed daily two or three hundred men, with as good corn, fish and flesh, as the earth hath of those kindes, and yet make that labor but their pleasure; provided that they have engins, that be proper for their purposes.

The first minister in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, Reverend Francis Higginson, acting, like Smith, as a kind of colonial recruiter, published New-England's Plantation; or, a short and true description of the commodities and discommodities of that countrey in 1630 in London. In it, he praised the "fat black earth" around the Charles River in Massachusetts. The land, he said, was extremely fertile, and was well suited to the plow. "It is scarce to be believed how our kine and goats, horses and hogs do thrive and prosper here, and like well of this country." He bragged of the vast harvest of corn, turnips, parsnips, carrots, watercress, "pumpions," "cowcumbers," and herbs. He wrote that the colonists also planted and harvested mulberries, plums, raspberries, currants, chestnuts, filberts, walnuts, cherries, and strawberries.

He wrote about the abundance of game: deer and bear, as well as the other animals, listing wolves, foxes, beavers, otters, martins, great wild cats, and "a great beast called a molke"—most probably a moose. The abundance of fish was "almost beyond believing." Cod, mackerel, bass, and sturgeon; oysters, clams, mussels, and lobsters were easy to catch or gather. Of lobsters, Higginson wrote that "the least boy in the Plantation may both catch and eat what he will of them. For my own part, I was soon cloyed with them, they were so great, and fat, and luscious. I have seen some myself that have weighed sixteen pound; but others have had diverse times so great lobsters as have weighted twenty-five pound, as they assured me."

Higginson commended the "temper of the air" of New England as healthful. He noted that summers were hotter than in England and winters were colder, but he said that the cold was not so bad because of the ease of getting firewood. "Here is good living," he wrote, "for those that love good fires."

The "Discommodities"

Higginson's improbably upbeat list of New England's "discommodities" was much shorter: First, mosquitoes; second, the snow and cold of winter; third; poisonous snakes; and fourth, the lack of more settlers. This last "discommodity" is telling, and does much to explain the hearty promotional tone of the rest of his description.

In fact, many of the first settlers, both in Massachusetts and Virginia, died of starvation, which especially afflicted them during the first winters. Several times, Indians brought them some relief with baskets of corn and game.

Diseases of one kind or another also took their toll. Some of these they brought with them, such as smallpox. Some of them, like dysentery and scurvy, were the result of malnutrition or lack of fresh drinking water. The sheer physical difficulties involved in exploration and in building a settlement in the wilderness also presented tremendous hazards to those that undertook the work.

Shipwreck was also common, especially from the hurricanes and nor'easters that were novel to them. Shipwrecks not only endangered their own lives but also imperiled the re-provisioning of the colonies from England. This was especially critical in the first years of the settlements, when their vulnerability was increased by the fact that they had to depend on ships to supply them, not just with food, but also with basic goods, such as gunpowder, firearms, tools, iron, and cloth.

Colonel Henry Norwood's pamphlet, A Voyage to Virginia, described his harrowing trip in the fall of 1649 from England, in which his ship met storms off the coast of Cape Hatteras and they were blown offshore. He and a small party of others were eventually marooned on an uninhabited island off the coast of Maryland and nearly starved until being rescued by Indians and carried by them to the colony at Jamestown:

Of the three weak women before mentioned, one had the envied happiness to die about this time; and it was my advice to the survivors, who were following her apace, to endeavour their own preservation by converting her dead carcase into food, as they did to good effect. The same counsel was embrac'd by those of our sex; the living fed upon the dead; four of our company having the happiness to end their miserable lives on Sunday night the day of January___. Their chief distemper, 'tis true, was hunger; but it pleased God to hasten their exit by an immoderate access of cold, caused by a most terrible storm of hail and snow at north-west, on the Sunday aforesaid, which did not only dispatch those four to their long homes, but did sorely threaten all that remained alive, to perish by the same fate.

The colony in Virginia was established in the midst of the Algonquian nation of Powhatan, and the Plymouth Colony on the land of the Wampanoag tribe. Relations with the Indians were sketchy and volatile, consisting of periods of friendship interspersed with periods of fighting, sometimes alongside the Indians of one tribe against its enemies from other tribes. The colonists traded metal implements and cloth for food, furs, and land. But they also carefully constructed fortifications and palisades to protect themselves against the almost certain eventuality of attack by the various tribes and nations of Indians among whom they settled. Both colonies suffered large loss of life from Indian attack.

All in all, much of the earliest settlers' time and energies were devoted to providing for their basic, physical subsistence and doing what they could to ensure their survival. Much of the colonies' early precariousness was due to not having yet cleared and planted enough land to ensure harvests that would not only provide the colonists daily fare, but would also allow a surplus to draw upon during times of scarcity.

Until about the mid-20th century, historians largely worked from the writings of the colonists and explorers to understand what colonial life was like. But those writings offered only a very selective picture. For the past several decades, detailed research by archeologists and archivists into the material culture of the colonists has dramatically broadened and sometimes corrected the historical picture.

Bibliography

Images:
"The settlers at Jamestown," William Ludwell Sheppard, 1876, from Pioneers in the settlement of America: from Florida in 1510 to California in 1849. Boston: Samuel Walker, 1876-1877. New York Public Library.

"The pot and platter of Miles Standish," detail from Plymouth stereoview collection. New York Public Library.

Источник: https://teachinghistory.org/history-content/ask-a-historian/23928

It’s so nice to be needed even after you’re dead. That’s what I was thinking during the rehearsal dinner for Pocahontas and John Rolfe at the Williamsburg Lodge, off Route 60 in Virginia.

Actors playing Pocahontas and John Rolfe at the wedding reenactment in Jamestown, Mass.

Photo courtesy Preservation Virginia (Historic Jamestowne)

In 1614, Rolfe, a tobacco farmer and recent widower, needed Pocahontas, the object of his obsession, for, well, sex. Chief Powhatan needed Pocahontas, his daughter, to wed this English colonist to secure Powhatan’s sovereignty over his chiefdom. Years after Pocahontas’ death, former Jamestown leader Capt. John Smith needed the Indian princess’s legend to secure his own fame. During the Colonial era and beyond, Virginian and British families used their genealogical connection to her to claim highborn heritage, and after the Civil War, the local Indian community used her to protect itself from deeply racist Jim Crow laws. Historic Jamestowne needs her today to promote tourism. And as I learned from the current chief of Pocahontas’ tribe, the Pamunkey still need her to protect fishing rights and help secure federal recognition.

Pocahontas had shellfish embroidered on her wedding jacket, which was modeled on a garment from the era in London’s Victoria and Albert Museum. According to a volunteer embroiderer at my table, it took 70 volunteers (including former Virginia first lady Roxane Gilmore) 55 days to stitch 130 pretty black creatures, including rabbits, deer, and crabs.

Her jacket worked a lot better than John Rolfe’s red suit, which, while historically accurate, looked disco-ish even topped by an oversized black hat.

The event would have resembled any generic upscale hotel wedding rehearsal dinner if it weren’t for the three Native American men on a dais wearing tanned buckskin and draped in raccoon mantles, their skin covered by red and blue body paint.

140617_SCI_Pocahontas_cover

The next day’s wedding re-enactment was to be held at the base of the original mud-walled chapel where Pocahontas wed John Rolfe on April 5, 1614—400 years later to the date. The site of the settlement’s chapel was found just in 2010 at Historic Jamestowne. Its perimeter exactly matched dimensions described by William Strachey, secretary of the first English colony in the New World. The discovery was acclaimed as one of Archaeology magazine’s top 10 finds of the year.

(To clear up a common misconception for those who live outside Virginia—four out of five college graduates I polled in an East Village Starbucks got this wrong—Capt. John Smith, leader of the Jamestown settlement, who claimed Pocahontas saved him by begging her father to release him moments before certain death, was never married to Pocahontas. He left Jamestown after being injured by a gunpowder explosion, never to return. Farmer John Rolfe departed England in 1609 on the third supply fleet headed to the struggling English colony. After a short stint as a castaway in Bermuda, he arrived in Jamestown in 1610 and married Pocahontas four years later.)

140617_SCI_Pocahontas_girlJohnSmith

I wasn’t out of place in a room full of Pocahontas enthusiasts. I was the girl who dressed up for Halloween in a fringe dress and braids telling everyone I was an Indian princess. My favorite picture book was Pocahontas: A Little Indian Girl of Jamestown, which described Capt. John Smith as a handsome “Paleface” hero “straight and tall” with hair “the color of gold leaves in the autumn, his eyes like the sky.” Smith told Pocahontas stories and gave her prized gifts, such as a hand mirror. She in turn walked through the forest to warn the captain that her tribe would kill him while he slept. I took out every children’s book about Pocahontas I could find in the library and questioned my mother, who as a girl had also dreamed of being Pocahontas. I was sure Smith loved his little friend back, but she was born too late. She obviously married the wrong man, and did so only because she was told the right one was dead. When she lived in England as the new Lady Rolfe, she saw Smith once, and what a tragedy that must have been! If only he had waited for her to grow up to marry him.

In 2005 I couldn’t wait to see Terrence Malick’s visually sumptuous (if a bit plotless) two-and-a-half-hour film about Pocahontas and the Jamestown colonists. I could convince absolutely no one to go with me.

When I read about the wedding re-enactment, I’d been especially intrigued that a member of Pocahontas’ Pamunkey tribe had been chosen to portray her. Had the local Native Americans really signed off on this event? I decided I had to attend.

Once again no one wanted to accompany me to a Pocahontas event, not even my 11-year-old daughter, who said she was slightly embarrassed for me. I made the triumphal announcement to my family that I was going alone. “Bring me back a T-shirt,” my daughter said without looking up from Instagram.

It was easy enough to get to the wedding, a straight eight-hour train ride from New York’s Penn Station to Williamsburg, Virginia. There was a free shuttle bus from the 18th-century Colonial Williamsburg to 17th-century Jamestown, 15 minutes away. But how was I going to get an indigenous perspective unfiltered by pomp and press releases?

It was simpler than I thought. Wandering around the grounds of Colonial Williamsburg, the first person I spoke with was Jeff Brown, an archaeologist digging by a slope near a cobblestone street. “You have to call my brother Kevin, I swear, he’s the current chief of the Pamunkey tribe.”

“I am the chief,” Kevin Brown said firmly over the phone, and added that he would have plenty to say on the wedding matter.

With the clomping of horses in the background, I made arrangements to meet him the next day in the upstairs bookstore café at the College of William & Mary. “Look for a man with a beaded pendant on his neck.” Then he gently advised me, “You really don’t have to keep saying ‘Native American’ in Virginia. We use the word ‘Indian’ here. Or we just name the tribe.”

The oldest Virginia families claim descent from Pocahontas.

I didn’t want to be uninformed going to an unexpected meeting with a tribal chief, so I quickly read up on the unusual status of Indian tribes in Virginia. In 1924 an astonishing law was passed called the Racial Integrity Act that restricted who could marry based on race. Anyone with a hint of black ancestry was considered black and prohibited from marrying a white person. But according to a subsection of the law known as the Pocahontas Exception, since the oldest Virginia families claimed descent from Pocahontas, a person with one-sixteenth Indian blood was considered white.

The law protected Native Americans somewhat from Jim Crow laws. But the long-term unintended effect of classifying people with Native American ancestry as white is what Laura Feller, a curator for the National Park Service and the foremost expert on this ugly asterisk of history, has termed “administrative genocide.” It has left “a modern-day legacy where today’s Virginia tribes struggle to achieve federal recognition because they cannot prove their heritage through historic documentation.”

Chief Kevin Brown was indeed sporting a colorful pendant the next day over his light blue oxford shirt and vest; his head was shaved bald except for a short black ponytail. “The marriage has never been a big story to our community,” he said. “A lot of little girls lived then who wed white men. Many other chiefs ruled beneath Powhatan, who used his children as a way to secure allegiances. He had as many as 50 daughters, and Pocahontas was not of as high a station as some of the other girls were. He had a child of his living at almost every tribal community, and viewed Jamestown as another opportunity to secure influence. Influence was currency back then.”

Pocahontas saving the life of Capt. John Smith.

Image courtesy Library of Congress

Brown made intimidatingly direct eye contact. “I’ve anguished over this weekend, but the Pocahontas connection helps our fight for federal recognition,” he said. The tribe is already recognized by the state of Virginia, and it is on track to be the first federally recognized Virginian tribe sometime in 2014. With that designation comes enormous economic potential.

The Pamunkey are one of the many related tribes classified as Algonquian. In 1607, when the English arrived, about 20,000 local Algonquian-speaking Indians called Powhatan (after their leader, Pocahontas’ father) lived near the Virginia coast. Of these Indians, about 1,000 of them were Pamunkey. About 160 European settlers lived in the village of Jamestown. Today there are 205 Pamunkey, and 50 people live on the 1,200-acre reservation in King William, about 40 miles away from Historic Jamestown on the banks of the Pamunkey River. It was set aside by treaty in 1646 and given to the tribe in 1658. On the reservation is a burial mound thought to hold Powhatan’s remains.

“We did talk to trees,” Brown said of the Disney film Pocahontas, “but the rest of the story is BS. Disney came to our reservation for research. I don’t think anyone got any money. We didn’t. Honestly, I’m going tonight for the meal, and I’m a little pissed the big rehearsal dinner’s not an open bar.”

“I’ve anguished over this weekend, but the Pocahontas connection helps our fight for federal recognition.”

Pamunkey Chief Kevin Brown

He worried his reply was too frank, but I reassured him I wanted the truth, and then he smiled warmly. “I’m trying. I really am. If I can use these things as a platform to get out that my tribe’s fishing rights are under attack, I’ll go along with it. The Pamunkey and the Mattaponi have always had exemption to fish shad and catfish, and now the Department of Game and Inland Fisheries wants to curb our rights.” He explained that they signed a treaty for these rights in 1677, and tribal fishermen always carry cards that identify them as Pamunkey. “They say the shad is overfished and there’s mercury danger, but these are our rights by treaty.”

The Pamunkey, he said, have run a shad hatchery since 1918. Along with the Mattaponi tribe, the Pamunkey have worked to increase fertilization by 60 percent by taking the female fish and squeezing their roe into pails and then catching a male fish and adding his sperm.

“So if people look at our participation this weekend like ‘What a bunch of sellouts!’ they are not seeing the big picture. If you want justice to work, you have to be at the table. Four or five years ago, we got more involved with the events produced through Colonial Williamsburg. Before that no one particularly recognized or appreciated our existence, but they are starting to. That’s why I said yes.”

Pocahontas was born about 1595 in Werowocomoco, 15 miles upriver from Jamestown. She was about 11 when she met 27-year-old Smith. Smith’s account is the primary historical record of her childhood, but it is so strewn with inconsistencies that, as historian Camilla Townsend hypothesizes, most of his thrilling account of a girl begging her father to save a white man was a spin on Indian maiden sexual fantasies popular at the time.

Captain John Smith trading with Virginia Indians.

Painting by Sidney E. King/National Park Service

But no Jamestown experts have disputed that the most famous marriage in American history took place. The first church-sanctioned interracial marriage in English-speaking North America was huge news on both sides of the Atlantic. And it ushered in a seven-year period of peace and unity between the colonists and Indians before renewed war.

Apparently I was the first of 120 guests for the rehearsal dinner; when the doorman opened the entrance for me, he asked if I was going to the Edwards/Carlisle wedding.

I explained why I was there.

“Oh dear, I forgot Miss Pocahontas is getting married tomorrow. The Rolfe party is in the Colony Room, down the hall to your left.”

Few regular visitors to Colonial Williamsburg had bought a ticket, at $95 a seat. Over cocktails I met loyal staff, wealthy board members of Colonial Williamsburg, and local “Pocahontas descendants” who identified as white and Protestant. For 400 years, American bluebloods in the thousands have claimed direct descent from Pocahontas via her son, Thomas Rolfe, and his daughter Jane. There were the Byrds, a family of famous explorers and governors, New York City’s handsome former Mayor John Lindsay, Woodrow Wilson’s wife Edith, mathematician and astronomer Percival Lowell (who thought he found canals on Mars), and Nancy Reagan, who favors astrology over astronomy. In England there are scores of additional fancy folks proudly touting Pocahontas lineage through Thomas’ other daughter, Anne.

Actors at the Pocahontas wedding reenactment in Jamestown, Mass.

Photo courtesy Preservation Virginia (Historic Jamestowne)

Three Jamestown colonist re-enactors entered the room accompanied by the three Indians in buckskins and body paint.

Then swarthy John Rolfe arrived with his comely bride-to-be, her hair bunned and tucked into a bonnet.

A man acting the part of the colony’s Anglican minister Richard Bucke led us in a severe 17th-century form of grace, and everyone in the room bowed their heads. Oy. Was I the only secular Jew there? Did no one care that “Bucke” was an actor? After another culture-shocked glance around the room, I bowed my head, too.

Between each dish served, the historic interpreters on the dais gave a few lines of scripted dialogue. One maid was a composite of the English women who tended to Pocahontas after she became Lady Rolfe.

The menu, starting with cornmeal-crusted oyster chowder, was purported to be what could have been served in 1614, but there was no bottle-nosed dolphin served, nor shark, whale, turtle, snake, heron, eagle, crow, skunk, dog, horse, or cat.

Was Chief Brown suffering? I squinted over to his table, and it was hard to tell. Toward the end of my sweet potato tart dessert, I strolled over to say hi, and he introduced me to his good friend, Robert “Two Eagles” Green, a former insurance executive and chief emeritus of Virginia’s Patawomeck tribe, who portrayed Pocahontas’ father, Powhatan, in an episode of PBS’s Nova.

It’s been a strange time for archaeologists at Jamestown.

Brown then presented me to Buck Woodard, a ponytailed anthropologist with a charismatic George Clooney smile. When I’d spoken with Brown at the bookstore, he said that he decided to come to the weekend’s festivities in part because Woodard “asked me to participate, and I trust him and listen to him.”

“The two tables of Indians here are my guests,” Woodard said. “Of course they didn’t pay to come. I’m honored that they did come.” Woodard is an adjunct professor at Virginia Commonwealth University’s School of World Studies and director of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation’s and Historic Jamestowne’s American Indian Initiative. “The dinner was a tough sell,” Woodard confessed.

A clamorous crush of well-wishers started seeking to have their pictures taken with the famous couple. Woodard and I agreed to talk more at the wedding the next morning.

Before entering the old coastal fort, I signed the wedding guest book. After making sure I didn’t see any of the Indians I had been talking to at the rehearsal dinner, I asked another tourist to take a photo of me touching Pocahontas’ hand for good luck. As a child I’d seen pictures of this 1922 life-size statue by the fort’s entrance, sculpted by William Ordway Partridge. As an adult I could see how it might offend: This beauty with a feather in her hair has European features as in a Degas ballerina sculpture, and she wears clothing from a Western tribe. The iconic statue is copper-green, with both hands rubbed to a shine from so many people superstitiously touching them. The governor of Virginia presented a replica in 1958 at St. George’s Church in Gravesend, England, where Pocahontas died in March 1617, after being left off a ship with what was probably tuberculosis. She had just finished a year abroad with her husband, including a formal presentation to the royal court as the baptized Lady Rebecca Rolfe. She is buried under the chancel in Gravesend, where the important locals were placed after death, and her remains have never been disturbed or studied.

I bought a southerly sweet tea inside the small standalone cafeteria and added a $1.25 slice of white-frosted “Pocahontas wedding cake” to stay festive.

In a blue short-sleeved work shirt, archaeologist David Givens talked to passersby from the cellar of the fort, where he was busy unearthing a brick bread oven. Watching archaeologists work on site is part of the Jamestown attraction. A clutch of wedding guests crammed near me to take photos of Givens.

Burial of the Dead. More than 80% of Jamestown's 500 colonists perished during the harsh winter of 1609-1610.

Painting by Sidney E. King/Image courtesy National Park Service

It’s been a strange time for archaeologists at Jamestown. Just over a year ago, Smithsonian scientists announced that they had discovered the partial skull and severed shinbone of “Jane,” a 14-year-old girl, near the Jamestown chapel. The bones bore the marks of an inexperienced butcher. These mangled human parts were direct evidence of cannibalism during the harsh winter of 1609–1610, referred to as the Starving Time. The announcement brought on a media storm and rare mentions of dismemberment on TripAdvisor.

Givens told the tourists, all the while sifting soil, about the discovery of half-eaten Jane. Another thing archaeologists there have shown is that what masters eat, servants eat. “Archaeologists and scientists see a lot of lead poisoning; both masters and servants were eating off the same pewter plates.”

After answering a few more enthusiastic cannibalism questions from the dozen or so visitors standing above him and passing time before the ceremony, Givens tried to describe his other work, dropping words like mitochondrial and isotopic signatures. After a polite silence, it was back to more cannibalism questions.

“The softer expression for cannibalism is processing to be eaten,” he said resignedly.

Buck Woodard waved me over to continue our truncated rehearsal dinner conversation. He cast the Indians in the weekend’s events. He’s done a lot of film work, mainly as an adviser along with Chief Robert “Two Eagles” Green, and he had the know-how to do the makeup for the Indian characters.

Actors at the Pocahontas wedding reenactment in Jamestown, Mass.

Photo courtesy Preservation Virginia (Historic Jamestowne)

Woodard worked with Native American actress Irene Bedard, who was the voice of Pocahontas in the Disney Pocahontas film and its sequel, Pocahontas II: Journey to a New World. He worked with Q'orianka Kilcher as Pocahontas in the grown-up movie TheNew World. Was he a fixer on set? “Emmanuel Lubezki, who was nominated for an Oscar as cinematographer for New World”—he won for Gravity—“called me an animateur, and I like that better than fixer. It’s French for the person who makes things comes alive, makes things happen.”

I complimented him on his lapel pin (“Iroquois League”) and his snazzy purple jacket. “Not purple, wampum-colored.” I was so nervous that I would get the Indian perspective wrong that I double-checked if he was being humorous. “Sort of, but wampum and belts were used in diplomatic ceremonies. But think how much of the humor of the Indians participating in the original ceremony may have been lost. I imagine the newcomers transcribed seriously. Indians can be ironic too, ya know. If only we had a linguist working on the subtleties.”

“Isn’t there?”

“Nope, nobody’s meaningfully working on Virginian Algonquian since Blair Rudes died.” I was embarrassed that I had no idea who he was talking about. “An astonishing linguist who worked on The New World. I’m proud that in this ceremony, which is for the dominant culture, there is substantive and meaningful use of Pamunkey words, which Rudes helped bring back from the dead.” Some of the words we know for sure originated from the Powhatan language are raccoon, opossum, pecan, moccasin, hickory, persimmon, terrapin, tomahawk, and wow! “As in powwow,” he explained when I questioned the last one.

So how many authentic words would be used in the ceremony a few minutes away?

Woodard knew: “Twelve. Mostly during a native blessing in which John Rolfe and his bride’s hands will be linked and wrapped with beads by Pocahontas’ uncle Opichisco. But sometimes 12 is not 12. Algonquian phrases are polysynthetic and build like German, so one big, long word can be descriptive of people and place; one Pamunkey word would be many more in English.”

“I see my real job as an ombudsman of the local Indian voice,” Woodard said. “And as far as this weekend goes, Pocahontas is the most famous person in the story, and if we need her to get a level playing field in a dominant culture, then so be it. Just look over at those benches. Twenty Pamunkey Indians are in the fort of Jamestowne, and you tell me, when’s the last time that happened? In the 17th century? I’m not trying to sugarcoat the compromises being made this weekend, but their very presence here is a big deal in post-Colonial American history.”

We stopped talking after two musicians appeared onstage to serenade the audience by viola da gamba and recorder.

A VIP area was roped off along the 24-by-64-foot footprint of the old chapel, a few dozen of us seated inside it, the not-so-fortunate standing outside of it, four deep. In the front left rows, the honored Pamunkey guests fanned themselves with their programs while reporters and photographers from Indian Country Today and the Washington Post snapped photos of a smiling former governor of Virginia.

As the British flag flapped above us, the fanciful procession down the center aisle began, first gallant guards from the fort carrying rifles, then two priests, and then Capt. Samuel Argall, a man of influence at Jamestown. Now the Indian party arrived, the same Native American actors from the rehearsal dinner.

At first sight of the bride, the smartphones came out. Wendy Taylor, with her rich brown hair glimmering in the sun and a smashing Disney hourglass figure, was undeniably the embodiment of all little-girl and grown-man fantasies of Pocahontas. The Pocahontas fangirls around me gasped and grabbed their parents’ hands to steady themselves at her arrival.

I was secretly ashamed that I shared their excitement.

Yet Pocahontas had but one line: “I will.”

“Argall was a jerk. I’m glad that’s coming across.”

A wedding spectator

Couldn’t the writing staff have added to this? Maybe they were purists. What we know about the ceremony comes from an account by Ralph Hamor, the Jamestown secretary who succeeded William Strachey, and there was no account by Pocahontas. It is wishful thinking that she would have said more.

One thing the children’s books and most Pocahontas myths fail to mention, a fact that sucks some of the romance out of the occasion, is that Pocahontas was kidnapped before the wedding. In April 1613, Capt. Argall captured Pocahontas in the town of Passapatanzy, where she had been calling on relatives. She was held prisoner at the town of Henricus for a year, had Christianity lessons, and was baptized Rebecca. (Whether or not she used the name, she almost certainly ceased being known as Pocahontas, which was a nickname. Her childhood given name was either Amonute or Matoaka; she let it be known around the time of her wedding that she preferred to be called Matoaka.)  

It is clear from diaries and records that Rolfe was infatuated with Pocahontas, but zero evidence exists that she shared an emotional connection. It is possible that she agreed to marry the widower as one of the terms of her release.

Capt. Argall, wearing a wireless microphone, laughed arrogantly to his comrade in a stagy aside. “She was traded for a small copper pot!”

The Abduction of Pocahontas, 1612.

Image courtesy Meg Eastman/Virginia Historical Society

A history enthusiast behind me behind me said to his son: “Argall was a jerk. I’m glad that’s coming across.”

After the ceremony, the newlyweds were escorted to the much-needed shade of a craft services holding tent.

A dignified lady seated next to me asked if I’d enjoyed the 20-minute ceremony. She turned out to be Anne Geddy Cross of Hanover, Virginia, president of the Board of Trustees of Preservation Virginia. Cross oversees the site as well as five core historic properties. I assumed she got to meet Queen Elizabeth II in 2007 when she visited for another historical marker, the quadricentennial of the first settlers’ arrival. “I did indeed! Royalty loves to visit Virginia.” But she claimed to be more over the moon that Indian royalty was here this time. “That’s truly something!”

I remembered that souvenir for my daughter when I saw the T-shirt options fluttering in the hot breeze in an outdoor popup shop alongside the James River. One showed Rolfe kneeling by Pocahontas, asking for her hand, with a cringe-worthy scratched heart in a tree that read “Pocahontas + J. Rolfe, 4*5*14.”*

Here I ran into Bill Bolling and his son Sean Bolling, also buying T-shirts. Mrs. Bolling (I never caught her first name) emerged from the tent, saying she’d brought along a chart prepared by an ancestor, Blair Bolling, in 1810 that explained that her husband and son were “red Bollings,” who have the most assured heritage from Pocahontas; others identified by genealogists as “blue Bollings” and “white Bollings” have iffy links.

“Got that correctly?” she asked hopefully.

According to Bill Bolling, his family also has a tradition of naming daughters Pocahontas, and Bill recently found the grave of an ancestor named Pocahontas Bolling. He was thrilled to be at the wedding: “I’m pretty humbled. This is the same site it all happened on. I’m taking it all in.”

Despite misgivings, I bought the shirt with the kneeling Rolfe. I was almost ready to leave when I realized in horror I had not gotten Pocahontas’ perspective from Pocahontas.

The Pocahontas wedding reenactment in Jamestown, Mass.

Photo courtesy Chuck Durfor

Buck Woodard agreed to introduce me to 25-year-old Wendy Taylor (Chief Brown’s cousin), but only after she had had a decent break. As I waited in the tent, my eyes roved to John Rolfe (actor David Catanese) in his red suit and 17th-century hat sneaking a Tastykake powdered sugar donut from the craft services table. I reached for my iPhone to document this, and he gave me a thumbs-up, then the bride was ready to say hello.

Woodard stood nearby, perhaps to make sure I was asking respectful questions. “I saw the movie Pocahontas I can’t even count how many times. I was always pretending to be her. I love being her,” said Taylor. Woodard looked like he was disappointed that Taylor’s excitement in being cast stemmed from watching a vamped-up maiden in Disney cartoons. But then he put in, “Now that she has a 4-year-old and a 9-month-old, she’s watching it again.”

I was startled and excited to find out that the silver-haired man next to me listening to our conversation was the most famous man at the fort, the archeologist who insisted more than 20 years ago that the fort had not washed away, that its traces could still be found along the James River. Oh my! I had just read his book on the train. Could I interview him, too?

William Kelso happily started in with the story he has told countless times. “I began by myself, 20 acres started by shovel, I then noticed a dark streak in the soil. Man, I was beside myself! Right away I found an object, and we have since found 1.7 million other objects.” None of this would be happening if not for his vision—not the archaeological research, not the World of Pocahontas Unearthed exhibit that opened June 6 at the Jamestown site, not the wedding re-enactment.

“I’ll fall in my last hole here, probably.”

William Kelso

“It is something, isn’t it, for it’s on the genuine site? It’s a lovely day, but meeting the Queen, that was my best moment,” he said. In 2007, Kelso was made Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire.

“I was told the Queen wanted a reflective moment, so I racked my brains for something good to say to her. When I met her, I spent 20 minutes with her guiding her around in her blue coat and blue hat. There was a lot to catch up on since her 1957 visit to the fort. She loved all of it, and I whispered, ‘Your majesty, this is where the British Empire began, this was not just the first American colony, this was the first colony in the British Empire.’ ” He chortled. “She loved that bit of information, she gave the best smile and incorporated that tidbit into her speech. Bush was there, too, you know, but making the Queen smile. That was wild.”

Kelso pointed to where he lives year-round, a building on site, in a caretaker’s house provided by Preservation Virginia. “That’s why I can be here so often. I’m waiting on what the future still holds. Hopefully my career highlight is still ahead. Did anyone tell you work started a few days ago on the western end of the island, 20 unexplored acres? It took us 20 years to dig one acre. So think about that, one acre, 95 percent of the site is uncovered. There is years of work ahead. I’ll fall in my last hole here, probably. I’m too excited to stop.”

On the Amtrak ride home, I worried that I would, like so many before me, convince myself that I deeply understood a complicated history after a glimpsing visit. My reported journey to Jamestown will be hopelessly outdated in 50 years, like all of the accounts I have read, starting with the ones by the settlers at Jamestown who had a late-medieval perspective and offered the world a Christians vs. savages account. Their “good Indian woman who saved the life of a white man” tale is spectacularly loved even today. In other accounts, Pocahontas has been portrayed as a brat at Jamestown; she has been called powerless, and even matter-of-factly a prick-tease. The divide in interpreting her story is not just between cultures; in academic circles, there are still factions with brittle pride warring over whether Pocahontas really saved John Smith from death, whether he made the story up, or whether the narrative was about a ritual drama John Smith simply didn't understand. Some experts argue about the appropriation of Pocahontas as an American Indian woman that the larger public has reduced to a “Pocahottie” Halloween outfit. None of these tropes is centered within a firm Algonquian indigenous worldview, perhaps an almost impossible task 400 years later. Divergent takes on historical events will not always be reconciled.

But even if I went to Jamestown and all my daughter got was a lousy T-shirt, I have gotten so much more out of the pilgrimage.

*Correction, June 23, 2014: This story originally misstated the date on a T-shirt showing John Rolfe proposing to Pocahontas. (Return.)

Laurie Gwen Shapiro is an Emmy-nominated filmmaker working on a nonfiction book about a teen stowaway on Byrd’s 1928 expedition to Antarctica.

Источник: http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/science/2014/06/pocahontas_wedding_re_enactment_john_rolfe_john_smith_and_native_americans.html
A watercolor of the Reverend Robert Hunt and other Jamestown settlers at Cape Henry

Robert Hunt (c. 1568-1608), clergyman of the Church of England, was Chaplain of the expedition that founded Jamestown, Virginia. The expedition included people from Old Heathfield, East Sussex, England. The Reverend Hunt had become the Vicar of Heathfield, County of Sussex, in 1602, which title he held as Chaplain of the Jamestown Settlement. He had been Vicar of Reculver, County of Kent, England, 1594-1602. He lit the candle for the Anglican Church in Virginia (United States); he first lifted his voice in public thanksgiving and prayer on April 29, 1607, when the settlers planted a cross at Cape Henry, which they named after the Prince of Wales.

Once settled in the fort, the whole company, except those who were on guard, attended regular prayer and services led by the Reverend Hunt. Captain John Smith described worship services that took place in the open air until a chapel could be erected. Captain Smith's religious feelings were conventional but deeply felt. His piety asserted itself in his writings constantly; he saw the hand of God at work in his life, and he believed it had intervened to save the colonies. "He concluded that God, who had thwarted Spanish attempts to settle North America, had reserved that Region for the Protestant English."

Captain John Smith described the Reverend Hunt as "our honest, religious and courageous divine." The Reverend Hunt was a peacemaker, often bringing harmony to a quarreling group of men. The Chronicler wrote: "Many were the mischiefs that daily sprung from their ignorant spirits; but the good doctrines and exhortations of our Preacher Minister Hunt reconciled them and caused Captain Smith to be admitted to the Council June 20th. The next day, June 21, third Sunday after Trinity, under the shadow of an old sail, Robert Hunt celebrated the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper. It is impossible to rate too highly the character and work of the aforesaid Robert Hunt, Chaplain of the Colony." Hunt's virtuous character was well-known and respected by his fellow settlers. It was evidenced by his behavior both before and after the accidental fire in the fort in January, 1608. The fire burned the palisades with their arms, bedding apparel, and many private provisions. "Good master Hunt lost all his library, and all that he had but the clothes on his back, yet none ever did see him repine at his loss...Yet we had daily Common Prayer morning and evening, every Sunday two sermons and every three months the Holy Communion till our Minister died."

Historians believe that Robert Hunt died in the spring of 1608. His will, probated in July 1608, is the only documented evidence of his death. Scholars suggest that certain conditions imposed upon his bequest to his wife may indicate an unhappy state of affairs in the home, which could have fueled the Reverend Hunt's desire to go to Virginia. However, it seems more likely that his desire to set a good Christian example, rather than his personal problems, motivated him to travel to the new world.

This faithful and courageous priest had nothing to say of himself, leaving no writings and no portrait. All authorities, including Governor Edward Maria Wingfield, First President of the Council at Jamestown, and Captain John Smith, who agreed in nothing else, agreed in praise of this worthy man. They wrote: "Our factions were oft qualified, and our wants and greater extremities so comforted that they seemed easie in comparison of what we endured after his memorable death...."

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bridenbaugh, Carl. Jamestown 1544-1699. New York: Oxford Press, 1980.

Bryden, George M. Religious Life of Virginia In The Seventeenth Century The Faith Of Our Fathers. Williamsburg, Virginia: Virginia 350th Anniversary Celebration Corp., 1957.

Chorlev, E. Clowes. "The Planting Of The Church In Virginia," William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine, Vol. X, No. 3, July 1930.

Encyclopedia Britannica. Chicago, Illinois.

Goodwin, Edward Lewis, Rev. The Colonial Church in Virginia. Milwaukee and London: 1927.

Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. "Brasse Without But Golde Within, The Writings of Captain John Smith," Virginia Calvacade. Winter, 1989.

Smith, Charles W.E. Robert Hunt Vicar Of Jamestown. New York: The National Council, 1957.

Smith, John. "Advertisements For The Unexperienced, Or The Pathway To Erect A Plantation," Smith's Works, Vol. II. New York: Da Capo Press, 1971.

Wingfield, Edward Maria. "A Discourse Of Virginia," Smith's Works, 1608-1631 Birmingham: J. Wilson & Son, 1884.

Источник: https://www.nps.gov/jame/learn/historyculture/the-reverend-robert-hunt-the-first-chaplain-at-jamestown.htm

First minister of jamestown virginia -

WASHINGTON – Archaeologists have uncovered human remains of four of the earliest leaders of the English colony that would become America, buried for more than 400 years near the altar of what was America’s first Protestant church in Jamestown, Virginia.

The four burial sites were uncovered in the floor of what’s left of Jamestown’s historic Anglican church from 1608, a team of scientists and historians announced Tuesday. The site is the same church where Pocahontas famously married Englishman John Rolfe, leading to peace between the Powhatan Indians and colonists at the first permanent English settlement in America.

Beyond the human remains, archaeologists also found artifacts buried with the colonial leaders — including a mysterious Catholic container for holy relics found in the Protestant church.

The Jamestown Rediscovery archaeology team revealed its discovery at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History. The museum is helping to study and identify those buried in the church. The burials were first uncovered in November 2013, but the scientific team wanted to trace and identify its findings with some certainty before announcing the discovery.

Archaeologists have been studying the site since 1994 when the original James Fort — long thought to be lost and submerged in the James River — was rediscovered.

The team identified the remains of the Rev. Robert Hunt, Jamestown’s first Anglican minister who was known as a peacemaker between rival colonial leaders; Capt. Gabriel Archer, a nemesis of one-time colony leader John Smith; Sir Ferdinando Wainman, likely the first knight buried in America; and Capt. William West, who died in a fight with the Powhatan Indians. The three other men likely died after brief illnesses. They were buried between 1608 and 1610.

“What we have discovered here in the earliest English church in America are four of the first leaders of America,” said historian James Horn who is president of the Jamestown Rediscovery Foundation. “There’s nothing like it anywhere else in this country.”

While the individuals buried at Jamestown were not royalty, they were considered pivotal figures in the early colony. Horn compared the find to the 2012 discovery of the lost grave of King Richard III in England.

Two years ago, the Jamestown team found evidence of survival cannibalism in the colony.

Perhaps just as interesting as the newly discovered human remains are some of the artifacts buried with the bodies. Burial items were rare in English culture at the time, archaeologists said.

In the remnants of Archer’s coffin, archaeologists found a captain’s leading staff as a symbol of Archer’s military status. Historical records indicate Archer helped lead some of the earliest expeditions to Jamestown. He died at the age of 34 during a six-month period known as the “starving time” when many perished due to disease, starvation and battles with Indians.

Mysteriously, a small silver box resting atop Archer’s coffin turns out likely to be a Catholic reliquary containing bone fragments and a container for holy water. Archer’s parents were Catholic in Protestant England, which became illegal. So the discovery raises the question of whether Archer was perhaps part of a secret Catholic cell — or even a Catholic spy on behalf of the Spanish.

Catholic relics have been found in the Jamestown archaeological site before, but the placement of this box seems particularly symbolic, the historians said. They used CT scans to see inside the box without damaging it — gaining a view that wouldn’t have been possible 10 years ago.

An alternative theory holds that the religious piece was simply repurposed for the Anglican church as a holdover from Catholic tradition as England waffled between Catholic and Protestant rule. Historians said more research must be done.

“It was a real kind of ah-ha moment for a lot of us,” said William Kelso, Jamestown’s director of archaeology. “It was oh, religion was a big deal here, and that’s often overlooked. Everyone thinks that people came to Jamestown to find gold and go home and live happily ever after.”

But the Church of England had a strong role in the creation of an English America with the Protestant church acting as a bulwark against the Spanish and Catholic colonies to the south, Horn said.

In West’s burial plot, archaeologists found remnants of the military leader’s silver-edged sash in a block of soil. The silk material was too delicate to remove from the dirt, so archaeologists removed an entire block of dirt for preservation.

The artifacts will go on display within weeks at Historic Jamestowne. The site also plans to memorialize the men and will keep their bones in an accessible place for future study.

The team is more than 90 percent certain of the colonists’ identities, Kelso said. Still they will work to complete more testing and potentially DNA analysis. One sample is in a DNA laboratory now at Harvard to determine whether any genetic information has been preserved.

The archaeology team said the discovery is like a riddle they must figure out over time. Records from the time period are limited.

“The things that we look at and can read from the bones are simply details that you’re not going to find in the history books,” said Douglas Owsley, a forensic anthropologist at the Smithsonian. “These are men that you might not know their name. But these are men that were critical to who we are in terms of America today.”

Источник: https://www.ocregister.com/2015/07/28/remains-of-4-early-colonial-leaders-discovered-at-jamestown/
A watercolor of the Reverend Robert Hunt and other Jamestown settlers at Cape Henry

Robert Hunt (c. 1568-1608), clergyman of the Church of England, was Chaplain of the expedition that founded Jamestown, Virginia. The expedition included people from Old Heathfield, East Sussex, England. The Reverend Hunt had become the Vicar of Heathfield, County of Sussex, in 1602, which title he held as Chaplain of the Jamestown Settlement. He had been Vicar of Reculver, County of Kent, England, 1594-1602. He lit the candle for the Anglican Church in Virginia (United States); he first lifted his voice in public thanksgiving and prayer on April 29, 1607, when the settlers planted a cross at Cape Henry, which they named after the Prince of Wales.

Once settled in the fort, the whole company, except those who were on guard, attended regular prayer and services led by the Reverend Hunt. Captain John Smith described worship services that took place in the open air until a chapel could be erected. Captain Smith's religious feelings were conventional but deeply felt. His piety asserted itself in his writings constantly; he saw the hand of God at work in his life, and he believed it had intervened to save the colonies. "He concluded that God, who had thwarted Spanish attempts to settle North America, had reserved that Region for the Protestant English."

Captain John Smith described the Reverend Hunt as "our honest, religious and courageous divine." The Reverend Hunt was a peacemaker, often bringing harmony to a quarreling group of men. The Chronicler wrote: "Many were the mischiefs that daily sprung from their ignorant spirits; but the good doctrines and exhortations of our Preacher Minister Hunt reconciled them and caused Captain Smith to be admitted to the Council June 20th. The next day, June 21, third Sunday after Trinity, under the shadow of an old sail, Robert Hunt celebrated the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper. It is impossible to rate too highly the character and work of the aforesaid Robert Hunt, Chaplain of the Colony." Hunt's virtuous character was well-known and respected by his fellow settlers. It was evidenced by his behavior both before and after the accidental fire in the fort in January, 1608. The fire burned the palisades with their arms, bedding apparel, and many private provisions. "Good master Hunt lost all his library, and all that he had but the clothes on his back, yet none ever did see him repine at his loss...Yet we had daily Common Prayer morning and evening, every Sunday two sermons and every three months the Holy Communion till our Minister died."

Historians believe that Robert Hunt died in the spring of 1608. His will, probated in July 1608, is the only documented evidence of his death. Scholars suggest that certain conditions imposed upon his bequest to his wife may indicate an unhappy state of affairs in the home, which could have fueled the Reverend Hunt's desire to go to Virginia. However, it seems more likely that his desire to set a good Christian example, rather than his personal problems, motivated him to travel to the new world.

This faithful and courageous priest had nothing to say of himself, leaving no writings and no portrait. All authorities, including Governor Edward Maria Wingfield, First President of the Council at Jamestown, and Captain John Smith, who agreed in nothing else, agreed in praise of this worthy man. They wrote: "Our factions were oft qualified, and our wants and greater extremities so comforted that they seemed easie in comparison of what we endured after his memorable death...."

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bridenbaugh, Carl. Jamestown 1544-1699. New York: Oxford Press, 1980.

Bryden, George M. Religious Life of Virginia In The Seventeenth Century The Faith Of Our Fathers. Williamsburg, Virginia: Virginia 350th Anniversary Celebration Corp., 1957.

Chorlev, E. Clowes. "The Planting Of The Church In Virginia," William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine, Vol. X, No. 3, July 1930.

Encyclopedia Britannica. Chicago, Illinois.

Goodwin, Edward Lewis, Rev. The Colonial Church in Virginia. Milwaukee and London: 1927.

Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. "Brasse Without But Golde Within, The Writings of Captain John Smith," Virginia Calvacade. Winter, 1989.

Smith, Charles W.E. Robert Hunt Vicar Of Jamestown. New York: The National Council, 1957.

Smith, John. "Advertisements For The Unexperienced, Or The Pathway To Erect A Plantation," Smith's Works, Vol. II. New York: Da Capo Press, 1971.

Wingfield, Edward Maria. "A Discourse Of Virginia," Smith's Works, 1608-1631 Birmingham: J. Wilson & Son, 1884.

Источник: https://www.nps.gov/jame/learn/historyculture/the-reverend-robert-hunt-the-first-chaplain-at-jamestown.htm

Mundane Lives and Extreme Adventures

Question

Pot and platter of Miles Standish

What were the primary concerns of life in the New World?

Answer

Let me somewhat arbitrarily focus the question more specifically on the earliest English explorers, adventurers, and settlers in Virginia and Massachusetts in the first half of the 17th century.

Reading their published accounts gives one the impression that their lives alternated between extremes of feast and famine, between health and sickness, between sublime ease and almost unimaginable hardship, and between periods of contentment and even boredom and periods of sharp fear and terror interspersed with periods of sheer joy. Supplementing those accounts, however, with evidence from rather more mundane sources such as probate and account books, old court records, and modern excavations of kitchen middens from colonial sites, yields a larger story of people organizing and conducting their work and family lives in ways similar to ours today.

The "Commodities" of Life in the English Settlements in the New World

Captain John Smith published A Description of New England in 1616 in London, in which account he sought, among other things, to recruit English settlers. In it he declared:

Worthy is that person to starve that here cannot live; if he have sense, strength and health: for there is no such penury of these blessings in any place, but that a hundred men may, in one houre or two, make their provisions for a day: and he that hath experience to manage well these affaires, with fortie or thirtie honest industrious men, might well undertake (if they dwell in these parts) to subject the Salvages, and feed daily two or three hundred men, with as good corn, fish and flesh, as the earth hath of those kindes, and yet make that labor but their pleasure; provided that they have engins, that be proper for their purposes.

The first minister in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, Reverend Francis Higginson, acting, like Smith, as a kind of colonial recruiter, published New-England's Plantation; or, a short and true description of the commodities and discommodities of that countrey in 1630 in London. In it, he praised the "fat black earth" around the Charles River in Massachusetts. The land, he said, was extremely fertile, and was well suited to the plow. "It is scarce to be believed how our kine and goats, horses and hogs do thrive and prosper here, and like well of this country." He bragged of the vast harvest of corn, turnips, parsnips, carrots, watercress, "pumpions," "cowcumbers," and herbs. He wrote that the colonists also planted and harvested mulberries, plums, raspberries, currants, chestnuts, filberts, walnuts, cherries, and strawberries.

He wrote about the abundance of game: deer and bear, as well as the other animals, listing wolves, foxes, beavers, otters, martins, great wild cats, and "a great beast called a molke"—most probably a moose. The abundance of fish was "almost beyond believing." Cod, mackerel, bass, and sturgeon; oysters, clams, mussels, and lobsters were easy to catch or gather. Of lobsters, Higginson wrote that "the least boy in the Plantation may both catch and eat what he will of them. For my own part, I was soon cloyed with them, they were so great, and fat, and luscious. I have seen some myself that have weighed sixteen pound; but others have had diverse times so great lobsters as have weighted twenty-five pound, as they assured me."

Higginson commended the "temper of the air" of New England as healthful. He noted that summers were hotter than in England and winters were colder, but he said that the cold was not so bad because of the ease of getting firewood. "Here is good living," he wrote, "for those that love good fires."

The "Discommodities"

Higginson's improbably upbeat list of New England's "discommodities" was much shorter: First, mosquitoes; second, the snow and cold of winter; third; poisonous snakes; and fourth, the lack of more settlers. This last "discommodity" is telling, and does much to explain the hearty promotional tone of the rest of his description.

In fact, many of the first settlers, both in Massachusetts and Virginia, died of starvation, which especially afflicted them during the first winters. Several times, Indians brought them some relief with baskets of corn and game.

Diseases of one kind or another also took their toll. Some of these they brought with them, such as smallpox. Some of them, like dysentery and scurvy, were the result of malnutrition or lack of fresh drinking water. The sheer physical difficulties involved in exploration and in building a settlement in the wilderness also presented tremendous hazards to those that undertook the work.

Shipwreck was also common, especially from the hurricanes and nor'easters that were novel to them. Shipwrecks not only endangered their own lives but also imperiled the re-provisioning of the colonies from England. This was especially critical in the first years of the settlements, when their vulnerability was increased by the fact that they had to depend on ships to supply them, not just with food, but also with basic goods, such as gunpowder, firearms, tools, iron, and cloth.

Colonel Henry Norwood's pamphlet, A Voyage to Virginia, described his harrowing trip in the fall of 1649 from England, in which his ship met storms off the coast of Cape Hatteras and they were blown offshore. He and a small party of others were eventually marooned on an uninhabited island off the coast of Maryland and nearly starved until being rescued by Indians and carried by them to the colony at Jamestown:

Of the three weak women before mentioned, one had the envied happiness to die about this time; and it was my advice to the survivors, who were following her apace, to endeavour their own preservation by converting her dead carcase into food, as they did to good effect. The same counsel was embrac'd by those of our sex; the living fed upon the dead; four of our company having the happiness to end their miserable lives on Sunday night the day of January___. Their chief distemper, 'tis true, was hunger; but it pleased God to hasten their exit by an immoderate access of cold, caused by a most terrible storm of hail and snow at north-west, on the Sunday aforesaid, which did not only dispatch those four to their long homes, but did sorely threaten all that remained alive, to perish by the same fate.

The colony in Virginia was established in the midst of the Algonquian nation of Powhatan, and the Plymouth Colony on the land of the Wampanoag tribe. Relations with the Indians were sketchy and volatile, consisting of periods of friendship interspersed with periods of fighting, sometimes alongside the Indians of one tribe against its enemies from other tribes. The colonists traded metal implements and cloth for food, furs, and land. But they also carefully constructed fortifications and palisades to protect themselves against the almost certain eventuality of attack by the various tribes and nations of Indians among whom they settled. Both colonies suffered large loss of life from Indian attack.

All in all, much of the earliest settlers' time and energies were devoted to providing for their basic, physical subsistence and doing what they could to ensure their survival. Much of the colonies' early precariousness was due to not having yet cleared and planted enough land to ensure harvests that would not only provide the colonists daily fare, but would also allow a surplus to draw upon during times of scarcity.

Until about the mid-20th century, historians largely worked from the writings of the colonists and explorers to understand what colonial life was like. But those writings offered only a very selective picture. For the past several decades, detailed research by archeologists and archivists into the material culture of the colonists has dramatically broadened and sometimes corrected the historical picture.

Bibliography

Images:
"The settlers at Jamestown," William Ludwell Sheppard, 1876, from Pioneers in the settlement of America: from Florida in 1510 to California in 1849. Boston: Samuel Walker, 1876-1877. New York Public Library.

"The pot and platter of Miles Standish," detail from Plymouth stereoview collection. New York Public Library.

Источник: https://teachinghistory.org/history-content/ask-a-historian/23928

Robert Hunt (chaplain)

Robert Hunt (c. 1568x1570 – 1608), a vicar in the Church of England, was chaplain of the expedition that founded the first successful English colony in the New World, at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607.

Career in England[edit]

Hunt was born in Hoath, near Reculver, in Kent, England, in the late 1560s or early 1570s.[1] He was vicar of Reculver from 18 January 1594 until he resigned and was replaced on 5 October 1602. He was forced to leave his wife Elizabeth Edwards and two children Thomas & Elizabeth there in disgrace then, because of his wife's "seeing too much of one John Taylor".[4][5][6] In 1606, he was forced to leave his second parish, at Heathfield, in Sussex, when he was accused of having an adulterous affair with his servant, Thomasina Plumber, as well as "absenteeism, and neglecting of his congregation".[4][7][8][9]

Joining the Virginia Expedition[edit]

Summoned to London, Hunt was recruited by Richard Bancroft (the Archbishop of Canterbury), along with Richard Hakluyt, Jr. (the geographer and priest) and Edward Maria Wingfield, as chaplain for the newest expedition to the New World by the London Virginia Company.[7][10] Hunt sailed with his fellow colonists aboard the Susan Constant (helmed by Captain Christopher Newport).

Cape Henry: First Landing[edit]

First Landing Memorial Cross at Cape Henry

On 26 April 1607, after an unusually long voyage of 144 days, the three ships and 105 men and boys made landfall at the southern edge of the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay at the Atlantic Ocean. They named the location Cape Henry, in honour of the young Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, eldest son of their king.

There, Hunt led what was likely the first protestant sermon in America since Sir Francis Drake's landfall at California in 1579, planting a cross at the site. Today, a memorial stands at the location at Joint Expeditionary Base East, near what has become the aptly named First Landing State Park in the current independent city of Virginia Beach, Virginia.

Jamestown[edit]

Within a few weeks, the settlers chose a permanent inland site for their colony on the James River, naming it Jamestown in honor of King James I. The location was selected as ordered by the sponsors in London with a priority of being a strategic defensive position against possible attacks by ships of competing European factions. However, this came at a terrible price, as Jamestown Island combined swampy and mosquito-infested land, offering poor hunting and little room for farming with brackish tidal river water and no fresh water springs. While conflicts with the other Europeans never became a problem, getting along with the Native Americans, and even more importantly, with each other almost immediately became major issues for the ill-prepared colonists. Captain Newport soon left to hurry back to England to bring more supplies and replacement colonists. Newport eventually did so three times, twice without mishap, and lastly on the ill-fated Sea Venture, flagship of the Third Supply mission. However, when he left the first time, they were left alone at Jamestown with only the tiny Discovery, so there was no turning back.

Despite the incredibly onerous circumstances of the Jamestown mission's beginnings, Rev. Hunt seemed to rise to the occasion, often mediating disputes between the camp's various factions, smoothing "ruffled feathers" and making peace. He was described by Wingfield as "a man not in any way to be touched with the rebellious humours of a popish spirit, nor blemished with the least suspicion of a factious schismatic, whereof I had a special care". On 21 June 1607, Rev. Hunt "celebrated [probably] the first known service of holy communion in what is today the United States of America."[11]

Legacy[edit]

Robert Hunt Memorial Shrine at Jamestown

Today, a shrine sits on the site at the National Park Service's Historic Jamestowne attraction of the Colonial National Historical Park on Jamestown Island. The shrine replicates the outdoor chapel conditions under which he spiritually led the men and boys, most of whom were to die, as did Chaplain Hunt, during the first year. The shrine honours Hunt for his self-sacrifice and leadership in the first, most difficult times for the colony.

Its inscription reads:

"Our factions were oft qualified, and our wants and greater extremities so comforted that they seemed easie in comparison of what we endured after his memorable death...."
Captain John Smith

Hunt is honored with a feast day on the liturgical calendar of the Episcopal Church (USA) on 26 April.

Archaeological discovery[edit]

In July 2015, Smithsonian Institution forensic anthropologists confirmed that remains they had found buried in a church in Jamestown, Virginia, belonged to Hunt.[12][13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^"The Reverend Robert Hunt: The First Chaplain at Jamestown". nps.gov. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  2. ^ ab"Robert Hunt". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/14202. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) Retrieved 21 April 2014.
  3. ^Withington, Lothrop, Virginia gleanings in England: abstracts of 17th and 18th-century English wills and administrations relating to Virginia and Virginians: a consolidation of articles from The Virginia magazine of history and biography, Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Robert Hunt's will (signed 20 November 1606 and proved 14 July 1608): "... To Elizabeth my daughter, 30 pds. to be paid when she shall come to eighteene yeares. ... To my sonne Thomas 10 lbs. to be paid at the age of one and twenty years. ... brother Steven Hunt, now or late of Reculver."
  4. ^Several unreferenced sources list William as the first child of Robert Hunt and Elizabeth Edwards.
  5. ^ abWingfield, Jocelyn, Virginia's True Founder [2007], p. 163. ISBN 1-4196-6032-2
  6. ^Renshaw 1906 sub: Bancroft [1906].
  7. ^q. in Benjamin Woolley, Savage Kingdom [2007], p. 36 & n.16.
  8. ^Renshaw 1906, quoted in Woolley,Savage Kingdom [2007], p. 36 & n.16.
  9. ^"Hunt, Robert (1568/9–1608)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/14202. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.).
  10. ^"Smithsonian Science News –Page not found - Smithsonian Science News -". Smithsonian Science News -. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  11. ^"Remains of English Jamestown colony leaders discovered". BBC News. Retrieved 28 July 2015.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Duncombe, J. (1784), "The history and antiquities of the two parishes of Reculver and Herne, in the county of Kent", in Nichols, J. (ed.), Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica, 18, Nichols, pp. 65–161, OCLC 475730544
  • Gough, H. (1984), "The cure of souls at Hoath", in McIntosh, K.H.; Gough, H.E. (eds.), Hoath and Herne: The Last of the Forest, K. H. McIntosh, pp. 19–23, ISBN 
  • Renshaw, Walter C. (1906). "Notes from the Act Books of the Archdeaconry Court of Lewes". Sussex Archaeological Collections. 49: 47–65. doi:10.5284/1085735.
  • Smith, Charles W. E. (1957), Robert Hunt vicar of Jamestown, Episcopal Church National Council, OCLC 4753411

External links[edit]

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Hunt_(chaplain)

Reverend Robert Hunt, of Jamestown

http://smithsonianscience.si.edu/2015/07/jamestown-skeletons-identi...

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Hunt_%28chaplain%29 (not completely flattering)

Findagrave.com says: Rev. Robert Hunt's parents are unknown.

Degree from Trinity Hall, Cambridge, c. 1592; LL.B. degree 1606 (Athenae Cantabrigienses, vol. 2, p. 493).

Traditionally Oxford and Cambridge did not see common law as worthy of study, and included coursework in law only in the context of canon and civil law and for the purpose of the study of philosophy or history only.

Angelica Hunt had at least one brother, Stephen Hunt of Chislete,County Kent. It is reported she had at least two others; the Reverend Robert Hunt who migrated to America on the original voyage to Jamestown, in 1607; and Thomas Hunt (who apparently was *not* the one who arrived in Jamestown on the second supply ship in September 1608 - he died before Jan 1 1608). ["Master Hunt", no first name given, has also been interpreted as the Reverend's young son, and may possibly be the same person as Lieut. Thomas Hunt .]

From the records of the Jamestowne Society:

The Reverend Richard Hakluyt, prebendary of Westminster, was selected by the Virginia Company as its first rector with the approval of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Reverend Hakluyt with the approval of the Archbishop selected as the first Vicar, the Reverend Robert Hunt,A.M., who came to Jamestowne as the pastor of the colonists. Robert Hunt had been Vicar of the parish of Reculver in Kent from 1594 to1602. In 1602 he was appointed Vicar of All Saints Church at Old Heathfield, East Sussex.

Robert Hunt, beloved and admired of all, sailed as chaplain of the fleet. The three ships fell down the Thames to the Downs (less than 12miles from Old Heathfield) and anchored there due to contrary winds.Then, they suffered great storms during the six weeks they were insight of England, and many of the company would have given up the voyage but for the "true devoted example" of Parson Hunt who was made so "weake and sicke" by the rough weather that "few expected him to recover," yet "all this could never force from him so much as a seeming desire to leave the business."

On May 14 the colonists disembarked on a peninsula that became Jamestowne. Chaplain Hunt dedicated the spot to the glory of God, and they "began thereon ... in the name of God to raise a fortresse."

The London Company had a provision that each new settlement should become a parish with its own rector. Robert Hunt was the first rector at Jamestowne.

Captain John Smith wrote of the men at worship in the open air until a chapel could be erected. He describes the scene of a celebration of the Holy Communion, with the Holy Table standing under an old sail lashed from tree to tree, with a bar of wood fastened between two trees as a pulpit, and men kneeling on the ground before their first altar. Services were held daily, according to the rules of the Book of Common Prayer. The law of the Church required the Holy Communion to be celebrated at least three times during the year; on Christmas, Easter,and Whitsunday.

The Virginia Company kept constantly in the forefront their plan to Christianize the Indians. Their plan as they began to put into effect included the establishment of parishes and the selection of fit clergymen to go overseas; to establish a University with a college therein for Indians; and to take Indian youths into English families to fit and prepare them for their college.

The Reverend Hunt was living on March 9, 1608 when the colonists returned from a trip to see Powhatan to find that a fire had destroyed nearly everything. Smith writes that "Good Master Hunt, our preacher, lost his library and all he had but the clothes on his backe: yet none never heard him repine at his losse."

The Reverend Hunt must have died soon after the above incident as the will of the Reverend Hunt was probated in England on July 14, 1608. In this will he lists his wife, Elizabeth, and a daughter, Elizabeth, and a son, Thomas. His brother, Steven Hunt of Reculver, was to be overseer, if his wife were unable to serve. This Thomas Hunt may have come to Virginia, as a Thomas Hunt received 50ac in Accomack in1636 for his personal adventure. Thomas Hunt may have been living as late as 1657 in Accomack County, Virginia.

Also in support of the position that the Rev. Robert Hunt was in fact the brother of Angelica Hunt Cobbs is that fact that on 06 June 1599, one Robert Hunt "clergyman", gave testimony as to the facts surrounding the writing of the Last Will & Testament of Thomas Cobbs,Angelica Hunt's father in law.


The Reverend Robert Hunt: The First Chaplain at Jamestown

=====

The Reverend Robert Hunt gives thanks with other English settlers at Cape Henry, Virginia in April 1607. Robert Hunt (c. 1568-1608), clergyman of the Church of England, was Chaplain of the expedition that founded Jamestown, Virginia. The expedition included people from Old Heathfield, East Sussex, England. The Reverend Hunt had become the Vicar of Heathfield, County of Sussex, in 1602, which title he held as Chaplain of the Jamestown Settlement. He had been Vicar of Reculver, County of Kent, England, 1594-1602. He lit the candle for the Anglican Church in Virginia (United States); he first lifted his voice in public thanksgiving and prayer on April 29, 1607, when the settlers planted a cross at Cape Henry, which they named after the Prince of Wales.

Once settled in the fort, the whole company, except those who were on guard, attended regular prayer and services led by the Reverend Hunt. Captain John Smith described worship services that took place in the open air until a chapel could be erected. Captain Smith's religious feelings were conventional but deeply felt. His piety asserted itself in his writings constantly; he saw the hand of God at work in his life, and he believed it had intervened to save the colonies. "He concluded that God, who had thwarted Spanish attempts to settle North America, had reserved that Region for the Protestant English."

Captain John Smith described the Reverend Hunt as "our honest, religious and courageous divine." The Reverend Hunt was a peacemaker, often bringing harmony to a quarreling group of men. The Chronicler wrote: "Many were the mischiefs that daily sprung from their ignorant spirits; but the good doctrines and exhortations of our Preacher Minister Hunt reconciled them and caused Captain Smith to be admitted to the Council June 20th. The next day, June 21, third Sunday after Trinity, under the shadow of an old sail, Robert Hunt celebrated the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper. It is impossible to rate too highly the character and work of the aforesaid Robert Hunt, Chaplain of the Colony." Hunt's virtuous character was well-known and respected by his fellow settlers. It was evidenced by his behavior both before and after the accidental fire in the fort in January, 1608. The fire burned the palisades with their arms, bedding apparel, and many private provisions. "Good master Hunt lost all his library, and all that he had but the clothes on his back, yet none ever did see him repine at his loss...Yet we had daily Common Prayer morning and evening, every Sunday two sermons and every three months the Holy Communion till our Minister died."

Historians believe that Robert Hunt died in the spring of 1608. His will, probated in July 1608, is the only documented evidence of his death. Scholars suggest that certain conditions imposed upon his bequest to his wife may indicate an unhappy state of affairs in the home, which could have fueled the Reverend Hunt's desire to go to Virginia. However, it seems more likely that his desire to set a good Christian example, rather than his personal problems, motivated him to travel to the new world.

This faithful and courageous priest had nothing to say of himself, leaving no writings and no portrait. All authorities, including Governor Edward Maria Wingfield, First President of the Council at Jamestown, and Captain John Smith, who agreed in nothing else, agreed in praise of this worthy man. They wrote: "Our factions were oft qualified, and our wants and greater extremities so comforted that they seemed easie in comparison of what we endured after his memorable death...."

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bridenbaugh, Carl. Jamestown 1544-1699. New York: Oxford Press, 1980.

Bryden, George M. Religious Life of Virginia In The Seventeenth Century The Faith Of Our Fathers. Williamsburg, Virginia: Virginia 350th Anniversary Celebration Corp., 1957.

Chorlev, E. Clowes. "The Planting Of The Church In Virginia," William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine, Vol. X, No. 3, July 1930.

Encyclopedia Britannica. Chicago, Illinois.

Goodwin, Edward Lewis, Rev. The Colonial Church in Virginia. Milwaukee and London: 1927.

Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. "Brasse Without But Golde Within, The Writings of Captain John Smith," Virginia Calvacade. Winter, 1989.

Smith, Charles W.E. Robert Hunt Vicar Of Jamestown. New York: The National Council, 1957.

Smith, John. "Advertisements For The Unexperienced, Or The Pathway To Erect A Plantation," Smith's Works, Vol. II. New York: Da Capo Press, 1971.

Wingfield, Edward Maria. "A Discourse Of Virginia," Smith's Works, 1608-1631 Birmingham: J. Wilson & Son, 1884. http://www.nps.gov/jame/historyculture/the-reverend-robert-hunt-the...



~~ Our Ancestral Heritage ~~

Rev. Robert Hunt was the Anglican Chaplain of England of the expedition which founded Jamestown, Virginia on April 29, 1607, in what became the United States of America in the state of Virginia. Rev. Hunt dedicated the new land to Jesus Christ and to preaching the Gospel in the new land and throughout the world. Before sailing to America, he resided in Sussex, England where he was Vicar of the parish church of Heathfield.

Rev. Robert Hunt sailed with his fellow colonist aboard the ship Susan Constant.

Jamestown Church, James City, Virginia

The Island (which in its great period was a peninsula) is rich in religious shrines, for, in addition to the tower and ruins of two churches --one of which in the seventeenth century almost became the first of our American cathedrals because of a king's gratitude for the Old Dominion's loyalty--there are: the Robert Hunt Shrine; the Memorial Cross dedicated to those buried (possibly 1609-10) on the "Third Ridge"; countless other graves; various religious objects discovered near the church and now exhibited in the Visitor Center; and the wattle-and-daub church in the reconstructed James Fort at the Festival park on the mainland.

Husband of Elizabeth (Edwards) Hunt ~ married March 09, 1597, Bredin, Canterbury, England

Rev. Robert and Elizabeth (Edwards) Hunt had 3 children and they were:

1. Thomas Hunt (b. ca. 1594 - d. 1666) 2. William Hunt (b. 1599 - d. 1676), m. 1st., Sarah Ann Harris and 2nd., Judith Burton (m. 2nd. Richard Burton, Sr.) 3. Elizabeth Hunt (b. ca. 1602 - d. unk.)

NOTE:

Rev. Robert Hunt's parents are unknown. His brothers and sister were ...

  • 1. Rev. Stephen Hunt (m. unknown) 2. Angelica Hunt, #102765930 (m. Ambrose Cobbs, #102766196) 3. Thomas Hunt

Rev. Stephen Hunt's daughter Elizabeth Hunt (m. Henry Rose)

http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=19155100


http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=149915094

Источник: https://www.geni.com/people/Reverend-Robert-Hunt-of-Jamestown/6000000000154121062

Transcriptions of Newspaper Articles

Queen Elizabeth, Philip Welcomed in Virginia

Gun Salute, 10–Hour Tour Greet British Royal Couple

By John Kinnier
Times–Dispatch News Bureau

WILLIAMSBURG, Oct. 16—Virginians welcomed Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip Wednesday with a booming 21–gun salute and a crowded 10–hour schedule of history, hospitality and occasionally clamorous acclamation.

The royal visit to Jamestown and Williamsburg, the first ever by a reigning British monarch, was a historic occasion recognized by the queen in several brief, graceful speeches during the day.

At Jamestown, a focal point of the queen’s American visit, the overseas expansion of the English–speaking people began and the British Commonwealth of Nations got its start.

"The great American nation was born at this historic place, 350 years ago," Elizabeth said as she was welcomed by Governor Stanley at Jamestown Festival Park.

"I cannot think of a more appropriate point for us to start our visit to the United States," she said.

"The settlement in Jamestown was the beginning of a series of overseas settlements made throughout the world by British pioneers. Jamestown grew and became the United States. Those other settlements grew and became nations now united in our great commonwealth.

"This festival illustrates these two stories, yours and ours. They are stories in which all of us, in the United States, in Britain, and throughout the commonwealth take a special pride. In essence, they are both stories of experiments and adventures in freedom," she said.

Asks Ideals Be Pursued

Elizabeth asked that the ideals of the Jamestown settlers who established the first lasting British colony in the New World be pursued with faith and determination "so that 350 years from now our descendants will be as proud of us as we are of our forefathers."

The queen’s full schedule, followed for the most part with split–second timing, included military honors upon her arrival at Patrick Henry Airport, a religious service in the Old Tower Church on Jamestown island, a hurried tour of the main exhibits at Jamestown Festival Park, tea at the College of William and Mary, an informal reception for some 1,500 guests at the Governor’s Palace and a state dinner at the Williamsburg Inn attended by the Governor and members of the state and federal festival commissions.

State police estimated that 50,000 persons saw the queen at Patrick Henry Airport, Williamsburg, Jamestown and along the route she took Wednesday on the first day of her visit to the United States.

It was a demanding schedule which began promptly at 1:30 p.m. as the queen stepped smilingly from the door of the Royal Canadian Air Force plane which brought the royal party from Ottawa and ended some 10 hours later as the queen and Prince Philip said goodnight to their dinner hosts at the Williamsburg Inn.

Throughout the day, the queen appeared calm, unhurried and happy; interested in the things she was shown and in the several dozen persons to whom she spoke.

The big Canadian plane touched ground at 1:27 p.m. and taxied to the point where the official welcoming party, headed by Wiley T. Buchanan, chief of protocol for the State Department, Governor Stanley and British Ambassador Sir Harold Caccia, had gathered. A crowd, estimated by state police at 10,000 persons, had been waiting nearly two hours.

Elizabeth stepped from the plane, paused an almost imperceptible moment, and smiled. Prince Philip followed almost at once, also smiling.

The queen walked slowly down the line of waiting officials and their wives, greeting each of them, then stood with Governor Stanley as the 82d Airborne Division band played "God Save the Queen" and the national anthem.

As the strains of the music died, an army battery fired a 21–gun salute. The queen and Governor Stanley, escorted by Maj. Lehman C. Black of the airborne unit, then reviewed an honor guard made up of members of each branch of the armed forces. Flags of the 10 British commonwealth nations and the American flag fluttered from standards borne by an army unit.

The queen left the airport with Buchanan and the Governor in President Eisenhower’s "bubble–top" limousine, brought from Washington by secret service personnel for the day. Prince Philip rode in a following car with Mrs. Buchanan and Mrs. Stanley.

The royal entourage drove to Jamestown island, some 20 miles away, for a worship service in the old church of 1639. There the Rt. Rev. George P. Gunn, bishop of the Episcopal diocese of Southern Virginia, read a special prayer for the royal family and recited the prayer used during the first recorded communion service at Jamestown June 21, 1607.

Elizabeth bowed her head solemnly as prayers were offered up for the President, the queen and peace among nations. And as a gift, she received a hand wrought copy of the church’s original silver communion service.

From Jamestown island, the royal couple was whisked to the court of welcome at Festival Park for a red–carpet reception from the full membership of both festival commissions and a crowd which state police Inspector P. W. Crews estimated at more than 10,000. The queen stood poised and solemn on the speakers’ dais as a marine corps band played "God Save the Queen" and the national anthem. The Union Jack was lowered from its flagpole and the royal standard was raised.

In welcoming the queen to the festival, Governor Stanley said that from the very inception of the plans for the Jamestown celebration, it had been "our fond hope that the reigning Sovereign of Britain might grace the celebration."

"Here at Jamestown was born Britain’s greatest ally in the cause of freedom and justice," he said.

Lewis McMurran, chairman of the Virginia 350th Anniversary Commission, escorted the queen and her party on a tour of the Old World Pavilion, the British exhibit at the park, and the reconstructed James Forte.

The tour’s only unscheduled stop came at the full–scale copies of the three ships which brought the settlers to Jamestown. The couple had not been scheduled to board the vessels but they climbed the gangplank of the Susan Constant, largest of the ships.

As the queen and Philip left the ship and prepared to go to Williamsburg, a flight of 18 jet bombers—six from the Royal Air Force, six from the United States Navy and six from the United States Air Force—roared across the sky above the ship in an aerial salute.

Before leaving Festival Park for Williamsburg, Philip paused once more to speak to several children waving Union Jacks and crying, "Long live the queen." They were children of Mrs. Louis Zuzma of Williamsburg, formerly of Australia, and of Mrs. L. T. Warriner, a Williamsburg resident who formerly lived in England.

From the park, Elizabeth and Philip came here to the home of Alvin D. Chandler, president of the College of William and Mary, and Mrs. Chandler where they had tea at 4:20 pm.

Twenty–five minutes later, the queen led the royal party to the Christopher Wren Building on the college campus. Additional crowds waited outside the building for a glimpse of the queen. On a small balcony draped with green and yellow bunting the royal couple exchanged gifts with James M. Robertson, rector of the board of visitors of the college, and Chandler.

The queen praised the "first college of royal foundation" in North America. I cherish this link between the crown and your college…because it is a part of our joint histories, particularly as it is a part of our histories in which we can both take pride. It also demonstrates the very close association which always existed between learning, the arts and sciences of our countries," she said.

The queen gave the college a copy of the statutes of the Order of the Garter which had been presented to Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, the nephew of King William, "some three years after he and Queen Mary had granted a charter to their royal college in Virginia."

The college in turn gave the queen a portfolio of original line drawings of college buildings.

After leaving the college, Elizabeth and Philip mounted a horse drawn phaeton for a 20–minute ride down Duke of Gloucester st. to the Governor’s Palace. Riding with the queen and Philip were Winthrop Rockefeller, chairman of the board of Colonial Williamsburg and Mrs. Rockefeller.

At the palace some 1,500 persons nibbled on 4,000 hot hors d’oeuvres, 5,000 cold canapes and Dutch sandwiches.

At the reception, the queen passed slowly though a long open column of guests, stopping frequently to have persons presented to her. Several steps behind, Philip chatted with guests along the way.

Following the reception the queen and Philip made a short inspection of the restored Colonial Capitol and then were driven to the Williamsburg Inn to dress for dinner. They entered the inn and ended there the public portion of their local visit, at 6:50.

Queen Looks Around on Her Own

A Bright, Interested Tourist

By Charles McDowell, Jr.
Times–Dispatch Staff Writer

WILLIAMSBURG, Oct. 16—Behind the stockade where the Jamestown settlers took refuge from the Indians, Queen Elizabeth II got away from crowds and pageantry for a brief interlude Wednesday and was able to poke around a little on her own.

Inside the Jamestown Festival’s reconstructed fort, the atmosphere was properly Colonial, quiet and relaxed. The queen—strolling about like a bright, interested tourist—seemed to enjoy her visit there as much as anything she did on this first day of her visit to the United States.

Followed by the official party, Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip walked through the stockade gate and looked around at the little cluster of thatched buildings inside. Citizens in costume played the parts of the inhabitants of 1607.

Near the gate a group of men were bowling iron balls at a stake, and the queen paused to watch. A bowler frowned with concentration, aimed and bowled. But the pressure was too much for him; the ball wound up 20 feet short of the stake. "Choke up!" muttered a 20th century photographer nearby.

Halberdiers and pikemen—soldiers of the 3d Infantry, Ft. Myer, wearing long stockings, pantaloons and all the rest that went with being a soldier in 1607—were drawn up in the center of the fort enclosure. Beyond them, the queen spotted two citizens in the stocks. She nudged Prince Philip and they walked over to the two unhappy–looking prisoners.

One of the prisoners had his feet in the stocks and his hands were tied over his head and held aloft by a sort of gallows. The queen, her eyes shining, smiled at the prisoner and said, "It looks terribly painful. Is it painful?"

The prisoner shook his head. "No, ma’am."

Prince Philip asked, "Has anyone thrown any rotten eggs at you?"

The prisoners laughed and shook their heads.

Prince Philip turned to the stern–looking sergeant of the guard and asked, "What are they in there for?"

"Gossiping, minor crimes, such things as that, sir," said the sergeant.

"We don’t have punishment for gossiping nowadays," replied Prince Philip, who is know to have strong feelings about gossip, particularly when it touches the royal family and its circle.

Prince Philip turned to inspect a halberd or something, and Del. Lewis McMurran, chairman of the Virginia 350th Anniversary Commission, was nearby and noticed the queen’s and her husband’s interest in the prisoners. He said something about "her majesty’s loyal opposition," pointing to the men in the stocks, and everyone laughed.

Lecture on ‘Daub and Wattle’

The queen’s attention was attracted to a little thatched house with a hole in its front wall; two men were mixing mud in a tub and packing it against woven sticks to patch things up. The queen walked straight to a white–whiskered old citizen standing in a doorway and asked him what the men were doing. He was C. E. Topping, playing the part of the Jamestown apothecary, and he was happily able to give her a little lecture on "daub and wattle," which seems to be the name given to mud–and–woven–sticks construction.

Very much interested, the queen watched the men for a moment and even peered curiously down into the tub full of mud.

With McMurran giving a quiet commentary, but allowing the queen to wander where she wanted to, she walked through the rugged little church and past the pens of goats and chickens and some of the other houses within the stockade.

In front of one house stood a man and two women, costumed like the rest and smiling. Prince Philip stopped to talk.

"What’s this?" he asked, peering at the house while the three citizens beamed at him.

"It is a typical settler’s home," the man began, meaning to go on with his explanation.

"With two wives?" asked Prince Philip.

The man and the two ladies were delighted, but they didn’t know what to say right off.

"Oh, I understand," said Prince Philip quickly. "This is the wife and this is the mother–in–law."

Except for the mild stampede that occurred when the queen departed from the script and went aboard the Susan Constant, everything went remarkably smoothly all day long. The prearranged program in its shortest form ran to about eight closely–typed pages. Then there were really detailed and much longer scripts for those directly connected with the queen’s step–by–step passage from one point to another. If a minor official was supposed to take two steps forward, one step back, shake hands, or even take off his hat, it was all written out for him.

Some of the organizations that had agents on hand to keep things orderly and efficient were the Secret Service, Scotland Yard, the State Department Security Division, the state police, special police of various types and the army.

* * *

The reaction of the big crowds that saw the queen was rather a puzzlement to the word–painters of the press who like to describe crowd reaction with one or two brisk, definite adjectives.

Actually, the crowds were never very loud, but never anything but enthusiastic. They were never wildly demonstrative, but they were never cool.

At Patrick Henry Airport, at Jamestown island and at the festival park, the spectators were predominantly women and children. You never saw so many little children. And the sounds that these crowds made ran strongly to squeals, whoops and ooh’s and ahh’s. There wasn’t much sustained applause because almost every adult was (1) holding a child up in the air, or (2) taking pictures frantically, or (3) climbing, stooping, or balancing precariously to get a better view.

* * *

On the William and Mary campus, the queen received a fairly lust ovation as she walked from the president’s house to the Wren Building. Then when she appeared on the balcony of the Wren Building—people especially like queens on balconies—she got the loudest cheer of the day. As she rode down the Duke of Gloucester st. in the open carriage, a wave of clapping, flag waving and more squealing went along with her.

* * *

Getting off the plane at the airport in her "scarab blue" coat and her jaunty little hat made of pheasant feathers, Queen Elizabeth looked even younger and perkier than most people probably expected. She smiled easily, moved gracefully and seemed genuinely interested in meeting the dignitaries and reviewing the honor guard—duties that were not likely to hold any new thrills for her.

At least a dozen women were heard to announce within two minutes, "She is radiant." That is probably as good a word as any.

The queen, Governor Stanley, and the honor guard commander reviewed the army, navy, marine and air force honor platoons by passing down the front of the line and then walking behind them near the crowd packed behind the airport fence. The band played a Scottish air and the queen swung along briskly, carrying a big handbag and chatting with the Governor. He shortened stride, stayed in step and bent down as he walked to hear what the queen was saying.

Everyone got a fairly satisfactory look at her except one member of the marine honor guard who had collapsed after standing at stiff parade–rest for 30 minutes waiting for the plane to arrive.

Bible Errors Are Amusing to Royal Pair

WILLIAMSBURG, Oct. 16—(AP)—Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip got a big laugh at the Colonial Capitol Wednesday night out of Williamsburg’s famed misprinted Bible which confuses vinegar and vineyards, printers and princes.

They went through the Capitol with Winthrop Rockefeller, head of the foundation which spent 62 million dollars reconstructing the 18th century throwback to Colonial days. Mrs. A. W. Snead, resplendent in a billowing cerise gown called a farthingale, led the way for royal visitors. Two Negro footmen, elegant in knee–length maroon coats and knee breeches, held 18th century copper lanterns so Elizabeth could find her way along the brick walk to the building.

Cites Persecution

In the Bible the 11th Chapter of Luke is entitled the "Parable of the Vinegar" and elsewhere it says "printers (instead of princes) have persecuted me without a cause."

The queen broke out laughing and Philip commented on the printers–princes line: "Very true words."

Mrs. Snead, however, had the last word: "It was printed at Oxford, in England."

Mrs. Snead told the queen she had the pleasure of showing her mother around the capitol in 1954 and said "we all fell in love with her, she is so lovely."

"Yes," Elizabeth smiled.

"It must run in the family," Mrs. Snead added, and with that the visit ended.

[For more information: The Bible mentioned in this article is described and illustrated on our website.

Text of Elizabeth’s Speech at Dinner

WILLIAMSBURG, Oct: 16—(AP)—The text of Queen Elizabeth’s speech at the dinner given here Wednesday night by the State and Federal Jamestown Festival Commissions and the Governor at Williamsburg Inn:

Thank you all for your kind and generous words.

It has been a fascinating experience for us today to follow in the footsteps of your forefathers, and my countrymen, from Jamestown, the site of their first settlement to this lovely capital of Colonial Virginia.

Here, at a great period in your history, their descendants proclaimed their faith in certain great concepts of freedom, justice, law and self–government. Those concepts have had a profound influence on the political development, not only of the United States, but all freedom loving countries. This magnificent restoration of Colonial Williamsburg is a constant and vivid reminder of those principles. That is why we regard it as a major contribution to understanding between us. If it inspires us all to closer cooperation in the fulfillment of these common ideals, then Williamsburg will have done more than dramatise history and rebuild the past: it will have helped to build the future.

We are particularly happy to begin our visit to the United States here in Virginia. It is a very pleasant gateway for anyone coming from Britain, and the very names of your cities: Richmond, Winchester, Norfolk, Portsmouth, are pleasantly familiar. I am told that there is a county in Virginia named for every English king and queen from Elizabeth I to George III.

The name of your state itself, does honor to the first of these monarchs whose name I bear. The sturdy spirit of independence and initiative displayed by Englishmen of her time, their devotion to large and noble enterprise and their trust in God is an example to us still.

We have had a wonderful day here, and I would like to say how much we have appreciated the true Southern hospitality with which you have received us.

In particular I want to thank you for your generous gifts to us: the replicas of the early chalice and paten which now rest in Bruton Parish Church, these commemorative volumes of a great festival presented to us so eloquently by Dr. Swem, and of course, the portrait of Colonel Augustine Warner.

You have made this occasion an opportunity for all of us to reaffirm the ties which bind all our people together. It will long live in our memories.

The Queen Visits Soil of Her Ancestors

Editor's note: The author of the following article on Queen Elizabeth’s Virginia lineage is a native of Chase City, the son of Edward W. Hudgins, chief justice of the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals. He is a graduate of Washington and Lee University and studied law at the University of Virginia. During World War II he was an aide, with the rank of commander, to Adm. Robert B. Carney, NATO commander–in–chief for South Europe. During this time, through his association with Philip’s uncle, Lord Mountbatten, commander at Malta, he met the queen and her husband on several occasions. Hudgins now lives in San Francisco.

By William H. Hudgins

WILLIAMSBURG, Oct. 16—When Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, alighted from the plane at nearby Patrick Henry airport Wednesday, she was treading the soil of her ancestors. Her eighth great–grandfather, Col. Augustine Warner II, was also the great–grandfather of Gen. George Washington. Her ninth great–grandfather, Col. Augustine Warner, who settled in Virginia in 1650, was also the fourth great–grandfather of Gen. Robert E. Lee.

Col. Warner is often referred to as "Elizabeth’s earliest American ancestor." But she had another ancestor, Elizabeth Martiau, who was born in Virginia in 1625, and still another ancestor living in Virginia when Col. Warner arrived in 1650, namely Col. George Reade, who came to this country in 1637. Col. Reade’s daughter, Mildred, married the son of the first Col. Warner who bore his father’s first name of Augustine and in turn became a colonel himself.

Ninth Great–Grandfather

Col. Reade, the ninth great–grandfather of the present British queen, was born in England on Oct. 25, 1608. He came to Jamestown in 1637 in a secretarial capacity with Governor Sir John Harvey. He owned much property in Virginia. He was first captain, then major and later colonel in the colonial militia. He was acting secretary of state of the colony during the absence of Richard Kemp, from 1637 to 1641; and also acting governor from 1638 and 1639.

He was a member of the House of Burgesses for James City county in 1649 and for York county in 1655 and 1656. Col. Reade served as a member of the King’s or Governor’s Council of Virginia from 1657 until 1661. He died in October, 1674, and is buried at Yorktown.

Col. Reade was the ninth great–grandson of King Edward III, who came to the throne of England in 1327. Edward III selected the original members of the Knights of the Garter.

In 1641, Col. Reade married Elizabeth Martiau, who was born at Elizabeth City, Va., in 1625. She was the eldest daughter of Capt. Nicholas Martiau, who was born in France in 1591.

Mildred Reade, daughter of Elizabeth Martiau and Col. Reade, married Col. Augustine Warner II and their daughter, Mary Warner, married Col. John Smith of Purton, Va., in 1680. Their daughter, Mildred Smith, married Robert Porteus of Newbottle, Va., in 1700.

Members of Clergy

The son of the last named couple, named for his father Robert, was educated in England and became the Rev. Robert Porteus, rector of Cockayne Hatley, County Bedford, and married Judith Cockayne in 1736. Their daughter, Mildred Porteus, married Robert Hudgson of Congleton, County Chester, and their son, the Rev. Robert Hodgson, Dean of Carlisle, married Mary Tucker. Their daughter, Henrietta Mildred Hodgson, married Oswald Smith of Blendon Hall, County Kent, in 1824.

In 1853, their daughter, Frances Dora Smith, married Claude Lyon–Bowes, later Bowes–Lyon, 13th Earl of Strathmore. Their son, Claude George Bowes–Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore, K. G., K. T., married Nina Cecilia Cavandish–Bentinck in 1881 and their daughter, Elizabeth Angela Marguerite is the present queen mother of England.

Many hundreds of Virginians living throughout the Old Dominion today are also direct descendents of Martiau, Reade, Warner and Smith.

Britain’s illustrious former prime minister, Sir Winston Churchill, also has Virginia ancestors on his mother’s side. At a dinner given by the American consul general in Venice a few years ago, the writer told Sir Winston that he was pleased that the former prime minister was joining the Society of the Cininnati in the State of Virginia. After taking a long puff on his cigar, the typical Churchillian reply was:

"Yes, I am proud of my American ancestry and of the part that they played in the war that we fought against us."


Your Majesty,

The memory of your visit to Virginia will long be cherished by the people of our Commonwealth and most especially by Mrs. Stanley and me.

Our hope that Your Majesty would recognize the unspoken invitation, on the occasion of our visit to Buckingham Palace, has been most graciously and most gratifyingly fulfilled.

No visitor to our shores has ever so quickly and completely captured all our hearts and claimed such willing admiration and respect.

Mrs. Stanley and I are deeply appreciative of your graciousness in receiving and greeting our grandchildren in whose memory you will always reign, The Queen.

With every good wish for your health, your happiness, and your continued success, and with highest regards to Prince Phillip.

Источник: https://www.lva.virginia.gov/queen/transcriptions.htm
first minister of jamestown virginia

Remains of 4 early U.S. colonial leaders found in Virginia

WASHINGTON -- Archaeologists have uncovered human remains of four of the earliest leaders of the English colony that would become America, buried for more than 400 years near the altar of what was America's first Protestant church in Jamestown, Virginia.

The four burial sites were uncovered in the earthen floor of what was Jamestown's historic Anglican church from 1608, a team of scientists and historians announced Tuesday. The site is the same church where Pocahontas famously married Englishman John Rolfe, leading to peace between the Powhatan Indians and colonists at the first permanent English settlement in America.

Beyond the human remains, archaeologists also found artifacts buried with the colonial leaders -- including a mysterious Catholic container for holy relics found in the Protestant church.

The Jamestown Rediscovery archaeology team revealed its discovery at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History. The museum is helping to study and identify those buried in the church. The burials were first uncovered in November 2013, but the scientific team wanted to trace and identify its findings with some certainty before announcing the discovery.

Archaeologists have been studying the site since 1994 when the original James Fort -- long thought to be lost and submerged in the James River -- was rediscovered. The church site was mostly untouched and had not been excavated for more than a century until it was found in 2010.

The team identified the remains of the Rev. Robert Hunt, Jamestown's first Anglican minister who was known as a peacemaker between rival leaders; Capt. Gabriel Archer, a nemesis of one-time colony leader John Smith; Sir Ferdinando Wainman, likely the first knight buried in America; and Capt. William West, who died in a fight with the Powhatan Indians. The three other men likely died after brief illnesses. They were buried between 1608 and 1610.

"What we have discovered here in the earliest English church in America are four of the first leaders of America," said historian James Horn who is president of the Jamestown Rediscovery Foundation. "There's nothing like it anywhere else in this country."

While the individuals buried at Jamestown were not royalty, they were considered pivotal figures in the early colony. Horn compared the find to the 2012 discovery of the lost grave of King Richard III in England.

Two years ago, the Jamestown team also found evidence of survival cannibalism in the colony.

Perhaps just as interesting as the newly discovered human remains are some of the artifacts buried with the bodies. Burial items were rare in English culture at the time, archaeologists said.

In the remnants of Archer's coffin, archaeologists found a captain's leading staff as a symbol of Archer's military status. Historical records indicate Archer helped lead some of the earliest expeditions to Jamestown. He died at the age of 34 during a six-month period known as the "starving time" when many perished due to disease, starvation and battles with Indians.

Mysteriously, a small silver box resting atop Archer's coffin turns out likely to be a Catholic reliquary containing bone fragments and a container for holy water. Archer's parents were Catholic in Protestant England, which became illegal. So the discovery raises the question of whether Archer was perhaps part of a secret Catholic cell -- or even a Catholic spy on behalf of the Spanish, Horn said.

Catholic relics have been found in the Jamestown archaeological site before, but the placement of this box seems particularly symbolic, the historians said. They used CT scans to see inside the sealed box without damaging it -- gaining a view that wouldn't have been possible 10 years ago.

An alternative theory holds that the religious piece was simply repurposed for the Anglican church as a holdover from Catholic tradition as England waffled between Catholic and Protestant rule. Historians said more research must be done.

"It was a real kind of ah-ha moment for a lot of us," said William Kelso, Jamestown's director of archaeology. "It was oh, religion was a big deal here, and that's often overlooked. Everyone thinks that people came to Jamestown to find gold and go home and live happily ever after."

But the Church of England had a strong role in the creation of an English America with the Protestant church acting as a bulwark against Spain's Catholic colonies to the south, Horn said.

In West's burial plot, archaeologists found remnants of the military leader's silver-edged sash in a block of soil. The silk material was too delicate to remove from the dirt, so archaeologists removed an entire block of dirt for preservation.

Archaeologists will continue searching the church site and expect to eventually find the burial of Sir Thomas West, the early governor of Virginia who led a rescue mission to save Jamestown when the colony was collapsing, Horn said. West, also known as Lord De La Warr, was the namesake of the Delaware colony. Wainman and William West were both related to the powerful baron.

Of the newly found historical figures, only Wainman and Hunt had children. Those family lines could allow for DNA comparisons after more genealogical research. Researchers first want to learn more about those related to Lord De La Warr.

Artifacts from the burials will go on display within weeks at Historic Jamestowne. The site also plans to memorialize the men and will keep their bones in an accessible place for preservation and future study.

The Smithsonian created a 3D scan of the excavation site, bones and artifacts to give people a look at the discovery online.

The team is more than 90 per cent certain of the colonists' identities, Kelso said. Still they will work to complete more testing and potentially DNA analysis. One sample is in a DNA laboratory now at Harvard to determine whether any genetic information has been preserved.

The archaeology team said the discovery is like a riddle they must figure out over time. Records from the time period are limited.

"The things that we look at and can read from the bones are simply details that you're not going to find in the history books," said Douglas Owsley, a forensic anthropologist at the Smithsonian. "These are men that you might not know their name. But these are men that were critical to who we are in terms of America today."

RELATED IMAGES

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  • Piece of a jug held up

    Lee McBee holds up a fragment of a jug at the Jamestown Rediscovery site. (Jamestown Rediscovery / Historic Jamestowne)




Источник: https://www.ctvnews.ca/sci-tech/remains-of-4-early-u-s-colonial-leaders-found-in-virginia-1.2491159

Civil War and First minister of jamestown virginia March 1603

Elizabeth I dies and James VI of Scotland accedes to the English throne

Elizabeth I died childless so was succeeded by her cousin, James VI of Scotland, who henceforth assumed the title of James I of England as well. James's accession meant that the three separate kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland were now united, for the first time, under a single monarch. James was the first Stuart ruler of England.

August 1604

James I ends the war with Spain

One of James I's first acts of foreign policy was to end the long war with Spain, which had continued intermittently for 20 years. The resulting Treaty of London was largely favourable to Spain, but was also an acknowledgement by the Spanish that their hopes of bringing England under Spanish control were over. The end of the war greatly eased the English government's near bankrupt financial state. England and Spain were at peace for the next 50 years.

5 November 1605

Gunpowder Plot to assassinate James I is discovered

In 1604, a group of English Catholics, angered by James I's failure to relax the penal laws against their co-religionists, hatched a plot to blow up the king and parliament by igniting gunpowder barrels concealed in a vault beneath the building. The plot was discovered before it could be carried out. The conspirators, including Guy Fawkes after whom the plot is often known, were either killed resisting arrest, or captured and then executed by being hanged, drawn and quartered.

September 1607

Irish Earls flee to the continent fearing arrest

Following their defeat in the Nine Years' War, Hugh O’Neill, Earl of Tyrone and Rory O’Donnell, Earl of Tyrconnell were treated leniently by the victorious English government of Ireland and allowed to retain their lands and titles. But in 1605, the new lord deputy, Arthur Chichester, began to restrict their authority. Fearing arrest, the two fled to the continent with 90 family members and followers - the 'Flight of the Earls'. This marked the end of the power of Ireland’s Gaelic aristocracy.

1609

Plantation of Ulster sees Protestants moving onto confiscated Irish land

In the wake of the Nine Years' War, James I determined to secure Ulster for the Crown through a systematic settlement programme. Protestants from England and Scotland were encouraged to move to Ulster, cultivate the land and establish towns. These 'planters' moved onto land confiscated from its Gaelic Catholic inhabitants. The plantation was often organised through guilds and corporations. The London companies were granted the city of Derry, thereafter known as Londonderry.  

1611

'King James Bible' is published

By the end of the 16th century, there were several different English bibles in circulation and the church authorities felt a definitive version was needed. The 'Authorised Version of the Bible' (also known as the 'King James Bible') was commissioned in 1604. It became the most famous English translation of the scriptures and had a profound impact on the English language.

14 February 1613

James I's daughter Elizabeth marries Frederick V, Elector Palatine

The eldest daughter of James I and Anne of Denmark, Princess Elizabeth, was widely admired for her beauty, spirit and charm. She married Frederick V, Elector of the Rhine Palatinate, at the age of 16 and travelled with him to Heidelberg. Six years later, Frederick was elected king of Bohemia, but he and Elizabeth were driven out of the country by Catholic forces soon afterwards. It was through Elizabeth's descendants that the House of Hanover came to inherit the English throne.

23 April 1616

William Shakespeare dies

William Shakespeare was an English poet and playwright, popular in his time but subsequently regarded as the greatest writer in the English language. He wrote numerous sonnets and poems as well as more than 30 plays, including 'A Midsummer Night's Dream', 'The Merchant of Venice', 'Henry V', 'Richard III', 'Romeo and Juliet, 'Macbeth', 'Hamlet' and 'King Lear'.

1619

First record of Africans in British North American colonies

The first Africans who arrived in Jamestown, Virginia were not slaves but indentured servants. However, over the course of the 17th century their status gradually shifted so that more and more became slaves. Race-based slavery soon became central to the economy of the British colonies in North America.

August 1620

'Pilgrim Fathers' sail for America in the 'Mayflower'

A group attempting to escape religious persecution in England sailed for the New World and landed at Plymouth Rock, Massachusetts. They became known as the 'Pilgrim Fathers', and are often portrayed as the founders of modern America. In reality, the first permanent British colony in North America was Jamestown in Virginia, founded by Captain John Smith in 1607. Jamestown was established on behalf of the London Company, which hoped to make a profit from the new colony for its shareholders.

27 March 1625

James I dies and Charles I accedes to the throne

James I was struck down by what contemporaries described as 'a tertian ague' and died in his bed at Theobalds, in Hertfordshire, at the age of 57. He was succeeded by his only surviving son, Charles, then 24-years-old, who was proclaimed as king at the gates of Theobalds a few hours later.

14 May 1625

Barbados comes under British control

Captain John Powell landed in Barbados in 1625 and claimed the island as a British Caribbean colony. He returned two years later with a group of settlers and Barbados was developed into a sugar plantation economy using at first indentured servants and then slaves captured in West Africa.

October 1627

English forces are defeated at La Rochelle, France

In a bid to help the French Protestants of La Rochelle, who were besieged by Catholic forces, Charles I sent an English army. It was commanded by his chief minister, George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, who attempted to capture the nearby island of Rhé at the approaches to La Rochelle. Despite his best efforts, Buckingham was eventually forced to evacuate the island amid scenes of chaos and confusion.

23 August 1628

Charles I's chief minister, George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, is assassinated

Anxious to redeem his honour in the wake of the defeat by the French at the Isle of Rhé, George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, travelled down to Portsmouth in order to prepare for a new expedition to La Rochelle. While conferring with his officers, Buckingham was stabbed by John Felton, a discontented former soldier. The duke was immensely unpopular and few apart from the king mourned his death.

10 March 1629

Charles I dissolves parliament and begins 11 years of personal rule

Already disillusioned with parliaments, Charles I was outraged when, on 2 March 1629, members of parliament first held the Speaker of the House down in his chair and then passed three resolutions condemning the king's financial and religious policies. Eight days later, Charles dissolved the assembly and embarked on a period of government without parliaments, known as the 'Personal Rule'.

23 July 1637

New Scottish prayer book causes a riot in Edinburgh

Keen to secure a greater degree of religious conformity across his three kingdoms, Charles I ordered the introduction of a new prayer book in Scotland. The measure backfired badly when, at St Giles church in Edinburgh, an angry crowd protested against the book, shouting: 'The Mass is come amongst us!' - a negative reference to the reintroduction of Catholicism.

28 February 1638

Scots begin to sign the National Covenant to prevent religious 'innovations'

Determined not to accept the new prayer book which Charles I was trying to impose on them, the Scots had drawn up a 'National Covenant' which bound its signatories to resist all religious 'innovations'. On 28 February 1638, leading Scottish gentlemen began signing the document in Grey Friars Church, Edinburgh. Thousands followed. The General Assembly of the Kirk declared episcopacy (bishops) abolished and Charles prepared to send troops into Scotland to restore order.

13 April 1640

'Short Parliament' opens at Westminster

Desperate for money to fight the Scots, Charles I was forced to summon a new parliament - his first after 11 years of personal rule. At first, there seemed a good chance that members of parliament might be prepared to set their resentments of the king's domestic policies aside and agree to grant him money. Yet such hopes proved illusory, and Charles was forced to dissolve the parliament within a month.

28 August 1640

Scots defeat the English at Newburn on the River Tyne

Having advanced deep into England, the Scottish army found Charles I's forces waiting for them on the southern bank of the River Tyne at Newburn. Charging across the river under cover of artillery fire, the Scots swiftly put the English infantry to flight. Charles was forced to agree to a humiliating truce.

3 November 1640

'Long Parliament' opens at Westminster

With the Scottish army firmly established in Northern England and refusing to leave until its expenses had been paid, Charles I was again forced to summon a parliament. But instead of providing the king with financial assistance, many of the members of parliament - some of whom were zealous Protestants, or Puritans - used it to voice angry complaints against his policies.

October 1641

Rebellion breaks out in Ireland

In late 1641, Ireland rebelled. The country's Catholic inhabitants were simultaneously appalled by the prospect of a Puritan parliament achieving political dominance in England, and entranced by the possibility of seizing concessions similar to those which had been won by the Scots. Several thousand English and Scottish Protestant settlers were killed and many more were forced to flee.

4 January 1642

Charles I tries to arrest five leading members of parliament

Fearing that his opponents in parliament were not only determined to seize political control, but also to impeach his Catholic wife, Henrietta Maria, Charles I marched into the House of Commons and attempted to arrest five leading members of parliament. Forewarned, they slipped away and Charles was forced to leave empty-handed.

22 August 1642

Civil War begins as Charles I raises his standard at Nottingham

By setting up his royal standard on the Castle Hill at Nottingham, and by summoning his loyal subjects to join him against his enemies in parliament, Charles effectively signalled the start of the English Civil War. Inauspiciously for him: 'the standard itself was blown down the same night. by a. strong and unruly wind'.

1 - 7 October 1642

Cornishmen rise in support of Charles I

Although parliament had initially managed to gain control of almost all of southern England, in October 1642 some 10,000 Cornishmen rose up in arms for Charles I and chased parliament's few local supporters across the River Tamar. Thus a new front in the developing English Civil War was opened, with the Cornishmen becoming some of the king's toughest soldiers.

23 October 1642

Royalist and Parliamentarian armies clash at Edgehill, Warwickshire

As Charles I's army advanced on London from the Welsh Marches, its path was blocked by parliament's army under Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, at Edgehill in Warwickshire. The struggle that followed was bloody but indecisive, putting paid to hopes that the English Civil War might be settled by a single battle.

15 September 1643

Royalists sign a ceasefire with the Irish

Having suffered a series of reverses and desperate for more men, Charles I ordered James Butler, Marquis of Ormond, to arrange a ceasefire with the Catholic 'confederates' (or insurgents) in Ireland, so that the English Protestant soldiers fighting there could be shipped home to serve against the Parliamentarians. The so-called 'cessation of arms' outraged the king's English opponents.

25 September 1643

Parliamentarians enter into an alliance with the Scots

Fearing that they would be unable to beat the Royalist forces without outside help, the Parliamentarians concluded an alliance with the Scots. By the terms of the treaty the Scots agreed to send a powerful army to fight Charles I, in return for church reform in England 'according to the word of God', that is, in keeping with Scottish Protestantism.

2 July 1644

Scottish and Parliamentarian armies destroy Charles I's northern army

Charles I's northern supporters were besieged in York by a joint force of Parliamentarians and Scots, but were relieved by a Royalist army under the king's nephew, Prince Rupert. Triumph quickly turned to disaster for Rupert when his army was destroyed in a pitched battle at Marston Moor on the following day. Thereafter, the north of England was effectively lost to the king.

15 February 1645

Parliament establishes the 'New Model Army'

Following the humiliating defeat of its main field army in the Battle of Lostwithiel in Cornwall in 1644, parliament decided a more effective army was required. It passed the 'Self-denying Ordinance' that required all members of both houses of parliament to lay down their commands. First minister of jamestown virginia restructured fighting force, established by law on 15 February, was named the 'New Model Army'. Sir Thomas Fairfax was appointed its lord general and Oliver Cromwell his second-in-command.

14 June 1645

Royalists are crushed by the New Model Army at Naseby, Northamptonshire

Confident that his veteran troops would outfight parliament's newly-raised forces, Charles I launched his main field army of around 9,000 men against Sir Thomas Fairfax's army of around 14,000 men at Naseby in Northamptonshire. The result was a disaster for the king. The superb Royalist infantry were lost, and with them, all chance of winning the war.

5 May 1646

Charles I surrenders to the Scots

As the Parliamentarian net closed around him, Charles I decided to throw in his lot with the Scots. He made his way to the camp of the Scottish army at Southwell, near Newark, and gave himself up. The Scots eventually handed him over to the Parliamentarians for £400,000. At the end of December 1647, the bulk of the Scottish army marched back across the River Tweed and the king's Scottish guards first minister of jamestown virginia replaced by English Parliamentarian ones.

17 - 19 August 1648

Oliver Cromwell's Parliamentarian troops defeat a Scottish-Royalist Army

In mid-1648, England experienced a further eruption of violence known as the Second Civil War. Rebellions in favour of the king broke out in many parts of England and Wales, and a joint force of First minister of jamestown virginia and English Royalists rode south but were destroyed at Preston by an army under Oliver Cromwell. This marked the end of the Royalist resurgence.

6 December 1648

'Pride's Purge' turns away half of parliament

Enraged by parliament's opposition to their political ideals, officers of the New Model Army decided to remove those members of parliament they regarded as untrustworthy in what was effectively a coup d'etat. Colonel Thomas Pride, after whom the purge is named, accordingly turned away some 180 members, while over 40 more were arrested. The resulting parliament of less than 160 members was derisively known as 'the Rump'.

30 January 1649

Charles I is executed at Whitehall, London

In the wake of the Second Civil War, Oliver Cromwell and the other senior commanders of the New Model Army decided that England could never be settled in peace while Charles I remained alive. Accordingly, the king was charged with high treason, tried, found guilty and beheaded. Charles faced his trial and death with remarkable dignity. His last word on the scaffold was: 'Remember'. The execution of a king was greeted across Europe with shock.

15 May 1649

'Leveller' mutiny crushed by New Model Army leadership

In an atmosphere of greater religious tolerance and lack of censorship during the war, radical political and religious ideas flourished. The New Model Army was a hothouse for many of these ideas. It was particularly influenced by the 'Levellers', a small but vocal group who called for significant changes in society, including an extension of the franchise. The army leadership reacted badly to challenges to their authority, and in May 1649 crushed a Leveller mutiny at Burford in Oxfordshire.

11 - 12 September 1649

Oliver Cromwell's troops storm the town of Drogheda, Ireland

Determined to subdue 'the rebellious Irish', parliament ordered Oliver Cromwell to lead a powerful expeditionary force across the Irish Sea. After landing at Dublin, Cromwell quickly moved on to storm the nearby town of Drogheda. His troops slaughtered more than 3,000 of the defenders in the process.

1 January 1651

Charles II is crowned king of Scotland

Desperate to recover his father's throne, Charles I's eldest son struck a bargain first minister of jamestown virginia the Scots whereby he agreed to take first minister of jamestown virginia Covenant himself in return for the promise of Scottish hotels near university at buffalo assistance. Early in 1651, Charles was crowned Charles II of Scotland at Scone Castle.

3 September 1651

Oliver Cromwell defeats Charles II at the Battle of Worcester

Following his coronation as king of the Scots, Charles II raised a Scottish army and invaded England. Many English royalists came in to support him, but in a hard-fought battle at Worcester, the Parliamentarian commander Oliver Cromwell defeated the young king's army. It proved to be the last major battle of the English Civil War. Charles subsequently fled into exile abroad.

16 December 1653

Oliver Cromwell makes himself Lord Protector

the skeleton key in hindi download After the execution of Charles I, the various factions in parliament began to squabble amongst themselves. In frustration, Oliver Cromwell dismissed the purged 'Rump' parliament and summoned a new one. This also failed to deal with the complexity of the problems England was now facing. Cromwell’s self-appointment as 'Lord Protector' gave him powers akin to a monarch. His continuing popularity with the army propped up his regime.

May 1655

Britain takes Jamaica from Spain

The Spanish had ruled Jamaica since 1509, and introduced African slaves to work in the sugar plantations. The British seized the island and continued to develop the sugar trade. During this period, many slaves escaped into the mountains. These people became known as 'Maroons' and came to control large areas of the Jamaican interior, often launching attacks on the sugar plantations.

3 September 1658

Oliver Cromwell dies and is succeeded by his son, Richard

When Oliver Cromwell died, he was succeeded as Lord Protector by his son, Richard. The Commonwealth of England collapsed into financial chaos and arguments between the military and administration increased. Parliament was once again dissolved and Richard Cromwell was overthrown. George Monck, one of the army's most capable officers, realised that only the restoration of the king could end the political chaos, and Charles II was invited to return from exile.

1 January 1660

Samuel Pepys starts his diary

Samuel Pepys was a naval administrator and later a member of parliament whose diaries, covering the years from 1660-1669, provide a fascinating insight into mid-17th century life. The scope of the diary ranges from private remarks to detailed observations of the events and personalities around him.

29 May 1660

Charles II is restored to the throne

Charles II's official restoration to the English throne - he had already been acknowledged as king in Scotland in 1651 - occurred on 29 May. The king’s restoration was marked by massive celebrations, lesser versions of which continued to be held on Royal Oak Day for centuries to come.

March 1665

Great Plague of London begins

Towards the end of the winter of 1664-1665, bubonic plague broke out in the poverty-stricken London parish of St Giles-in-the-Fields. Soon the contagion was spreading fast, and over the following months more than 100,000 people died. By the time the epidemic finished in December 1665, a quarter of the capital's inhabitants had perished.

2 September 1666

Great Fire of London destroys two-thirds of the city

The fire broke out in a baker's shop in Pudding Lane in the City of London and spread rapidly. Within four days, two-thirds of the city had been destroyed and 65,000 people were homeless. Despite this, the fire did have some positive outcomes. Within three weeks, an architect called Christopher Wren presented plans for rebuilding much of the city. Although his plans were never fully implemented, Wren was responsible for the rebuilding of more than 50 churches, including St Paul's Cathedral.

June 1667

Dutch ships attack the English fleet in the Medway

In 1667, the Dutch admiral Michiel de Ruyter led a daring raid up the River Medway. Having broken a chain which the English had placed across the river, he attacked the naval dockyard at Chatham, burning and taking many ships. It was a terrible humiliation for the English. The diarist Samuel Pepys wrote: 'Never were people so dejected as they are in the City… this day.'

1672

Royal African Company is established to regulate the African slave trade

Charles II granted the Royal African Company a monopoly on the rapidly expanding slave trade. Rival merchants opposed the monopoly and in 1698 Parliament first national bank severna park the slave trade to all. Britain would become one of the leading transatlantic slave trading nations. Ships took guns and manufactured goods from Britain to West Africa, where goods were exchanged for people. Captives were taken across the Atlantic and sold into slavery on the plantations of the Caribbean and North America. Cargoes of rum, tobacco, cotton and sugar were then carried to England. This was known as the triangle trade.

29 March 1673

Test Act excludes Catholics from public office

The Test Act required public office holders to accept communion in the Protestant form and swear an oath of allegiance recognising the monarch as the head of the Church of England. The intention of the act was to exclude Catholics and dissenters from public office. Charles II’s brother James, Duke of York, a Catholic himself, was a victim of the act. He was forced to surrender his public office as lord high admiral as he would not take the oath.

4 November 1677

Mary Stuart marries William of Orange, Charles I's grandson

Born in 1662, Mary Stuart was the elder daughter of Charles II's brother, James, Duke of York, and his first wife Anne Hyde. Although both her parents later converted to Catholicism, Mary herself was brought up as a Protestant. Her marriage in 1677 to the Dutch Protestant Prince William of Orange, himself the grandson of Charles I, strengthened William's claim to the English throne.

September 1678

'Popish Plot' to murder Charles II is 'revealed'

Disgraced clergyman Titus Oates claimed he had learned of a Catholic and French conspiracy to kill Charles II, replace him with his Catholic brother James, Duke of York, and transform England into a Catholic-absolutist state. Oates's 'revelations' sparked panic and many innocent people were arrested and tried. The plot was little more than an invention. At the height of the furore a second Test Act was passed requiring members of both houses of parliament to make an anti-Catholic declaration.

6 February 1685

Charles II dies and James II accedes to the throne

Having suffered a stroke, Charles II converted to Catholicism on his death-bed and passed away a few hours later. He was succeeded by his brother, James, whose adherence to the Catholic faith made many of his staunchly Protestant subjects deeply suspicious. Nevertheless, James enjoyed considerable popularity when he first acceded to the throne as James II.

5 July 1685

James II defeats James Scott, Duke of Monmouth, at Sedgemoor, Somerset

Hoping to seize the throne from James II, Charles II's illegitimate son, James Scott, Duke of Monmouth, landed at Lyme Regis in Dorset. As he marched eastwards, hundreds flocked to join him. Yet Monmouth's raw West Country recruits proved no match for James II's experienced soldiers, and when they fought at Sedgemoor on the Somerset Levels, the rebels were cut to pieces. Monmouth was captured and executed at the Tower of London.

10 June 1688

Birth of James II's son sparks popular outrage

Following the death of his first wife, James II married Mary of Modena, a Catholic, in 1673. The birth of a son to the royal couple in 1688 provoked popular outrage. Many of James II's opponents, furious that their Catholic king now had a male heir, denounced the infant as an imposter, and claimed that the baby had been smuggled into the queen's bedroom in a warming-pan.

5 November 1688

William of Orange lands with an army at Torbay

William of Orange, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht, was implored by Protestant conspirators to 'deliver' them from the Us bank visa debit card balance James II. William, who had a legitimate claim to the throne through his grandfather, Charles I, raised an army in the Netherlands and transported it across the English Channel to Devon. As nobles and officers defected to William, James II lost his nerve and eventually fled abroad, leaving William free to take the crown.

13 February 1689

William and Mary are formally proclaimed king and queen

In the wake of James II's flight to exile, many felt that William and his wife Mary (James II's daughter) should be termed 'regents', rather than monarchs in their own right, because the former king was still alive. William was not prepared to accept this, and on 6 February 1689 the House of Lords at last conceded the point. The formal declaration of William and Mary as king and queen took place a week later. This became known as the 'Glorious Revolution'.

March 1689

James II lands in Kinsale with a French army

Encouraged by Louis XIV of France, James II sailed to Ireland hoping that, with Ireland under his control, he would be able to recover England and Scotland as well. Landing at the head of 20,000 French troops, James quickly found himself reinforced by thousands of eager Irish Catholics. Soon, most of Ireland was in James's hands.

27 July 1689

Jacobite Highlanders defeat William III's troops in the Battle of Killiecrankie

In Scotland, as in Ireland, many people still supported the Catholic James II against the Protestant William III. When Williamite troops (mostly Lowland Scots) advanced into the Grampian Mountains during the summer of 1689, John Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee, led his clansmen against them at the Battle of Killiecrankie. Claverhouse himself died on the field. His army was routed by William's forces at the Battle of Dunkeld a month later.

16 December 1689

'Bill of Rights' is confirmed by an act of parliament

William and Mary had accepted a Declaration of Rights on 13 February 1689 as an implicit condition of being offered the throne. In December, it was confirmed by an act of parliament, becoming the 'Bill of Rights'. It is a statement of rights of the subject as represented by parliament (whereas Magna Carta is broadly a statement of the rights of the individual). It remains a basic document of English constitutional law and the template for other constitutions around the world.

1 July 1690

William III defeats James II at the Battle of the Boyne, Ireland

James II had landed in Kinsale in 1689 and now controlled most of Ireland. William III sailed to Ireland himself to face his opponent. They met on the River Boyne, where William ordered his forces to cross and attack the joint Irish-French army. The Jacobite troops were routed and James retreated to France soon afterwards, earning himself the Irish nickname 'Séamus á Chaca' ('James the Sh*t'). In less than two years, William's forces had completed the re-conquest of Ireland.

13 February 1692

Government troops massacre the MacIains of Glencoe

Despite James II's defeat in Ireland, Jacobite sympathies remained strong in the Scottish Highlands. William III's Scottish supporters resolved to terrorise the Jacobite clans into submission. At 5am on 13 February, Captain Robert Glenlyon and his soldiers, who were then enjoying the hospitality of the MacIain clan of Glencoe, suddenly fell upon their unsuspecting hosts. Some 30-40 people were slaughtered in the massacre.

1694

Bank of England is established to manage mounting debts

England had accrued a considerable national debt on the back of William III's expensive wars. Scottish merchant William Paterson founded the Bank of England to assist the Crown in managing its debt. The Bank became the national reserve, and in 1697 its position of prominence was secured when parliament forbade the formation of any further joint-stock banks in England. The bank has issued bank notes since 1694. A separate Bank of Scotland was established in 1695.

28 December 1694

Mary dies, leaving William III to rule alone

William III's wife Mary died at the age of 32 leaving no children. William had loved his wife deeply, despite the somewhat tempestuous nature of their relationship, and was grief-stricken at her death.

1699

80% of those living in the Caribbean are African slaves

Initially, European colonists forced the indigenous people of the Caribbean to work in the sugar plantations. However, they were decimated by European diseases against which they had no immunity, so plantation owners began to buy African slaves. The profits from slavery were potentially very high for European slave traders. In 1708 a slave could be bought in Africa for £5, and sold in the West Indies for £20. The profits for plantation owners from cotton, tobacco and above all sugar were even higher. For the enslaved people, the work was hard, the punishments harsh and the living standards very poor.

12 June 1701

Act of Settlement places the House of Hanover in line for the English throne

William III was childless, as was James II's last surviving child, Anne. English Protestants wanted to prevent the return of James II (who lived until September 1701) and his Catholic son, also James. Parliament decreed that after the deaths of William, Anne and any children they might yet have, the throne would revert to the heirs of James I's daughter, Elizabeth, the wife of the Elector Palatine. Thus, Sophie, electress of Hanover, and her heirs became next in line to the throne.

September 1701

English, Dutch and Austrians sign the Treaty of the Grand Alliance

The expansionist policies of Louis XIV of France were threatening to overturn the balance of power in Europe, and his attempts to bring about a future union of the Spanish and French crowns caused the English, Dutch and Austrians to ally against him. The so-called 'War of the Spanish Succession' began the following year.

8 March 1702

William III dies and Anne accedes to the throne

William III died two weeks after being thrown from his horse when it tripped over a molehill in Hyde Park, London. Jacobites, gloating at their old enemy's downfall, drank to 'the little gentleman in black velvet' who had inadvertently helped to bring about the king's death. William was succeeded by Anne, who was the younger sister of his wife Mary and the second daughter of James II and Anne Hyde.

13 August 1704

John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, defeats the French at Blenheim, Bavaria

Allied forces under John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, Prince Eugene of Savoy and Prince Lewis of Baden shattered a Franco-Bavarian army under the Duc de Tallard at the Battle of Blenheim on first minister of jamestown virginia River Danube in Bavaria. It was a crucial victory in the War of the Spanish Succession and helped to pave the way for the eventual defeat of the French in northern Europe and the frustration of Louis XIV's imperial ambitions.

March 1707

Act of Union of England and Scotland is ratified

Although the Act of Settlement of 1701 ensured that there would eventually be a Protestant succession in England, there was no guarantee that this would be the case in Scotland too. Leading Scots were thus persuaded to agree to a union of the two kingdoms. Once the Act of Union had finally been ratified, England and Scotland officially first national bank severna park one country - Great Britain.

April 1713

Treaty of Utrecht ends a decade of war in Europe

The English and their Dutch allies came to terms with France at the Treaty of Utrecht, ending ten years of warfare. Many long-standing problems were resolved by the treaty. In particular, the French agreed to abandon their support for the dynastic claims of James II's son, James, to the throne of Great Britain. France also recognised the Hanoverian succession in Britain, which had been established by the Act of Settlement in 1701.

1 August 1714

Anne dies and George I accedes to the throne

Anne, the last Stuart monarch, died at Kensington Palace in London aged 49. None of her children survived her, so under the terms of the Act of Succession of 1701 she was succeeded by George, Elector of Hanover, who was proclaimed as George I. He was the first of the Hanoverian monarchs. In dynastic terms at least, Britain had entered a new age.

Источник: https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/timeline/civilwars_timeline_noflash.shtml

WASHINGTON – Archaeologists have uncovered human remains of four of the earliest leaders of the English colony that would become America, buried for more than 400 years near the altar of what was America’s first Protestant church in Jamestown, Virginia.

The four burial sites were uncovered in the floor of what’s left of Jamestown’s historic Anglican church from 1608, a team of scientists and historians announced Tuesday. The site is the same church where Pocahontas famously married Englishman John Rolfe, leading to peace between the Powhatan Indians and colonists at the first permanent English settlement in America.

Beyond the human remains, archaeologists also found artifacts buried with the colonial leaders — including a mysterious Catholic container for holy relics found in the Protestant church.

The Jamestown Rediscovery archaeology team revealed its discovery at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History. The museum is helping to study and identify those buried in the church. The burials were first uncovered in November 2013, but the scientific team wanted to trace and identify its findings with some certainty before announcing the discovery.

Archaeologists have been studying the site since 1994 when the original James Fort — long thought to be lost and submerged in the James River — was rediscovered.

The team identified the remains of the Rev. Robert Hunt, Jamestown’s first Anglican minister who was known as a peacemaker between rival colonial leaders; Capt. Gabriel Archer, a nemesis of one-time colony leader John Smith; Sir Ferdinando Wainman, likely the first knight buried in America; and Capt. William West, who died in a fight with the Powhatan Indians. The three other men likely died after brief illnesses. They were buried between 1608 and 1610.

“What we have discovered here in the earliest English church in America are four of the first leaders of America,” said historian James Horn who is president of the Jamestown Rediscovery Foundation. “There’s nothing like it anywhere else in this country.”

While the individuals buried at Jamestown were not royalty, they were considered pivotal figures in the early colony. Horn compared the find to the 2012 discovery of the lost grave of King Richard III in England.

Two years ago, the Jamestown team found evidence of survival cannibalism in the colony.

Perhaps just as interesting as the newly discovered human remains are some of the artifacts buried with the bodies. Burial items were rare in English culture at the time, archaeologists said.

In the remnants of Archer’s coffin, archaeologists found a captain’s leading staff as a symbol of Archer’s military status. Historical records indicate Archer helped lead some of the earliest expeditions to Jamestown. He died at the age of 34 during a six-month period known as the “starving time” when many perished due to disease, starvation and battles with Indians.

Mysteriously, a small silver box resting atop Archer’s coffin turns out likely to be a Catholic reliquary containing bone fragments and a container for holy water. Archer’s parents were Catholic in Protestant England, which became illegal. So the discovery raises the question of whether Archer was perhaps part of a secret Catholic cell — or even a Catholic spy on behalf of the Spanish.

Catholic relics have been found in the Jamestown archaeological site before, but the placement of this box seems particularly symbolic, the historians said. They used CT scans to see inside the box without damaging it — gaining a view that wouldn’t have been possible 10 years ago.

An alternative theory holds that the religious piece was simply repurposed first national bank severna park the Anglican church as a holdover from Catholic tradition as England waffled between Catholic and Protestant rule. Historians said more research must be done.

“It was a real kind of ah-ha moment for a lot of us,” said William Kelso, Jamestown’s director of archaeology. “It was oh, religion was a big deal here, and that’s often overlooked. Everyone thinks that people came to Jamestown to find gold and go home and live happily ever after.”

But the Church of England had a strong role in the creation of an English America with the Protestant church acting as a bulwark against the Spanish and Catholic colonies to the south, Horn said.

In West’s burial plot, archaeologists found remnants of the military leader’s silver-edged sash in a block of soil. The silk material was too delicate to remove from the dirt, so archaeologists removed an entire block of dirt for preservation.

The artifacts will go on display within weeks at Historic Jamestowne. The site also plans to memorialize the men and will keep their bones in an accessible place for future study.

The team is more than 90 percent certain of the colonists’ identities, Kelso said. Still they will work to complete more testing and potentially DNA analysis. One sample is in a DNA laboratory now at Harvard to determine whether any genetic information has been preserved.

The archaeology team said the discovery is like a riddle they must figure out over time. Records from the time period are limited.

“The things that we look at and can read from the bones are simply details that you’re not going to find in the history books,” said Douglas Owsley, a forensic anthropologist at the Smithsonian. “These are men that you might not know their name. But these are men that were critical to who we are in terms of America today.”

Источник: https://www.ocregister.com/2015/07/28/remains-of-4-early-colonial-leaders-discovered-at-jamestown/

Pocahontas, daughter of the chief of the Powhatan Indian confederacy, marries English tobacco planter John Rolfe in Jamestown, Virginia. The marriage ensured peace between the Jamestown settlers and the Powhatan tribe for several years.

In May 1607, about 100 English colonists settled along the James River in Virginia to found Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in America. The settlers fared badly because of famine, disease and Native American attacks, but were aided by 27-year-old English adventurer John Smith, who directed survival efforts and mapped the area. While exploring the Chickahominy River in December 1607, Smith and two colonists were captured by Powhatan warriors. At the time, the Powhatan confederacy consisted of around 30 Tidewater-area tribes led by Chief Wahunsonacock, known as Chief Powhatan to the English. Smith’s companions were killed, but he was spared and released, (according to a 1624 account by Smith) because of the dramatic intercession of Pocahontas, Chief Powhatan’s 13-year-old daughter. Her real name was Matoaka, and Pocahontas was a pet name that has been translated variously as “playful one” and “my favorite daughter.”

READ MORE: 5 Myths About Pocahontas

In 1608, Smith became president of the Jamestown colony, but the settlement continued to suffer. An accidental fire destroyed much of the town, and hunger, disease, and Indian attacks continued. During this time, Pocahontas often came to Jamestown as an emissary of her father, sometimes bearing gifts of food to help the hard-pressed settlers. She befriended the settlers and became acquainted with English ways. In 1609, Smith was injured from a fire in his gunpowder bag and was forced to return to England.

After Smith’s departure, relations with the Powhatan deteriorated and many settlers died from famine and disease in the winter of 1609-10. Jamestown was about to be abandoned by its inhabitants when Baron De La Warr (also known as Delaware) arrived in June 1610 with new supplies and rebuilt the settlement–the Delaware River and the colony of Delaware were later named after him. John Rolfe also arrived in Jamestown in 1610 and two years later cultivated the first tobacco there, introducing a successful source of livelihood that would have far-reaching importance for Virginia.

READ MORE: What Was Life Like in Jamestown?

In the spring of 1613, English Captain Samuel Argall took Pocahontas hostage, hoping to use her to negotiate a permanent peace with her father. Brought to Jamestown, she was put under the custody of Sir Thomas Gates, the marshal of Virginia. Gates treated her as a guest rather than a prisoner and encouraged her to learn English customs. She converted to Christianity and was baptized Lady Rebecca. Powhatan eventually agreed to the terms for her release, but by then she had fallen in love with John Rolfe, who was about 10 years her senior. On April 5, 1614, Pocahontas and John Rolfe married with the blessing of Chief Powhatan and the governor of Virginia.

Their marriage brought a peace between the English colonists and the Powhatans, and in 1615 Pocahontas gave birth to their first child, Thomas. In 1616, the couple sailed to England. The so-called Indian Princess proved popular with the English gentry, and she was presented at the court of King James I. 

In March 1617, Pocahontas and Rolfe prepared to sail back to Virginia. However, the day before they were to leave, Pocahontas died, probably of smallpox, and was buried at the parish church of St. George in Gravesend, England. John Rolfe returned to Virginia and was killed in a Native American massacre in 1622. After an education in England, their son Thomas Rolfe returned to Virginia and became a prominent citizen.

John Smith returned to the Americas in 1614 to explore the New England coast. On another voyage of exploration in 1614, he was captured by pirates but escaped first minister of jamestown virginia three months of captivity. He then returned to England, where he died in 1631.

Источник: https://www.history.com

Mundane Lives and Extreme Adventures

Question

Pot and platter of Miles Standish

What were the primary concerns of life in the New World?

Answer

Let me somewhat arbitrarily focus the question more specifically on the earliest English explorers, adventurers, and settlers in Virginia and Massachusetts in the first half of the 17th century.

Reading their published accounts gives one the impression that their lives alternated between extremes of feast and famine, between health and sickness, between sublime ease and almost unimaginable hardship, and between periods of contentment and even boredom and periods of sharp fear and terror interspersed with periods of sheer joy. Supplementing those accounts, however, with evidence from rather more mundane sources such as probate and account books, old court records, and modern excavations of kitchen middens from colonial sites, yields a larger story of people organizing and conducting their work and family lives in ways similar to ours today.

The "Commodities" of Life in the English Settlements in the New World

Captain John Smith published A Description of New England in 1616 in London, in which account he sought, among other things, to recruit English settlers. In it he declared:

Worthy is that person to starve that here cannot live; if he have sense, strength and health: for there is no such penury of these blessings in any place, but that a hundred men may, in one houre or two, make their provisions for a day: and he that hath experience to manage well these affaires, with fortie or thirtie honest industrious men, might well undertake (if they dwell in these parts) to subject the Salvages, and feed daily two or three hundred men, with as good corn, fish and flesh, as the earth hath of those kindes, and yet make that labor but their pleasure; provided that they have engins, that be proper for their purposes.

The first minister in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, Reverend Francis Higginson, acting, like Smith, as a kind of colonial recruiter, published New-England's Plantation; or, a short and true description of the commodities and discommodities of that countrey in 1630 in London. In it, he praised the "fat black earth" around the Charles River in Massachusetts. The land, he said, was extremely fertile, and was well suited to the plow. "It is scarce to be believed how our kine and goats, horses and hogs do thrive and prosper here, and like well of this country." He bragged of the vast harvest of corn, turnips, parsnips, carrots, watercress, "pumpions," "cowcumbers," and herbs. He wrote that the colonists also planted and harvested mulberries, plums, raspberries, currants, chestnuts, filberts, walnuts, cherries, and strawberries.

He wrote about the abundance of game: deer and bear, as well as the other animals, listing wolves, foxes, beavers, otters, martins, great wild cats, and "a great beast called a molke"—most probably a moose. The abundance of fish was "almost beyond believing." Cod, mackerel, bass, and sturgeon; oysters, clams, mussels, and lobsters were easy to catch or gather. Of lobsters, Higginson wrote that "the least boy in the Plantation may both catch and eat what he will of them. For my own part, I was soon cloyed with them, they were so great, and fat, and luscious. I have seen some myself that have weighed sixteen pound; but others have had diverse times so great lobsters as have weighted twenty-five pound, as they assured me."

Higginson commended the "temper of the air" of New England as healthful. He noted that summers were hotter than in England and winters were colder, but he said that the cold was not so bad because of the ease of getting firewood. "Here is good living," he wrote, "for those that love good fires."

The "Discommodities"

Higginson's improbably www mypremiercreditcard com register aspx list of New England's "discommodities" was much shorter: First, mosquitoes; second, the snow and cold of winter; third; poisonous snakes; and fourth, the lack of more settlers. This last "discommodity" is telling, and does much to explain the hearty promotional tone of the rest of his description.

In fact, many of the first settlers, both in Massachusetts and Virginia, died of starvation, which especially afflicted them during the first winters. Several times, Indians brought them some relief with baskets of corn and game.

Diseases of one kind or another also took their toll. Some of these they brought with them, such as smallpox. Some of them, like dysentery and scurvy, were the result of malnutrition or lack of fresh drinking water. The sheer physical difficulties involved in exploration and in building a settlement in the wilderness also presented tremendous hazards to those that undertook the work.

Shipwreck was also common, especially from the hurricanes and nor'easters that were novel to them. Shipwrecks not only endangered their own lives but also imperiled the re-provisioning of the colonies from England. This was especially critical in the first years of the settlements, when their vulnerability was increased by the fact that they had to depend on ships to supply them, not just with food, but also with basic goods, such as gunpowder, firearms, tools, iron, and cloth.

Colonel Henry Norwood's pamphlet, A Voyage to Virginia, described his harrowing trip in the fall of 1649 from England, in which his ship met storms off the coast of Cape Hatteras and they were blown offshore. He and a small party of others were eventually marooned on an uninhabited island off the coast of Maryland and nearly starved until being rescued by Indians and carried by them to the colony at Jamestown:

Of the three weak women before mentioned, one had the envied happiness to die about this time; and it was my advice to the survivors, who were following her apace, to endeavour their own preservation by converting her dead carcase into food, as they did to good effect. The same counsel was embrac'd by those of our sex; the living fed upon the dead; four of our company having the happiness to end their miserable lives on Sunday night the day of January___. Their chief distemper, 'tis true, was hunger; but it pleased God to hasten their exit by an immoderate access of cold, caused by a most terrible storm of hail and snow at north-west, on the Sunday aforesaid, which did not only dispatch those four to their long homes, but did sorely threaten all that remained alive, to perish by the same fate.

The colony in Virginia was established in the midst of the Algonquian nation of Powhatan, and the Plymouth Colony on the land of the Wampanoag tribe. Relations with the Indians were sketchy and volatile, consisting of periods of friendship interspersed with periods of fighting, sometimes alongside the Indians of one tribe against its enemies from other tribes. The colonists traded metal implements and cloth first minister of jamestown virginia food, furs, and land. But they also carefully constructed fortifications and palisades to protect themselves against the almost certain eventuality of attack by the various tribes and nations of Indians among whom they settled. Both colonies suffered large loss of life from Indian attack.

All in all, much of the earliest settlers' time and energies were devoted to providing for their basic, physical subsistence and doing what they could to ensure their survival. Much of the colonies' early precariousness was due to not having yet cleared and planted enough land to ensure harvests that would not only provide the colonists daily fare, but would also allow a surplus to draw upon during times of scarcity.

Until about the mid-20th century, historians largely worked from the writings of the colonists and explorers to understand what colonial life was like. But those writings offered only a very selective picture. For the past several decades, detailed research by archeologists and archivists into the material culture of the colonists has dramatically broadened and sometimes corrected the historical picture.

Bibliography

Images:
"The settlers at Jamestown," William Ludwell Sheppard, 1876, from Pioneers in the settlement of America: from Florida in 1510 to California in 1849. Boston: Samuel Walker, 1876-1877. New York Public Library.

"The pot and platter of Miles Standish," detail from Plymouth stereoview collection. New York Public Library.

Источник: https://teachinghistory.org/history-content/ask-a-historian/23928

Reverend Robert Hunt, of Jamestown

http://smithsonianscience.si.edu/2015/07/jamestown-skeletons-identi.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Hunt_%28chaplain%29 (not completely flattering)

Findagrave.com says: Rev. Robert Hunt's parents are unknown.

Degree from Trinity Hall, Cambridge, c. 1592; LL.B. degree 1606 (Athenae Cantabrigienses, vol. 2, p. 493).

Traditionally Oxford and Cambridge did not see common law as worthy of study, and included coursework in law only in the context of canon and civil law and for the purpose of the study of philosophy or history only.

Angelica Hunt had at least one brother, Stephen Hunt of Chislete,County Kent. It is reported she had at least two others; the Reverend Robert Hunt who migrated to America on the original voyage to Jamestown, in 1607; and Thomas Hunt (who apparently was *not* the one who arrived in Jamestown on the second supply ship in September 1608 - he died before Jan 1 1608). ["Master Hunt", no first name given, has also been interpreted as the Reverend's young son, and may possibly be the same person as Lieut. Thomas Hunt .]

From the records of the Jamestowne Society:

The Reverend Richard Hakluyt, prebendary of Westminster, was selected by the Virginia Company as its first rector with the approval of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Reverend Hakluyt with the approval of the Archbishop selected as the first Vicar, the Reverend Robert Hunt,A.M., who came to Jamestowne as the pastor of the colonists. Robert Hunt had been Vicar of the parish of Reculver in Kent from 1594 to1602. In 1602 he was appointed Vicar of All Saints Church at Old Heathfield, East Sussex.

Robert Hunt, beloved and admired of all, sailed as chaplain of the fleet. The three ships fell down the Thames to the Downs (less than 12miles from Old Heathfield) and anchored there due to contrary winds.Then, they suffered great storms during the six weeks they were insight of England, and many of the company would have given up the voyage but for the "true devoted example" of Parson Hunt who was made so "weake and sicke" by the rough weather that "few expected him to recover," yet "all this could never force from him so much as a seeming desire to leave the business."

On May 14 the colonists disembarked on a peninsula that became Jamestowne. Chaplain Hunt dedicated the spot to the glory of God, and they "began thereon . in the name of God to raise a fortresse."

The London Company had a provision that each new settlement should become a parish with its own rector. Robert Hunt was the first rector at Jamestowne.

Captain John Smith wrote of the men at worship in the open air until a chapel could be erected. He describes the scene of a celebration of the Holy Communion, with the Holy Table standing under an old sail lashed from tree to tree, with a bar of wood fastened between two trees as a pulpit, and men kneeling on the ground before their first altar. Services were held daily, according to the rules of the Book of Common Prayer. The law of the Church required the Holy Communion to be celebrated at least three times during the year; on Christmas, Easter,and Whitsunday.

The Virginia Company kept constantly in the forefront their plan to Christianize the Indians. Their plan as they began to put into effect included the establishment of parishes and the selection of fit clergymen to go overseas; to establish a University with a college therein for Indians; and to take Indian youths into English families to fit and prepare them for their college.

The Reverend Hunt was living on March 9, 1608 when the colonists returned from a trip to see Powhatan to find that a fire had destroyed nearly everything. Smith writes that "Good Master Hunt, our preacher, lost his library and all he had but the clothes on his backe: yet none never heard him repine at his losse."

The Reverend Hunt must have died soon after the above incident as the will of the Reverend Hunt was probated in England on July 14, 1608. In this will he lists his wife, Elizabeth, and a daughter, Elizabeth, and a son, Thomas. His brother, Steven Hunt of Reculver, was to be overseer, if his wife were unable to serve. This Thomas Hunt may have come to Virginia, as a Thomas Hunt received 50ac in Accomack in1636 for his personal adventure. Thomas Hunt may have been living as late as 1657 in Accomack County, Virginia.

Also in support of the position that the Rev. Robert Hunt was in fact the brother of Angelica Hunt Cobbs is that fact that on 06 June 1599, one Robert Hunt "clergyman", gave testimony as to the facts surrounding the writing of the Last Will & Testament of Thomas Cobbs,Angelica Hunt's father in law.


The Reverend Robert Hunt: The First Chaplain at Jamestown

=====

The Reverend Robert Hunt gives thanks with other English settlers at Cape Henry, Virginia in April 1607. Robert Hunt (c. 1568-1608), clergyman of the Church of England, was Chaplain of the expedition that founded Jamestown, Virginia. The expedition included people from Old Heathfield, East Sussex, England. The Reverend Hunt had become the Vicar of Heathfield, County of Sussex, in 1602, which title he held as Chaplain of the Jamestown Settlement. He had been Vicar of Reculver, County of Kent, England, 1594-1602. He lit the candle for the Anglican Church in Virginia (United States); he first lifted his voice in public thanksgiving and prayer on April 29, 1607, when the settlers planted a cross at Cape Henry, which they named after the Prince of Wales.

Once settled in the fort, the whole company, except those who were on guard, attended regular prayer and services led by the Reverend Hunt. Captain John Smith described worship services that took place in the open air until a chapel could be erected. Captain Smith's religious feelings were conventional but deeply felt. His piety asserted itself in his writings constantly; he saw the hand of God at work in his life, and he believed it had intervened to save the colonies. "He concluded that God, who had thwarted Spanish attempts to settle North America, had reserved that Region for the Protestant English."

Captain John Smith described the Reverend Hunt as "our honest, religious and courageous divine." The Reverend Hunt was a peacemaker, often bringing harmony to a quarreling group of men. The Chronicler wrote: "Many were the mischiefs that daily sprung from their ignorant spirits; but the good doctrines and exhortations of our Preacher Minister Hunt reconciled them and caused Captain Smith to be admitted to the Council June 20th. The next day, June 21, third Sunday after Trinity, under the shadow of an old sail, Robert Hunt celebrated the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper. It is impossible to rate too highly the character and work of the aforesaid Robert Hunt, Chaplain of the Colony." Hunt's virtuous character was well-known and respected by his fellow settlers. It was evidenced by his behavior both before and after the accidental fire in the fort in January, 1608. The fire burned the palisades with their arms, bedding apparel, and many private provisions. "Good master Hunt lost all his library, and all that he had but the clothes on his back, yet none ever did see him repine at his loss.Yet we had daily Common Prayer morning and evening, every Sunday two sermons and every three months the Holy Communion till our Minister died."

Historians believe that Robert Hunt died in the spring of 1608. His will, probated in July 1608, is the only documented evidence of his death. Scholars suggest that certain conditions imposed upon his bequest to his wife may indicate an unhappy state of affairs in the home, which could have fueled the Reverend Hunt's desire to go to Virginia. However, it seems more likely that his desire to set a good Christian example, rather than his personal problems, motivated him to travel to the new world.

This faithful and courageous priest had nothing to say of himself, leaving no writings and no portrait. All authorities, including Governor Edward Maria Wingfield, First President of the Council at Jamestown, and Captain John Smith, who agreed in nothing else, agreed in praise of this worthy man. They wrote: "Our factions were oft qualified, and our wants and greater extremities so comforted that they seemed easie in comparison of what we endured after his memorable death."

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bridenbaugh, Carl. Jamestown 1544-1699. New York: Oxford Press, 1980.

Bryden, George M. Religious Life of Virginia In The Seventeenth Century The Faith Of Our Fathers. Williamsburg, Virginia: Virginia 350th Anniversary Celebration Corp., 1957.

Chorlev, E. Clowes. "The Planting Of The Church In Virginia," William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine, Vol. X, No. 3, July 1930.

Encyclopedia Britannica. Chicago, Illinois.

Goodwin, Edward Lewis, Rev. The Colonial Church in Virginia. Milwaukee and London: 1927.

Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. "Brasse Without But Golde Within, The Writings of Captain John Smith," Virginia Calvacade. Winter, 1989.

Smith, Charles W.E. Robert Hunt Vicar Of Jamestown. New York: The National Council, 1957.

Smith, John. "Advertisements For The Unexperienced, Or The Pathway To Erect A Plantation," Smith's Works, Vol. II. New York: Da Capo Press, 1971.

Wingfield, Edward Maria. "A Discourse Of Virginia," Smith's Works, 1608-1631 Birmingham: J. Wilson & Son, 1884. http://www.nps.gov/jame/historyculture/the-reverend-robert-hunt-the.



~~ Our Ancestral Heritage ~~

Rev. Robert Hunt was the Anglican Chaplain of England of the expedition which founded Jamestown, Virginia on April 29, 1607, in what became the United States of America in the state of Virginia. Rev. Hunt dedicated the new land to Jesus Christ and to preaching the Gospel in the new land and throughout the world. Before sailing to America, he resided in Sussex, England where he was Vicar of the parish church of Heathfield.

Rev. Robert Hunt sailed with his fellow colonist aboard the ship Susan Constant.

Jamestown Church, James City, Virginia

The Island (which in its great period was a peninsula) is rich in religious shrines, for, in addition to the tower and ruins of two churches --one of which in the seventeenth century almost became the first of our American cathedrals because of a king's gratitude for the Old Dominion's loyalty--there are: the Robert Hunt Shrine; the Memorial Cross dedicated to those first minister of jamestown virginia (possibly 1609-10) on the "Third Ridge"; countless other graves; various religious objects discovered near the church and now exhibited in the Visitor Center; and the wattle-and-daub church in the reconstructed James Fort at the Festival park on the mainland.

Husband of Elizabeth (Edwards) Hunt ~ married March 09, 1597, Bredin, Canterbury, England

Rev. Robert and Elizabeth (Edwards) Hunt had 3 good morning america recipes and they were:

1. Thomas Hunt (b. ca. 1594 - d. 1666) 2. William Hunt (b. 1599 - d. 1676), m. 1st., Sarah Ann Harris and 2nd., Judith Burton (m. 2nd. Richard Burton, Sr.) 3. Elizabeth Hunt (b. ca. 1602 - d. unk.)

NOTE:

Rev. Robert Hunt's parents are unknown. His brothers and sister were .

  • 1. Rev. Stephen Hunt (m. unknown) 2. Angelica Hunt, #102765930 (m. Ambrose Cobbs, #102766196) 3. Thomas Hunt

Rev. Stephen Hunt's daughter Elizabeth Hunt (m. Henry Rose)

http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=19155100


http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=149915094

Источник: first minister of jamestown virginia

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