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Is soy bad for you estrogen


is soy bad for you estrogen

Soy contains phytoestrogens or “plant-estrogens,” which sounds The other hormonal effects of soy are that it can 1) prevent the healthy. Is soy a healthy source of protein or does it have health risks? These plant-based estrogens are thought to mimic estrogen in our bodies. Soy isn't the. Some experts have questioned whether soy might lower testosterone levels in men and cause problems for women who have estrogen-sensitive.

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Does SOY Lower TESTOSTERONE?

The Truth About Soy

edamame


Eat soy. Don't eat soy. Soy is healthy. Soy is dangerous and should be avoided at all costs.

Soybeans and most soy foods (like tofu, tempeh and soy milk) are high in protein and isoflavones and low in saturated fat. Soy has played a role as a dietary staple in Asia and dates back many centuries.

So, what's the problem with soy? Although there are many health claims about it—research supports that soy in your diet can lower cholesterol and may reduce your risk of heart disease—its consumption is not without controversy.

The basis of the controversy surrounding soy stems mainly from the phytoestrogens it contains. Otherwise known as isoflavones or isoflavanoids, these may be a concern for people with, or at high risk for, breast cancer. The fear is that because the structure of isoflavones is similar to estrogen—and estrogen can, in some people, promote breast cancer—the body might recognize these isoflavones as estrogen.

What makes this especially complicated is that some experts previously believed  that soy was protective against breast cancer. Asian women had much lower rates of breast cancer than American women. Because soy is widely consumed in Asian countries—Japanese women's intake of isoflavones is approximately 700 times that of U.S. Caucasians—there might be an association between high soy consumption and a reduced risk of breast cancer, researchers surmised.

But detractors say that this doesn't necessarily correlate to women in this country. Many Asian women eat soy daily starting very young; they also consume less fat and meat and eat more grains and vegetables than do American women. And, they're generally more physically active, with less body fat.

But there is this: A recent study that combined data from other studies found that women in Asian countries who ate the most soy isoflavones had a 24 percent lower risk of developing breast cancer.

Complicated, yes, so I went online to check out what the American Cancer Society has to say. Alas, its commentary backs up the confusion: "Research on soy and cancer is highly complex, controversial, and evolving."

Much of the cancer research, they say, has been performed on rodents. Rather than using soy foods, they used isolated soy compounds (like soy protein isolate) or high doses of isoflavones, which are compounds found in soy. Additionally, soy is metabolized differently in humans than in mice and rats.

The few studies that have been done in the United States to measure purified forms of soy used in the food supply, including in energy bars and soy hot dogs, do not suggest that the soy is harmful, according to the American Cancer Society. 

It's important to note that although isoflavones may act like estrogen, they also contain anti-estrogen properties, meaning they can block natural estrogens in the body from binding to an estrogen receptor (like a breast or uterus). Aside from this, isoflavones have both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and can work in other ways to reduce cancer growth.

The American Cancer Society's final verdict:

"Until more is known, if you enjoy eating soy foods, the evidence indicates that this is safe, and may be beneficial (but note that miso, a fermented soy product, is high in sodium). It is prudent to avoid high doses of isolated soy compounds found specifically in supplements, as less is known about their health effects. As for other 'hidden' sources of soy proteins, the evidence to date does not suggest harm or benefit. However, if you are concerned about these products, you can choose to is soy bad for you estrogen them."  

All said, it is a good idea to go ahead and drink some soymilk, snack on some edamame and enjoy the occasional soy hot dog. But until further research is done, stay away from soy supplements.

Источник: https://www.healthywomen.org/content/article/truth-about-soy

Hormonal effects of soy in premenopausal women and men

Over the past few years, there has been increasing interest in the possible hormonal effects of soy and soy isoflavone consumption in both women and men. Soy consumption has been suggested to exert potentially cancer-preventive effects in premenopausal women, such as increased menstrual cycle length and sex hormone-binding globulin levels and decreased estrogen levels. There has been some concern that consumption of phytoestrogens might exert adverse effects on men's fertility, such as lowered testosterone levels and semen quality. The studies in women have provided modest support for beneficial effects. One cross-sectional study showed serum estrogens to be inversely associated with soy intake. Seven soy intervention studies controlled for phase of menstrual cycle. These studies provided 32-200 mg/d of isoflavones and generally showed decreased midcycle plasma gonadotropins and trends toward increased menstrual cycle length and decreased blood concentrations of estradiol, progesterone and sex hormone-binding globulin. A few studies also showed decreased urinary estrogens and increased ratios of is soy bad for you estrogen 2-(OH) to 16alpha-(OH) and 2-(OH) to 4-(OH) estrogens. Soy and isoflavone consumption does not seem to affect the endometrium in premenopausal women, although there have been weak estrogenic effects reported in the breast. Thus, studies in women have mostly been consistent with beneficial effects, although the magnitude of the effects is quite small and of uncertain significance. Only three intervention studies reported hormonal effects of soy isoflavones in men. These recent studies in men consuming soyfoods or supplements containing 40--70 mg/d of soy isoflavones showed few effects on plasma hormones or semen quality. These data do not support concerns about effects on reproductive hormones and semen quality.

Источник: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11880595/

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Soy has been a dietary staple in Asia for many centuries. Some studies have found that it may offer some cardiovascular benefits, though the evidence at this point is more suggestive than conclusive.

As far as any downside, most of the health concerns about soy stem from its concentration of phytoestrogens, a group of natural compounds that resemble estrogen chemically. Some experts have questioned whether soy might lower testosterone levels in men and cause problems for women who have estrogen-sensitive breast cancers. Animal studies have found, for example, is soy bad for you estrogen that large doses of phytoestrogens can fuel the growth of tumors.

But phytoestrogens mimic estrogen only very weakly. A number of clinical studies in men have cast doubt on the notion that eating soy influences testosterone levels to any noticeable extent. And most large studies of soy intake and breast cancer rates in women have not found that it causes any harm, said Dr. Anna H. Wu of the Keck School of Medicine at the University city bank lubbock texas phone number of Southern California. In fact, work by Dr. Wu and others has found that women who consume the equivalent of about one to two servings of soy daily have a reduced risk of receiving a diagnosis of breast cancer and of its recurrence.

Still, some women who have developed breast cancer remain particularly worried about eating soy. But the evidence “is overwhelming that it’s safe,” said Dr. Bette Caan of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Division of Research, who has studied soy intake and breast cancer. “If people enjoy soy as a regular part of their diet,” is soy bad for you estrogen she said, “there’s no reason to stop.”

Last year, in its nutrition guidelines for cancer survivors, the American Cancer Society noted that eating traditional soy foods — like tofu, miso, tempeh and soy milk — may help lower the risk of breast, prostate and other cancers. But the guidelines do not recommend soy supplements, bmo harris bank money market rates which tend to be highly processed and not very rigorously tested.

Источник: https://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/09/27/ask-well-is-it-safe-to-eat-soy/

Soyfoods: an alternative to hormone replacement therapy (HRT)?

by Mark Messina, PhD


Extract from Vegetarian Nutrition & Health Letter Vol.1 n.5, published by Loma Linda University (Traduzione in Italiano).

Dr. Mark Messina has organized and chaired two international symposia on soy and disease prevention. He is the co-author of The Simple Soybean and Your Health and is a senior editor of Vegetarian Nutrition and Health Letter.

Most women agree: The decision about whether to use hormone replacement therapy is not an easy one, despite research showing clear advantages to doing so. Women who take estrogen after menopause have a lower risk of heart disease and are less likely to fracture bones. Estrogen can also help to minimize the discomfort of the "hot flashes" that some women experience during menopause. But because estrogen therapy has acute side effects and may also raise the risk for breast cancer, many women are wondering first national bank severna park the risk is worth the benefits. So it is not surprising that there is much interest among both consumers and researchers in finding alternative therapies with estrogen-like benefits. That search has led many researchers to a food that has long been a mainstay in the diets of vegetarians: the soybean.

Soybeans and Phytoestrogens

Soybeans are rich in plant estrogens and are one of the few food sources of a particular type of plant estrogen called isoflavones. These are compounds with a structure that is similar to estradiol, the main estrogen produced by a woman's ovaries. However, isoflavones are weak estrogens and are anywhere from one ten-thousandth to one onethousandth as potent as estradiol. Despite their lower potency they are likely to produce physiological effects because blood levels of isoflavones are so high in first national bank severna park (and men) who eat soyfoods. Drinking just two cups of soymilk or eating one cup of tofu produces blood levels of isoflavones that can be 500 to 1,000 times higher than typical estrogen levels in women.

Soybean isoflavones also possess some attributes that are separate from their estrogenic activity. For example, they inhibit the activity of enzymes that control cell growth and regulation. And one of the soybean isoflavones is believed to inhibit the growth of blood vessels that benefits of fsa vs hsa tumor growth. Finally, isoflavones act as antioxidants. For these reasons and others, isoflavones may play a role in reducing the risk of certain cancers.

Initially, interest focused on the weakestrogenic potential of isoflavones, particularly as it relates to breast cancer. Some researchers suggested that weak estrogens like isoflavones actually function as anti-estrogens; that is, they inhibit effects of estrogen. Since estrogen raises the risk for breast cancer, it has been hypothesized that isoflavones may lower risk and that soyfood consumption usps office open today to the lower breast cancer mortality rates in Asian countries where soyfood consumption is high. Although the evidence that this is true is conflicting, there is some very encouraging research suggesting that soy isoflavones reduce risk for prostate cancer.

Are Soybeans the New Hormone Replacement Therapy?

As women go through menopause, the ovaries stop producing estrogen. This has several effects, some immediate and some long term. Changes in estrogen levels produce changes in temperature regulation that can result in the "hot flashes" and "night sweats" that many women experience. Also, decreases in blood estrogen levels can result in significant bone loss. Estrogen also protects against heart disease and is believed to be a major reason that young women rarely have heart attacks. Research points to possible roles for soy isoflavones in all of these areas.

Hot Flashes and Night Sweats: Japanese women are about two-thirds less likely than North American women to report that they have hot flashes [1]. One reason might be that they eat more soyfoods. So far, though, the results of studies are mixed. In one study, women who consumed soy experienced a 45% decrease in hot flashes, whereas the study group that didn't get soy had a 30% decrease in hot flashes [2]. That is, women who believed that they were consuming soy were likely to have fewer hot flashes. This suggests that soy is effective and also that there was a strong placebo effect.

Another study found that consuming soy didn't affect the number of hot flashes but the hot flashes were less severe [3]. Overall, results suggest that the effect of soy on hot flashes is modest. Since effects probably vary among individuals, it makes sense for menopausal women to try soyfoods.

Osteoporosis: Women can lose as much as 15 percent of their bone mass in the years surrounding menopause, an effect that is directly attributed to loss of estrogen. Hormone replacement therapy reduces the risk of bone fractures. Also, an experimental drug that has been used successfully for years to treat osteoporosis is remarkably similar to soybean isoflavones [4]. So it isn't surprising that isoflavones are being studied for their enhancing effects on bone density. Results from animal studies are largely favorable [5]. Although there hasn't been much research yet in humans, two preliminary studies indicate that soy isoflavones benefit bone health in postmenopausal women [6, 7]. An additional benefit is that many soy products including calcium-set tofu, calcium-fortified soymilk, tempeh, and textured vegetable protein, are rich in calcium.

Heart Disease: More than 30 years of research has shown that soy protein reduces blood cholesterol levels in people who have elevated cholesterol levels, but it isn't clear whether this effect is due to the protein alone or to protein plus isoflavones [8]. Hormone replacement therapy also reduces blood cholesterol levels, and it has other beneficial effects on heart disease risk as well. Similarly, recent research suggests that isoflavones may reduce heart disease risk in a number of different ways. For example, in an Australian study, isoflavone consumption improved artery elasticity in postmenopausal women, an bremen germany airport hotels also seen is soy bad for you estrogen estrogen therapy [9]. This increased elasticity reduces risk for heart disease.

Eating More Soyfoods is Easy and Delicious

Because the soybean is such an amazingly versatile food, there are countless possibilities for adding more soy to your diet. This makes eating more soyfoods one of the easier healthpromoting changes you can make. Research suggests that adding two servings of soyfoods to your daily menu might help to reduce risk for osteoporosis and heart disease and perhaps can help to case some of the side effects of menopause. One serving is equal to one-hall cup cooked soybeans, tofu, tempeh, or rehydrated TVPtm, one-fourth cup roasted soynuts, or one cup soymilk.

Here are some easy ways to incorporate more soyfoods into your diet.:

Soymilk is the liquid expressed from whole soaked soybeans. It can be used to replace cow's milk as a beverage or in most recipes. Soymilk is is soy bad for you estrogen unflavored or flavored with chocolate, vanilla, or carob. Look for brands that are fortified with calcium and vitamin D.

  • Pour soymilk over hot or cold breakfast cereal.

  • Add soymilk to pancake or waffle mix.

  • Blend vanilla soymilk with frozen bananas and strawberries to make a frosty shake.

Tofu is a delicate soybean curd made by curdling fresh hot soymilk with a coagulant. It is available as a firm or soft product and also as silken tofu, a creamy, custard-like product.

  • Marinate chunks of firm tofu in barbecue sauce and grill over hot coals or in your oven's broiler.

  • Mash firm tofu with cottage cheese and herbs to make a savory sandwich spread.

  • Create homemade tofu burgers by mixing mashed tofu with bread crumbs, chopped onions, and favorite seasonings. Form into patties and sauté in oil.

  • Add taco seasoning to is soy bad for you estrogen firm tofu, sauté with onions and serve in a taco shell with chopped tomatoes and lettuce.

  • Purée soft tofu in a food processor and season with fresh lemon juice, parsley and salt for a cholesterolfree topping for baked potatoes.

  • Blend 10 ounces of soft tofu with 2 cups of melted chocolate or carob chips, pour into a graham cracker pie crust and chill.

  • Purée silken tofu with cooked spinach. Add to sautéed onions with vegetable broth and seasonings for a fast cream of spinach soup.

Tempeh is a chunky, tender cake of soybeans that is traditional to the cuisine of Indonesia.

  • Crumble and pan fry tempeh and add to your favorite chili recipe.

  • Marinate chunks of tempeh in olive oil and fresh lemon juice and grill or broil; serve on French rolls.

  • Marinate tempeh in soy sauce and add to soups and stews.

Textured Soy Protein is also called textured vegetable protein or TVP. Pour 7-8 cups boiling water over 1 cup dried TVP to produce a replacement for ground beef in many recipes.

  • Add rehydrated TVP to spaghetti sauce, chili, tacos, or sloppy joes.

  • Make homemade veggie burgers by combining TVP with cooked beans, chopped onions and celery and favorite herbs. Add f tour, oatmeal, or bread crumbs if necessary to help hold the burgers together, then form into patties and fry.

Whole soybeans can be used in soups and stews. Soak the uncooked beans for eight hours (or overnight). Then simmer for two hours or until tender. Add the cooked beans to a barbecue-flavored tomato sauce and serve over rice.

Whole roasted soynuts are a crunchy topping for salads.

Conclusion: Estrogen or Soyfoods?

From a public health viewpoint, hormone replacement therapy has been a failure because most women do not use it long enough to reap the most important clinical benefits. The acute side effects and concerns about breast cancer make long-term use of estrogen therapy a subject of debate. Are soyfoods a suitable alternative? We don't have the answer to that question yet, but the evidence suggests that they might offer some of the same benefits as estrogen. More evidence is needed before we know for certain. However, soyfoods are certainly an important addition to the diets of women who decide against hormone replacement therapy.

How much soy should you eat? It's not easy to establish a specific recommendation. It appears that it takes at least 25 grams per day of soy protein to lower cholesterol-this translates to two to three servings of traditional soyfoods a day. For cancer, osteoporosis, and hot flashes, studies have used doses of between 45 and 90 mg of soy isoflavones, which also translates to about two to three servings of soyfoods per day. For comparison, people in Japan typically consume about 30 mg of isoflavones per day. Good sources of isoflàvones include whole soybeans, textured vegetable protein, soy flour, soy protein isolate, tempeh and miso. The isoflavone content of soymilk varies quite a bit but many brands are reasonably good sources. Soy sauce and soy oil are devoid of isoflavones, however.

References

  1. Experimental Gerontology 29:307, 1994.
  2. Obstet Gynecol 91; 6, 1998
  3. Second International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease, Brussels, Belgium, 1996, page 40.
  4. Calcified Tissue International 61; S5, 1997
  5. J Nutr 126;161, 1996
  6. Second International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease, Brussels, Belgium, 1996, page 21.
  7. Second International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease, Brussels, Belgium, 1996, page 44.
  8. N Engl J Med 333:276, 1995
  9. Arteriosder Throm Vasc Biol 17; 3392, 1997

I contenuti www mypremiercreditcard com balance questa pagina web non hanno lo scopo di fornire consigli medici individuali. Tutte le prescrizioni mediche vanno richieste direttamente a professionisti qualificati.

Источник: https://www.scienzavegetariana.it/nutrizione/vnhl/LLsoy.html

Walk the grocery stores aisles these days and you can’t go too many steps before coming across a food with soy as a main ingredient. Yet, despite such popularity – and in part because of it – soy remains an important and somewhat controversial health topic, particularly when it comes to breast cancer.

Many women are still looking for answers to key questions about soy’s potential risks and benefits: Does eating soy increase my risk of breast cancer? Does it lower my risk? What if I’m a survivor?  Ongoingresearch has helped to answer some of these questions.

What is soy?

Soy is a plant that originated in Asia and is now grown in many places around the globe. The plant’s beans (the soybeans) can be eaten on their own (like edamame) or used to make soy foods (like tofu, miso, tempeh, soy milk and soy sauce). Soy flour and protein are also added to many prepared foods, from breads to breakfast cereals to energy bars.

Soy contains high amounts of isoflavones. Isoflavones belong to a group of substances called phytoestrogens (plant estrogens). As the name implies, they can have certain qualities similar to the hormone estrogen. Because estrogen can play a key role in breast cancer development and survival, there have been many questions about the risks and benefits of diets high in soy. Lab studies of cells have shown that isoflavones can sometimes act like estrogen and promote tumor growth, and at other times act against the effects of estrogen.1-2

Does soy increase the risk of breast cancer?

If there’s one solid conclusion from all the data on soy and breast cancer, it’s that eating moderate amounts of soy foods very likely does not increase the risk of breast cancer. The majority of high-quality studies and analyses have found that soy foods do not increase risk, even when eaten at levels much higher than those typically seen in the U.S.3-4  

Does soy lower the risk of breast cancer?

Although there are not enough data to know whether soy may help protect against breast cancer, many studies suggest that it does.3-4 However, it seems the benefit only comes with a pattern of intake that is seen in most Asian countries, where women begin eating soy early life and eat it in amounts many times greater than typically seen in the U.S.4 In Japan, for example, soy intake ranges from 25 mg to around 50 mg per day. In the U.S., intake ranges from less than 1 mg to 3 mg per day.5

Results from an analysis that combined findings from multiple studies in Asian populations found that women who ate high amounts of soy had a 25 percent lower risk of breast cancer compared to those who ate lower amounts.6 When the same analyses were done in studies of U.S. and other Western populations, there was no link between soy and breast cancer risk.6

As a survivor, is soy safe?

Though the estrogen-like properties of soy seem like they could increase the risk of breast cancer recurrence or mortality (death), current studies suggest that eating moderate amounts of soy foods is safe for breast cancer survivors.7-9

As a survivor, does soy improve survival and lower the chances of recurrence?

Current evidence suggests that a diet high in soy may improve survival and lower the risk of recurrence in women with breast cancer.7-9 The benefits don’t appear limited fnb personal loan calculator south africa Asian populations either.

One analysis combined data from three large, long-running studies of survivors from both Asian and Western countries. It found that women who ate at least 10 mg of soy per day after a breast cancer diagnosis had a 25 percent lower risk of recurrence compared to those eating less than 4 mg per day.9  

However, soy is not currently recommended as a way for breast cancer survivors to lower the risk of recurrence. There are still some open questions about these findings because the studies were looking at many different types of soy, and because women who regularly eat soy simply tend to be healthier than those who don’t.9  

What about soy supplements?

Most studies looking at soy and breast health have focused on soy foods rather than soy supplements.10

In the lab, researchers can what is the routing number for first interstate bank soy proteins into individual compounds, called isolates. Individual isolates do not occur in nature. This is similar to say, vitamin A. While many natural things contain vitamin A, pure vitamin A (alone) does not appear in nature. Isolates, like pure vitamin A, can only be created in a lab. Because soy supplements are created in a lab, they can contain individual soy protein isolates.

Some lab studies of cells have shown that soy protein isolates may increase cancer growth.2 So, soy supplements are not currently recommended.

What about soy and hot flashes?

Overall, studies have not shown that soy foods or soy supplements help with hot flashes.11  

Should soy be part of an overall healthy diet?

Though soy’s breast health benefits are still unclear, moderate amounts of soy are likely safe to eat and can be part of an overall healthy diet.

Soybeans are high in fiber, healthy oils and protein. Cutting back on animal products by moving toward a more plant-based bank of eastman magnolia state bank that is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grain and legumes (like black beans, peanuts and soybeans) has overall health benefits and can also help with weight control – a key factor in breast cancer risk.

Soy supplements, however, are not recommended.

Summary

There’s been a lot of study on a possible link between soy and breast cancer. Current research suggests that eating soy at higher levels typically seen in Asian countries may lower the risk of breast cancer. Eating moderate levels of soy may also lower the risk of recurrence and mortality in breast cancer survivors, but more studies are needed to confirm these findings.

In moderation, soy can be part of an overall healthy diet that focuses on more plant-based foods and less red meat.

What is Komen doing?

According to Komen Scholar, Carol Fabian, M.D., Professor, Department of Internal Medicine at the University of Kansas Medical Center, “After more than three decades of asking questions about the role of soy in breast cancer risk and recurrence we still do not have the answers. Thus Komen’s role in funding research on soy and other weak estrogen-like substances in plants is very important. It is possible that the soy may help prevent breast cancer if soy ingestion is started at a young age, but the primary concern has been in postmenopausal winchester cooperative bank winchester ma cancer survivors and the potential for soy to have an estrogen like action on the cancer cells if any remain. Although research is ongoing, there is little evidence to suggest that there is danger in consuming moderate amounts of soy in food even for survivors. However, until more is known it is probably best to avoid soy is soy bad for you estrogen after a breast cancer diagnosis.”

Komen has invested more than $3.3 million in research investigating the effects of soy, and its components, on various aspects of breast cancer. Studies include:

  • Determining how soy effects breast cancer risk, including studies on high soy or soy-supplemented diets.
  • Testing whether soy, or its active components can protect against genetic damage and prevent the development of breast cancer.
  • Testing whether soy can enhance the effectiveness of breast cancer treatments or prevent drug resistance.

Learn more about breast cancer research Komen is funding.

Komen resources

Soy and Breast Cancer Risk – Factors Under Study
ww5.komen.org/BreastCancer/FactorsUnderStudy.html#soy

Soy and Breast Cancer Risk – Summary Table of Study Findings
ww5.komen.org/BreastCancer/Table19Soyintakeandbreastcancerrisk.html

References

  1. Limer JL, Speirs V. Phyto-oestrogens and breast cancer chemoprevention. Breast Cancer Res. 6:119–127, 2004.
  2. Duffy C, Perez K, Partridge A. Implications of phytoestrogen intake for breast cancer. CA Cancer J Clin. 57(5):260-77, 2007.
  3. Trock BJ, Hilakivi-Clarke L, Clarke R. Meta-analysis of soy intake and breast cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 98(7):459-71, 2006.
  4. Wu AH, Yu MC, Tseng CC, Pike MC. Epidemiology of soy exposures and breast cancer risk. Br J Cancer. 98(1):9-14, 2008.
  5. Nagata C. Factors to consider in the association between soy isoflavone intake and breast cancer risk. J Epidemiol. 20(2): p. 83-9, 2010.
  6. Dong JY, Qin LQ. Soy isoflavones consumption and risk of breast cancer incidence or recurrence: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 125(2): p. 315-23, 2011.
  7. Wu AH, Lee E, Vigen C. Soy isoflavones and breast cancer. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 102-6, 2013.
  8. Shu XO, Zheng Y, Cai H, et al. Soy food intake and breast cancer survival. JAMA. 302(22):2437-43, 2009.
  9. Nechuta SJ, Caan BJ, Chen WY, et al. Soy food intake after diagnosis of breast cancer and survival: an in-depth analysis of combined evidence from cohort studies of US and Chinese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 96(1):123-32, 2012.
  10. Cassileth BR, Yarett I. Soy Phytoestrogens and breast cancer: An enduring dilemma. The ASCO POST. 3(11), 2012.
  11. Lethaby A, Marjoribanks J, Kronenberg F, Roberts H, Eden J, Brown J. Phytoestrogens for menopausal vasomotor symptoms. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 12:CD001395, 2013.
Источник: https://blog.komen.org/blog/komen-perspectives-answering-questions-about-soy-and-breast-cancer/

Is soy bad for you estrogen -

Soyfoods: an alternative to hormone replacement therapy (HRT)?

by Mark Messina, PhD


Extract from Vegetarian Nutrition & Health Letter Vol.1 n.5, published by Loma Linda University (Traduzione in Italiano).

Dr. Mark Messina has organized and chaired two international symposia on soy and disease prevention. He is the co-author of The Simple Soybean and Your Health and is a senior editor of Vegetarian Nutrition and Health Letter.

Most women agree: The decision about whether to use hormone replacement therapy is not an easy one, despite research showing clear advantages to doing so. Women who take estrogen after menopause have a lower risk of heart disease and are less likely to fracture bones. Estrogen can also help to minimize the discomfort of the "hot flashes" that some women experience during menopause. But because estrogen therapy has acute side effects and may also raise the risk for breast cancer, many women are wondering if the risk is worth the benefits. So it is not surprising that there is much interest among both consumers and researchers in finding alternative therapies with estrogen-like benefits. That search has led many researchers to a food that has long been a mainstay in the diets of vegetarians: the soybean.

Soybeans and Phytoestrogens

Soybeans are rich in plant estrogens and are one of the few food sources of a particular type of plant estrogen called isoflavones. These are compounds with a structure that is similar to estradiol, the main estrogen produced by a woman's ovaries. However, isoflavones are weak estrogens and are anywhere from one ten-thousandth to one onethousandth as potent as estradiol. Despite their lower potency they are likely to produce physiological effects because blood levels of isoflavones are so high in women (and men) who eat soyfoods. Drinking just two cups of soymilk or eating one cup of tofu produces blood levels of isoflavones that can be 500 to 1,000 times higher than typical estrogen levels in women.

Soybean isoflavones also possess some attributes that are separate from their estrogenic activity. For example, they inhibit the activity of enzymes that control cell growth and regulation. And one of the soybean isoflavones is believed to inhibit the growth of blood vessels that support tumor growth. Finally, isoflavones act as antioxidants. For these reasons and others, isoflavones may play a role in reducing the risk of certain cancers.

Initially, interest focused on the weakestrogenic potential of isoflavones, particularly as it relates to breast cancer. Some researchers suggested that weak estrogens like isoflavones actually function as anti-estrogens; that is, they inhibit effects of estrogen. Since estrogen raises the risk for breast cancer, it has been hypothesized that isoflavones may lower risk and that soyfood consumption contributes to the lower breast cancer mortality rates in Asian countries where soyfood consumption is high. Although the evidence that this is true is conflicting, there is some very encouraging research suggesting that soy isoflavones reduce risk for prostate cancer.

Are Soybeans the New Hormone Replacement Therapy?

As women go through menopause, the ovaries stop producing estrogen. This has several effects, some immediate and some long term. Changes in estrogen levels produce changes in temperature regulation that can result in the "hot flashes" and "night sweats" that many women experience. Also, decreases in blood estrogen levels can result in significant bone loss. Estrogen also protects against heart disease and is believed to be a major reason that young women rarely have heart attacks. Research points to possible roles for soy isoflavones in all of these areas.

Hot Flashes and Night Sweats: Japanese women are about two-thirds less likely than North American women to report that they have hot flashes [1]. One reason might be that they eat more soyfoods. So far, though, the results of studies are mixed. In one study, women who consumed soy experienced a 45% decrease in hot flashes, whereas the study group that didn't get soy had a 30% decrease in hot flashes [2]. That is, women who believed that they were consuming soy were likely to have fewer hot flashes. This suggests that soy is effective and also that there was a strong placebo effect.

Another study found that consuming soy didn't affect the number of hot flashes but the hot flashes were less severe [3]. Overall, results suggest that the effect of soy on hot flashes is modest. Since effects probably vary among individuals, it makes sense for menopausal women to try soyfoods.

Osteoporosis: Women can lose as much as 15 percent of their bone mass in the years surrounding menopause, an effect that is directly attributed to loss of estrogen. Hormone replacement therapy reduces the risk of bone fractures. Also, an experimental drug that has been used successfully for years to treat osteoporosis is remarkably similar to soybean isoflavones [4]. So it isn't surprising that isoflavones are being studied for their enhancing effects on bone density. Results from animal studies are largely favorable [5]. Although there hasn't been much research yet in humans, two preliminary studies indicate that soy isoflavones benefit bone health in postmenopausal women [6, 7]. An additional benefit is that many soy products including calcium-set tofu, calcium-fortified soymilk, tempeh, and textured vegetable protein, are rich in calcium.

Heart Disease: More than 30 years of research has shown that soy protein reduces blood cholesterol levels in people who have elevated cholesterol levels, but it isn't clear whether this effect is due to the protein alone or to protein plus isoflavones [8]. Hormone replacement therapy also reduces blood cholesterol levels, and it has other beneficial effects on heart disease risk as well. Similarly, recent research suggests that isoflavones may reduce heart disease risk in a number of different ways. For example, in an Australian study, isoflavone consumption improved artery elasticity in postmenopausal women, an effect also seen with estrogen therapy [9]. This increased elasticity reduces risk for heart disease.

Eating More Soyfoods is Easy and Delicious

Because the soybean is such an amazingly versatile food, there are countless possibilities for adding more soy to your diet. This makes eating more soyfoods one of the easier healthpromoting changes you can make. Research suggests that adding two servings of soyfoods to your daily menu might help to reduce risk for osteoporosis and heart disease and perhaps can help to case some of the side effects of menopause. One serving is equal to one-hall cup cooked soybeans, tofu, tempeh, or rehydrated TVPtm, one-fourth cup roasted soynuts, or one cup soymilk.

Here are some easy ways to incorporate more soyfoods into your diet.:

Soymilk is the liquid expressed from whole soaked soybeans. It can be used to replace cow's milk as a beverage or in most recipes. Soymilk is available unflavored or flavored with chocolate, vanilla, or carob. Look for brands that are fortified with calcium and vitamin D.

  • Pour soymilk over hot or cold breakfast cereal.

  • Add soymilk to pancake or waffle mix.

  • Blend vanilla soymilk with frozen bananas and strawberries to make a frosty shake.

Tofu is a delicate soybean curd made by curdling fresh hot soymilk with a coagulant. It is available as a firm or soft product and also as silken tofu, a creamy, custard-like product.

  • Marinate chunks of firm tofu in barbecue sauce and grill over hot coals or in your oven's broiler.

  • Mash firm tofu with cottage cheese and herbs to make a savory sandwich spread.

  • Create homemade tofu burgers by mixing mashed tofu with bread crumbs, chopped onions, and favorite seasonings. Form into patties and sauté in oil.

  • Add taco seasoning to crumbled firm tofu, sauté with onions and serve in a taco shell with chopped tomatoes and lettuce.

  • Purée soft tofu in a food processor and season with fresh lemon juice, parsley and salt for a cholesterolfree topping for baked potatoes.

  • Blend 10 ounces of soft tofu with 2 cups of melted chocolate or carob chips, pour into a graham cracker pie crust and chill.

  • Purée silken tofu with cooked spinach. Add to sautéed onions with vegetable broth and seasonings for a fast cream of spinach soup.

Tempeh is a chunky, tender cake of soybeans that is traditional to the cuisine of Indonesia.

  • Crumble and pan fry tempeh and add to your favorite chili recipe.

  • Marinate chunks of tempeh in olive oil and fresh lemon juice and grill or broil; serve on French rolls.

  • Marinate tempeh in soy sauce and add to soups and stews.

Textured Soy Protein is also called textured vegetable protein or TVP. Pour 7-8 cups boiling water over 1 cup dried TVP to produce a replacement for ground beef in many recipes.

  • Add rehydrated TVP to spaghetti sauce, chili, tacos, or sloppy joes.

  • Make homemade veggie burgers by combining TVP with cooked beans, chopped onions and celery and favorite herbs. Add f tour, oatmeal, or bread crumbs if necessary to help hold the burgers together, then form into patties and fry.

Whole soybeans can be used in soups and stews. Soak the uncooked beans for eight hours (or overnight). Then simmer for two hours or until tender. Add the cooked beans to a barbecue-flavored tomato sauce and serve over rice.

Whole roasted soynuts are a crunchy topping for salads.

Conclusion: Estrogen or Soyfoods?

From a public health viewpoint, hormone replacement therapy has been a failure because most women do not use it long enough to reap the most important clinical benefits. The acute side effects and concerns about breast cancer make long-term use of estrogen therapy a subject of debate. Are soyfoods a suitable alternative? We don't have the answer to that question yet, but the evidence suggests that they might offer some of the same benefits as estrogen. More evidence is needed before we know for certain. However, soyfoods are certainly an important addition to the diets of women who decide against hormone replacement therapy.

How much soy should you eat? It's not easy to establish a specific recommendation. It appears that it takes at least 25 grams per day of soy protein to lower cholesterol-this translates to two to three servings of traditional soyfoods a day. For cancer, osteoporosis, and hot flashes, studies have used doses of between 45 and 90 mg of soy isoflavones, which also translates to about two to three servings of soyfoods per day. For comparison, people in Japan typically consume about 30 mg of isoflavones per day. Good sources of isoflàvones include whole soybeans, textured vegetable protein, soy flour, soy protein isolate, tempeh and miso. The isoflavone content of soymilk varies quite a bit but many brands are reasonably good sources. Soy sauce and soy oil are devoid of isoflavones, however.

References

  1. Experimental Gerontology 29:307, 1994.
  2. Obstet Gynecol 91; 6, 1998
  3. Second International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease, Brussels, Belgium, 1996, page 40.
  4. Calcified Tissue International 61; S5, 1997
  5. J Nutr 126;161, 1996
  6. Second International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease, Brussels, Belgium, 1996, page 21.
  7. Second International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease, Brussels, Belgium, 1996, page 44.
  8. N Engl J Med 333:276, 1995
  9. Arteriosder Throm Vasc Biol 17; 3392, 1997

I contenuti di questa pagina web non hanno lo scopo di fornire consigli medici individuali. Tutte le prescrizioni mediche vanno richieste direttamente a professionisti qualificati.

Источник: https://www.scienzavegetariana.it/nutrizione/vnhl/LLsoy.html

We’re currently celebrating Men’s Health Week from June 14 to 20. It’s an important initiative that shines the spotlight on men’s health issues and encourages men to take charge of their health and well-being. It’s clear that men face different health issues than women, and we also have different needs. 

Soy foods continue to polarize opinions. They are subject to numerous wild claims, many of which are unsubstantiated. So let’s settle this age-old debate once and for all, because soy foods are pretty super in all their glorious and delicious forms—especially for men. 

Soybeans are members of the legume family—their cousins include lentils, peas, and peanuts. Nutritionally speaking, soybeans are nutritional powerhouses. They are a rich source of high-quality protein and fiber, and they are low in total and saturated fat and cholesterol. Several micronutrients are also present in soybeans, including magnesium, potassium, and folate, which is essential for DNA repair. 

Soybeans are a source of hormone-like substances called isoflavones, a type of phytoestrogen that mimics the action of estrogen. This feature is why they sometimes (unfairly) get a bad rap.  

Soy foods are a staple in Asian diets, and vegans and vegetarians are encouraged to include soy foods in their diets. But omnivores should also embrace a range of soy foods, including soy milk, tofu, tempeh, and soybeans (aka edamame) in their diets. 

So let’s discuss why men, in particular, should be eating more soy foods, and address some of the common misconceptions associated with soy. 

Heart health

Research shows that soy protein can help to reduce LDL cholesterol—the nasty type that can clog your arteries. Several studies have shown that consuming 25 grams of soy protein a day for six weeks helps to lower LDL cholesterol by 3 to 4 percent. 

The exact mechanism for this effect is still unknown. However, it’s hypothesized that there is a synergistic effect between soy protein and the isoflavones present in soy foods. Soy isoflavones have been shown to have a strong antioxidant effect. What’s more, scientists have also revealed that they can improve the elasticity of blood vessels and reduce inflammation. Moove over cow’s milk; soy milk may be a nifty present for your heart. 

Male hormones

Low libido and muscle mass, mood changes, reduced energy levels, and poor bone health are all associated with low testosterone levels. The notion that the phytoestrogens in soy disrupt testosterone production and reduce its efficacy in the body might seem plausible on the surface. However, this theory has been debunked and refuted by this meta-analysis (a large study of all the studies in this area). There is, in fact, no robust evidence that soy causes elevated estrogen levels in males or indeed, has any significant effect on hormone levels. 

Muscle mass

Soy foods are a great source of plant protein. Men continue to rely heavily on animal foods to meet their protein requirements, but being more plant-focused has definite advantages. Reducing our meat intake can reduce our disease risk profile without impacting our protein intake. Including a serving of tofu and tempeh in place of meat will not jeopardize your gym gains. 

Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men. It accounts for 15 percent of all cancers in men worldwide. The incidence of prostate cancer is lower in Asian populations where soy foods are widely and regularly consumed. An extensive analysis of the research in this area concluded that there is a significant association between soy consumption and lower prostate cancer risk.  

So don’t listen to the naysayers who say that soy is not a good food for you. The evidence well and truly indicates that soy foods are ‘soy’ good for us. You can confidently add tofu or tempeh to a stir fry, include soy milk in your morning latte, and garnish your salad with edamame beans. Your insides will thank you for it.

This information is for educational purposes only and is not intended as a substitute for medical diagnosis or treatment. You should not use this information to diagnose or treat a health problem or condition. Always check with your doctor before changing your diet, altering your sleep habits, taking supplements, or starting a new fitness routine.

Joel Feren

joelferen

Joel Feren, The Nutrition Guy, is an Australian-based Accredited Practicing Dietitian and Accredited Nutritionist with a background in biomedical science. He specializes in men's health and is a media spokesperson for Dietitians Australia.

Источник: https://blog.fitbit.com/soy-for-men/

The Truth About Soy

edamame


Eat soy. Don't eat soy. Soy is healthy. Soy is dangerous and should be avoided at all costs.

Soybeans and most soy foods (like tofu, tempeh and soy milk) are high in protein and isoflavones and low in saturated fat. Soy has played a role as a dietary staple in Asia and dates back many centuries.

So, what's the problem with soy? Although there are many health claims about it—research supports that soy in your diet can lower cholesterol and may reduce your risk of heart disease—its consumption is not without controversy.

The basis of the controversy surrounding soy stems mainly from the phytoestrogens it contains. Otherwise known as isoflavones or isoflavanoids, these may be a concern for people with, or at high risk for, breast cancer. The fear is that because the structure of isoflavones is similar to estrogen—and estrogen can, in some people, promote breast cancer—the body might recognize these isoflavones as estrogen.

What makes this especially complicated is that some experts previously believed  that soy was protective against breast cancer. Asian women had much lower rates of breast cancer than American women. Because soy is widely consumed in Asian countries—Japanese women's intake of isoflavones is approximately 700 times that of U.S. Caucasians—there might be an association between high soy consumption and a reduced risk of breast cancer, researchers surmised.

But detractors say that this doesn't necessarily correlate to women in this country. Many Asian women eat soy daily starting very young; they also consume less fat and meat and eat more grains and vegetables than do American women. And, they're generally more physically active, with less body fat.

But there is this: A recent study that combined data from other studies found that women in Asian countries who ate the most soy isoflavones had a 24 percent lower risk of developing breast cancer.

Complicated, yes, so I went online to check out what the American Cancer Society has to say. Alas, its commentary backs up the confusion: "Research on soy and cancer is highly complex, controversial, and evolving."

Much of the cancer research, they say, has been performed on rodents. Rather than using soy foods, they used isolated soy compounds (like soy protein isolate) or high doses of isoflavones, which are compounds found in soy. Additionally, soy is metabolized differently in humans than in mice and rats.

The few studies that have been done in the United States to measure purified forms of soy used in the food supply, including in energy bars and soy hot dogs, do not suggest that the soy is harmful, according to the American Cancer Society. 

It's important to note that although isoflavones may act like estrogen, they also contain anti-estrogen properties, meaning they can block natural estrogens in the body from binding to an estrogen receptor (like a breast or uterus). Aside from this, isoflavones have both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and can work in other ways to reduce cancer growth.

The American Cancer Society's final verdict:

"Until more is known, if you enjoy eating soy foods, the evidence indicates that this is safe, and may be beneficial (but note that miso, a fermented soy product, is high in sodium). It is prudent to avoid high doses of isolated soy compounds found specifically in supplements, as less is known about their health effects. As for other 'hidden' sources of soy proteins, the evidence to date does not suggest harm or benefit. However, if you are concerned about these products, you can choose to avoid them."  

All said, it is a good idea to go ahead and drink some soymilk, snack on some edamame and enjoy the occasional soy hot dog. But until further research is done, stay away from soy supplements.

Источник: https://www.healthywomen.org/content/article/truth-about-soy

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"Soy formula contains high concentrations of plant-based estrogen-like compounds, and because this formula is the sole food source for many babies in the first six months of life, it's important to understand the effects of exposure to such compounds during a critical period in development," said Virginia A. Stallings, MD, director of the Nutrition Center at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP). Stallings is a senior author of a new study published online March 1 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.

The study was funded and led by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), part of the National Institutes of Health. The first author is Margaret A. Adgent, MSPH, PhD, formerly of NIEHS, now at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Adgent said, "Modern soy formula has been used safely for decades. However, our observational study found subtle effects in estrogen-responsive tissues in soy-fed infants, and we don't know if these differences are associated with long-term health effects."

Some mothers who don't breastfeed have long used soy formula as an alternative to cow-milk formula, often from concerns about milk allergies, lactose intolerance, or other feeding difficulties. However, soy protein contains high amounts of genistein, an estrogen-like compound. Like other estrogen-mimicking chemicals found in the environment, genistein can alter the body's endocrine system and potentially interfere with normal hormonal development. In laboratory studies genistein causes abnormal reproductive development and function in rodents, but little is known about its effects on infants.

The current study investigated the postnatal development of estrogen-responsive tissues, along with specific hormone levels, according to infant feeding practices. The researchers particularly compared infants fed with soy formula to those fed with cow-milk formula and breastfed infants.

Of 410 infant-mother pairs enrolled, 283 pairs completed the study. Of those, 102 infants exclusively fed on soy formula, 111 on cow-milk formula, and 70 on breast milk. "This was an observational study, not a randomized trial," said Stallings. "All of the mothers had decided on their feeding preferences before we enrolled them in the study."

Approximately half of the babies were girls, and 70 percent of the infants were African American. They were born in eight Philadelphia-area hospitals between 2010 and 2013, and enrolled in the Infant Feeding and Early Development (IFED) Study.

All of the infants were evaluated at CHOP, where researchers repeatedly performed measurements up to age 28 weeks in the boys and age 36 weeks in the girls. The study team assessed three sets of outcomes: a maturational index (MI) based on epithelial cells from the children's urogenital tissue; ultrasound measurements of uterine, ovarian and testicular volume, as well as breast-buds; and hormone concentrations seen in blood tests.

"The main differences we found related to different feeding preferences were among the girls," said Stallings. Compared to girls fed cow-milk formula, those fed soy formula had developmental trajectories consistent with responses to estrogen exposure. Vaginal cell MI was higher and uterine volume decreased more slowly in soy-fed girls, both of which suggest estrogen-like responses. The study team found similar patterns in differences between soy-fed girls and breastfed girls.

"We don't know whether the effects we found have long-term consequences for health and development, but the question merits further study," said Stallings. In addition to replication studies by other researchers, she added that ideally the children in this cohort should be followed later into childhood and adolescence.

She added, "For new and expectant mothers deciding on how to feed their infants, as always, we strongly support breast-feeding, as recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics." For mothers who prefer giving formula, the AAP does not recommend soy formula for preterm infants, but states that soy formula is indicated for infants with hereditary disorders that make them unable to properly digest milk, such as galactosemia and the rare condition hereditary lactase deficiency. It also recommends soy formula "in situations in which a vegetarian diet is preferred."

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Story Source:

Materials provided by Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Margaret A Adgent, David M Umbach, Babette S Zemel, Andrea Kelly, Joan I Schall, Eileen G Ford, Kerry James, Kassa Darge, Julianne C Botelho, Hubert W Vesper, Donald Walt Chandler, Jon M Nakamoto, Walter J Rogan, Virginia A Stallings. A longitudinal study of estrogen-responsive tissues and hormone concentrations in infants fed soy formula. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2018; DOI: 10.1210/jc.2017-02249

Cite This Page:

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. "Babies fed soy-based formula have changes in reproductive system tissues: CHOP co-author of NIH-led study: Subtle estrogen-like responses in infants point to need for longer-term follow-up of effects." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 12 March 2018. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180312150509.htm>.

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. (2018, March 12). Babies fed soy-based formula have changes in reproductive system tissues: CHOP co-author of NIH-led study: Subtle estrogen-like responses in infants point to need for longer-term follow-up of effects. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 24, 2021 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180312150509.htm

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. "Babies fed soy-based formula have changes in reproductive system tissues: CHOP co-author of NIH-led study: Subtle estrogen-like responses in infants point to need for longer-term follow-up of effects." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180312150509.htm (accessed November 24, 2021).


Источник: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180312150509.htm

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Soy has been a dietary staple in Asia for many centuries. Some studies have found that it may offer some cardiovascular benefits, though the evidence at this point is more suggestive than conclusive.

As far as any downside, most of the health concerns about soy stem from its concentration of phytoestrogens, a group of natural compounds that resemble estrogen chemically. Some experts have questioned whether soy might lower testosterone levels in men and cause problems for women who have estrogen-sensitive breast cancers. Animal studies have found, for example, that large doses of phytoestrogens can fuel the growth of tumors.

But phytoestrogens mimic estrogen only very weakly. A number of clinical studies in men have cast doubt on the notion that eating soy influences testosterone levels to any noticeable extent. And most large studies of soy intake and breast cancer rates in women have not found that it causes any harm, said Dr. Anna H. Wu of the Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California. In fact, work by Dr. Wu and others has found that women who consume the equivalent of about one to two servings of soy daily have a reduced risk of receiving a diagnosis of breast cancer and of its recurrence.

Still, some women who have developed breast cancer remain particularly worried about eating soy. But the evidence “is overwhelming that it’s safe,” said Dr. Bette Caan of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Division of Research, who has studied soy intake and breast cancer. “If people enjoy soy as a regular part of their diet,” she said, “there’s no reason to stop.”

Last year, in its nutrition guidelines for cancer survivors, the American Cancer Society noted that eating traditional soy foods — like tofu, miso, tempeh and soy milk — may help lower the risk of breast, prostate and other cancers. But the guidelines do not recommend soy supplements, which tend to be highly processed and not very rigorously tested.

Источник: https://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/09/27/ask-well-is-it-safe-to-eat-soy/
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