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Similes in ode to the west wind


similes in ode to the west wind

The primary obstacle to comprehension is the proliferation of similes and metaphors that accompany one another with astonishing rapidity. Saint Lucia, the island in the West Indies where the Nobel Prize-winning poet was born and raised, passed from French to British rule and back. The wind refutes Shelley's “Ode to the West Wind” by disclaiming its messages: A simile compares one thing to another without changing either of the.
similes in ode to the west wind

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Ode to the West Wind

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What characteristics of the poem “Ode to the West Wind” are most typical of a Romantic ode?

Percy Shelley: Poems

It has a rhyme scheme that is both unique and complex.
It deals with an element of nature, as well as the poet’s private reflections.
It personifies the west wind, an element of nature.
It contains apostrophe and complex similes and metaphors.

Answers 4
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Answered by Aslan

It deals with an element of nature, as well as the poet’s private reflections.

Answered by Foyez A #1104495

I don't know

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Highlight the characteristics of Ode to the West Wind according to the Romantic Age?

Answered by Foyez A #1104495

Highlight the characteristics of Ode to the West Wind according to the Romantic Age?

Source(s)

Highlight the characteristics of Ode to the West Wind according to the Romantic Age?

Answered by Foyez A #1104495

I just want to know

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No


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Wind by ted hughes theme

Wind by ted hughes theme


wind by ted hughes theme The Jaguar), Wind is all about nature and the struggle of man with it. 72 terms. This house has been far out at sea all night,The woods crashing through darkness, the bo The poem “wind” by Ted Hughes is a free verse following a quatrain pattern. The poem Wind by Ted Hughes invokes in the reader’s mind a sense of fear because of disasters done by nature. Jan 11, 2017 · The best poems by Ted Hughes selected by Dr Oliver Tearle Ted Hughes (1930-98) remains one of the most divisive English poets of the second half of the twentieth century, and not just because of the controversy surrounding his marriage to Sylvia Plath. This, then, was the first glimpse of Sylvia’s Poetic Self: the first hint of her Ariel voice. The Ted Hughes’s poem “The Jaguar” is about animals Nov 30, 2021 · One of Ted Hughes’ major beliefs was the prevalence of animals to man because of their incapability to understand death and subsequently not being afraid to die. Figurative Language ~Similes -Flexing like the lens of a mad eye. Through the use of concealed metaphor, combined with free but flowing verse, Hughes expresses the overwhelming effect the wind, at its darkest, has on humans. Floundering black astride and blinding wet. Share 0 Feb 17, 2018 · A poem by Ted Hughes. Even in the shelter of his house the poet and Ted Hughes and Wind. Thus, the analysis of the study will enhance the Nov 30, 2021 · One of Ted Hughes’ major beliefs was the prevalence of animals to man because of their incapability to understand death and subsequently not being afraid to die. In ‘The Wind’ Ted Hughes is describing a storm, through the The poem “Wind”, written by Ted Hughes in 1962, is a representation of wind as the strongest force of nature. The poem is situated away from the cities, presumably in the countryside or in a very isolated place Introduction. They are free from inhibitions, and are targeted on life and incorruptible, thus acting as agents for the immoralities and impurities of mankind. Wind Ted Hughes Objective: Explore imagery in Wind and write detailed explanations images in the poem. There is a host of imagery in Hughes’ poem associating wind with strength and violence, for The study attempts to examine and analyze Ted Hughes' style in his poem the wind. " Hughes pictures the natural world as awesome, but also Wind by Ted Hughes This house has been far out at sea all night, The woods crashing through darkness, the booming hills, Winds stampeding the fields under the window Floundering black astride and blinding wet Till day rose; then under an orange sky The hills had new places, and wind wielded Blade-light, luminous black and emerald, Jun 02, 2012 · ‘Wind’ is one of Ted Hughes’ most formidable poems, showing an entirely different aspect to this element. . The discussion and results of the study present how Ted Hughes' language is used in a way to reflect the savagery of the natural element, wind, by the patterns of cohesion and foregrounding in the poem. I have experienced some gales in that house, and here is a poem I once wrote about one of them. Hughes uses effective personification, similes, metaphors, alliteration and some creative imagery to create an atmosphere of danger; then as the poem progresses, to create an The poem is about the natural element, wind, which is described in an unconventional manner. The mother Lay on the mudded slope. The poem is about the natural element, wind, which is described in an unconventional manner. The Nov 08, 2021 · A comparison of Ted Hughes’ Wind and Shelley’s Ode to the West Wind. com The British poet Ted Hughes published "Wind" in his 1957 collection The Hawk in the Rain. Hughes’s opening line is sculpted in such a way that it gives the reader an abundance of sensations. Macbeth Act 1. Blade-light, luminous black and emerald, Oct 31, 2020 · 123 writers online. The fields quivering, the skyline a grimace, At any second to bang and vanish with a flap: The wind flung a magpie away and a black-. That any second would shatter it. The Jaguar - Ted Hughes - Analysis. The woods crash through the darkness, the fields quiver, the sky grimaces, and "the Mar 29, 2015 · Wind - Ted Hughes Setting: A house and the surrounding landscape exposed to a violent storm Main Figure: The wind itself which represents the forces of nature Theme: Man’s helplessness as opposed to the power of nature Tone: Potent, Vigorous Structure: 'Wind' is written in six, four line stanzas characterised by enjambment. Mar 23, 2015 · Ted Hughes wrote his poem 'The Wind' in 1966, like many of his works it is a poem largely focussed on nature. Wind (Ted Hughes poem) study guide contains a biography of Ted Hughes, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis ; A summary of a miniature medieval classic. But whereas a very different poet like, say, Philip Larkin has attracted… Mar 19, 2018 · Summary of the poem moon wind by ted hughes. The Ted Hughes’s poem “The Jaguar” is about animals The poem we used was 'Wind' by Ted Hughes. Moon WindBy Ted Hughes Learning ObjectivesTo read and comprehend the text. Although perhaps he is a criticising human for forgetting how powerful nature can be. Back gull bent like an iron bar slowly. Share 0 Wind by Ted Hughes. Even in the shelter of his house the poet and Wind by Ted Hughes Theme The theme of this poem is Power. Recently, we studied a number of Ted Hughes poems in class and I have chosen “The Jaguar”. Improve vocabularyUnderstand the poem Attempt all the questionsTed Hughes (1930-199 Ted Hughes and Wind. In 'The Wind' Ted Hughes is describing a storm, through the In addition, Ted Hughes's imagery often challenges expectations by creating unexpected or contradictory images. In Stanza 1's image of "the woods crashing through darkness, the booming hills," Hughes speaks as if the woods and hills are acting, instead of being acted upon by the wind. Ice wind Out of a downpour dishclout sunrise. When you first showed us the collapsed version of the poem, me, my group and Anne had said it had something to do with camping because fire, luminous, blazing and darkness all add up to having a camp fire in the dark and it would also be luminous in the dark. So this is definitely a theme—probably the major theme—of "Wind. The study attempts to examine and analyze Ted Hughes' style in his poem the wind. Ted Hughes’ poem “Wind” is encompasses the experience of being in the middle of a natural disaster near the coast. Pathetic fallacy in the weather creates a tense, disturbing mood where the violence of the argument seems to destroy and alter the laws of nature. Harried, she got up And the blackish lump bobbed at her back-end Under her tail. schoolwork2016. Share with your friends. The wind has the power to subdue and terrify the hills, fields, birds, and sky. -A black back gull bent like an iron bar slowly. Nov 30, 2021 · One of Ted Hughes’ major beliefs was the prevalence of animals to man because of their incapability to understand death and subsequently not being afraid to die. Feb 27, 2015 · Ted Hughes give us a short introduction to his poem “Wind” poem in “Poetry in the making”. Wind Ted Hughes. Apr 26, 2017 · Through the brunt wind that dented the balls of my eyes. The metaphor of the house being “out at sea” projects the image Sep 07, 2021 · by Ted Hughes. g. A lamb could not get born. ”On and off I live on a house on top of a hill in the Pennines, where the wind blows without obstruction across the tops of the moors. The basic idea of the poem is a description of a storm by the narrator who is stuck in house during the fierce storm. The notion common to both Hughes’ and Shelley’s poems is that of the wind as a tremendous, uncontrollable force, and the need to reconnect humans with the natural world. Another theme in the poem is power. The tent of the hills drummed and strained its guyrope. After some hard galloping, Some manoeuvring, much flapping of the backward Lump head of the lamb looking out, I caught Ted’s choice of the word ‘daemon’ is exact 14: what was hidden behind the empty shell of words in Sylvia’s poem, and what Ted still saw when he wrote ‘Moonwalk’, was her ‘Indwelling Spirit’, her ‘genius’. The poem is written in first person, which emphasizes the idea of a personal experience and suggests that the speaker of the poem is Hughes. Aug 29, 2014 · Wind ofsted type lesson. The poet achieves amazing efficiency in the line “far out at sea all night” in that the reader is exposed to distance, time and environment. As it says in the poem, “The woods crashing through darkness, the booming hills, winds stampeding the fields under the window, floundering black astride and blinding wet,” (lines 2-4) the eye of the hurricane is about to come through. Wind (Ted Hughes poem) study guide contains a biography of Ted Hughes, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. The hills had new places, and wind wielded. The wind may be a metaphor for the power of creativity. Unlike many other poets such as John Clare (‘A Morning Breeze’), Hughes is not concerned with describing the beauty and serenity of a balmy breeze; his aim is solely to communicate the relentless, godly strength and power of the wind that he knows from stormy days on the moors of Jun 02, 2020 · 113. This poem could also be an extended metaphor referring to the stormy May 11, 2016 · Wind by Ted Hughes Analysis. It’s Shannon here and here is my response to ‘wind’ – Ted Hughes. This house has been far out at sea all night, The woods crashing through darkness, the booming hills, Winds stampeding the fields under the window. Like most of the other poems (e. The poem takes place in the natural world and it involves human beings. I highly doubt that this poem has anything to do with Hughes' relationship with Plath. By Hughes’ use of various techniques, he makes the poem easier for the reader A reading of the poem 'Wind' by British poet Ted Hughes (1930-1998). Our hearts and cannot entertain book, thought, Or each other. 11 terms. Briefly: the poem seems to be about stormy weather. There is a host of imagery in Hughes’ poem associating wind with strength and violence, for The poem “wind” by Ted Hughes is a free verse following a quatrain pattern. I will offer a summary of content and then go on to consider how Hughes uses language to create a vivid and perceptive depiction of the animal – Jaguar. In particular, this poem represents the violence in the natural world and leaves the reader feeling somewhat disturbed by its imagery and the meaning that it may imply. See full list on poemanalysis. jennieoweka3. It also has the power to animate these things. Rang like some fine green goblet in the note. 1. Attitude The wind is frightening, but the tone of the poem is one full of excitement, awe, and anticipation. Ted Hughes 's use of personification enhances the sense that all of nature is coming to life, or waking up, as a result of the wind. February 17th. Themes - Isolation - Entrapment - Lack of boundaries wind - ted hughes. Wind is a poem full of imagery, forceful language and movement. Wind is a masterful poem and Hughes is trying to capture in words the essence of this force of nature - the truth of a terrific windstorm in all its aspects, using words in such a way that the reader can feel, hear, see, and sense the phenomenon. ‘Wind’ by Ted Hughes makes the reader feel the character’s fear using various literary techniques throughout his poem. Jan 22, 2017 · Hi sir. The house. the study present how Ted Hughes' language is used in a way to reflect the savagery of the natural element, wind, by the patterns of cohesion and foregrounding in the poem. Later, we realise this is a metaphor for the poet's stormy relationship with his wife. Starter: • You will be shown the 3 images for a few seconds. It is a typical Ted Hughes poem in that it explores the idea of struggle with and within nature, the first person speaker directly connecting the reader with the monstrous power of the wind. The Power of Nature- the wind is irresistible and its impact seems to bring the landscape to life. Best summary PDF, themes, and quotes. In chairs, in front of the great fire, we grip. The poem is situated away from the cities, presumably in the countryside or in a very isolated place The wind flung a magpie away and a black-. Till day rose; then under an orange sky. Mar 29, 2014 · Ester Nataneli. Poetry Terms for English Ted Hughes poetry is not something easily read. The metaphor of the house being “out at sea” projects the image The poem 'Wind' by Ted Hughes is an extended metaphor for a ferocious argument he has with his wife. Jun 02, 2020 · 113. The poem “wind” by Ted Hughes is a free verse following a quatrain pattern. 2. Abstract. Track 26 on Ideas and Themes. It has a direct title which gives some idea of what the poem is going to talk about. ~Personifification -hearing the stones cry out under the May 11, 2016 · Wind by Ted Hughes Analysis. The poet in the poem talks about a deadly night that was stormed by strong and fierce winds and the helplessness Apr 26, 2017 · Through the brunt wind that dented the balls of my eyes. Now deep. Blade-light, luminous black and emerald, The poem 'Wind' by Ted Hughes is an extended metaphor for a ferocious argument he has with his wife. In ‘The Wind’ Ted Hughes is describing a storm, through the Jan 03, 2003 · Sometimes a poem about wind is a poem about wind. Nov 08, 2021 · A comparison of Ted Hughes’ Wind and Shelley’s Ode to the West Wind. Hughes isn't criticising the wind. The poem we used was 'Wind' by Ted Hughes. -Rang like some fine green goblet in the note. Ted Hughes’s poem, “Wind”, describes the impact and strength nature has over human beings. • Answer the questions for each image as quickly as you can (don’t think too hard about it!) Wind by Ted Hughes. He believes that poetry is a powerful and magical way of reaching our feeling and emotions, that has to do with our imagination, he described it as “a journey into the inner universe (…) an exploration of the genuine self” . The poem's speaker is both terrified of and mesmerized by a wild, destructive wind, which ravages the landscape and threatens to rip the speaker's house from its foundation. The reader identifies with the thought of a house on the moors and a couple stuck inside because of the ferocious winds. Apr 13, 2005 · "Wind" is a poem by Ted Hughes about a menacing storm that proceeds to strike a house in a deserted, unpopulated area of land and about its destructive effect on the land. Ted Hughes wrote his poem ‘The Wind’ in 1966, like many of his works it is a poem largely focussed on nature. Thus, the analysis of the study will enhance the reader's understanding of the different stylistic features in the poem; they are structure, themes, Mar 19, 2018 · Summary of the poem moon wind by ted hughes. wind by ted hughes theme

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What does Shelley mean by Wild West Wind?

“Ode to the West Wind” is a poem written by the English Romantic poet, Percy Bysshe Shelley. In the poem, the speaker directly addresses the west wind. The speaker treats the west wind as a force of death and decay, and welcomes this death and decay because it means that rejuvenation and rebirth will come soon.

What does PB Shelley mean to say in his poem Ode to the West Wind when he says I sat upon the thorns of life I bleed?

In the final line, he refers to himself as one who is in the final stages of his life when he says, “I fall upon the thorns of life! I bleed”. Just like the wind swept away the dead leaves of the Autumn, the speaker calls for the wind to sweep him away, old and decaying as he is.

How does Shelley portray the West Wind?

Shelley’s “Ode to the West Wind” is a good example of Shelley’s poetic mind at work, and when it is at work, it is heaping up similes and metaphors. The leaves are driven from the presence of his west wind divinity “like ghosts from an enchanter fleeing.” The simile is not based in reality nor is it functional.

What is the message of Ode to the West Wind?

Major themes in “Ode to the West Wind”: Power, human limitations and the natural world are the major themes of this poem. The poet adores the power and grandeur of the west wind, and also wishes that revolutionary ideas could reach every corner of the universe.

What does West wind symbolize?

Shelley uses the West Wind to symbolize the power of nature and of the imagination inspired by nature. Unlike Mont Blanc, however, the West Wind is active and dynamic in poems, such as “Ode to the West Wind.” While Mont Blanc is immobile, the West Wind is an agent for change.

What kind of poem is the west wind?

‘Ode to the West Wind’ is a type of poem known as an ode.

What is the symbolic meaning of the west wind?

What does the wind symbolize?

The wind symbolises the raw and brutal power of nature. The wind god is a symbol of might and strength.

What is the poet’s prayer to the west wind?

The speaker prays to the west wind to make him its lyre. A lyre is an ancient musical instrument, kind of like a small U-shaped harp. Lyres had special resonance for poets such as Shelley, as in Ancient Greece, poems would often be sung to the accompaniment… (The entire section contains 148 words.)

What does wind represent spiritually?

It is the messenger of divine intervention, and it is the vital breath of the universe (Cooper, 192). Wind often represents the fleeting and transient, the elusive and the intangible. In the Bible, God’s ruah (wind, spirit, breath) moved upon the face of the waters (Genesis 1:2).

What is the name of the west wind?

zephyr
A west wind can be known as a zephyr.

What is the symbolism of wind explain?

The wind symbolises the uncontrollable and raw power of nature. The wind god symbolises strength and steadfastness. Weaklings who are weak in the mind and body are swept away by the mighty power of the wind.

What do winds symbolize?

What do the four winds represent in the Bible?

The four winds are referred to in the context of extraordinary events or situations as foreseen by prophets, made known to select persons by God in the form of visions, or revealed by Jesus Himself to His disciples.

What is the west wind in the Bible?

In fact, the west wind finds a mention just once, in connection with the plague of the locusts, in which it was used to send the locusts away from Egypt (Exodus 10:19).

What are the names of the 4 winds?

Homer. The archaic Greek poet Homer (c. 800 BC) refers to the four winds by name – Boreas, Eurus, Notos, Zephyrus – in his Odyssey, and in the Iliad.

What are the four wind of heaven?

The four individual winds blowing from the east, west, north and south directions are described in the Bible in the same way as a human observer would describe, even today. We get an idea of the strength of these winds, the weather phenomena associated with them, and their effects.

Источник: https://answerstoall.com/technology/what-does-shelley-mean-by-wild-west-wind/

What does poetry do?

In the introductory module, it was suggested that all literature is basically metaphorical in nature. We also explored the important role that metaphors play in everyday life — in short, we use metaphors each day to make comparisons between the concrete world that we inhabit and the abstract world of ideas and human experience. In this module, we will explore the art of poetry and, once again, we will develop an understanding of how metaphors, in addition to other types of literary and figurative language, are used in poems to give shape and meaning to a wide range of human experiences.

In his book How to Read a Poem and Fall in Love with Poetry , Edward Hirsch suggests that “Poetry is made of metaphor. It is a collision, a collusion, a compression of two unlike things: A is B.” Therefore, reading poetry helps to broaden our understanding of power of language to provide more than just literal meaning — the sort of meaning that can be obtained from a dictionary. Instead, as Hirsch argues, “Poetry evokes a language that moves beyond the literal and, consequently, a mode of thinking that moves beyond the literal.” Because poets use language in unique and often challenging ways, reading poetry, like reading fiction, is an ideal way of developing complex reasoning and proficiency in active reading.

Poetry invites the reader to actively participate in the process of making meaning through language. The basic structure of metaphors consists of drawing comparisons between unlike things, and when we strive to understand, or infer, the connections that may exist between these unlike things, we begin to build our ability to think critically and creatively about language. From a literary standpoint, poetry is an essentially oral art form. It is meant to be read aloud. When we participate in constructing meaning by reading actively and making inferences, we participate in a kind of performance that is very similar to the dynamic between a singer and her audience. The poet will often even rely on the reader to fill-in the gaps or spaces in a poem with our own thoughts and emotions. The very best poetry is, therefore, deeply participatory.

Metaphors are essential to this participatory dynamic. Oftentimes, an entire poem can function as a kind of metaphor that attempts to make an abstract, or less clearly defined, concept more accessible for the reader. Poems do this by employing vivid imagery and similes (the comparison of two unlike things using like or as ). For example, in his poem “Dulce et Decorum est,” the British poet Wilfred Owen challenges a romantic understanding of the “glories” of war by offering the reader a vivid portrayal of the suffering that he witnessed on the battlefield during World War I. In this poem, Owen contradicts the ancient, patriotic motto, “It is sweet and fitting to die for one’s country,” by portraying war as a kind of twisted nightmare.

Read and listen to the poem, and pay particular attention to how the poem uses imagery and similes to make the experience of war accessible to readers. (1)

(18)

“Dulce et Decorum est” (17)

Bent double, like old beggars under sacks, Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge, Till on the haunting flares we turned our backs And towards our distant rest began to trudge. Men marched asleep. Many had lost their boots But limped on, blood-shod. All went lame; all blind; Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots Of tired, outstripped Five-Nines that dropped behind. Gas! Gas! Quick, boys!—An ecstasy of fumbling, Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time; But someone still was yelling out and stumbling And flound’ring like a man in fire or lime… Dim, through the misty panes and thick green light, As under a green sea, I saw him drowning. In all my dreams, before my helpless sight, He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning. If in some smothering dreams you too could pace Behind the wagon that we flung him in, And watch the white eyes writhing in his face, His hanging face, like a devil’s sick of sin; If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs, Obscene as cancer, bitter as the cud Of vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues,— My friend, you would not tell with such high zest To children ardent for some desperate glory, The old Lie:Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori .

Poetic Forms

The earliest recorded poems are part of oral tradition and often are musical. In his book Orality and Literacy , Walter Ong suggests that “language is nested in sound,” and scholars who study the origin of language have theorized that music and language developed alongside of one another in our evolutionary past. Reflecting on the relationship between poetry and African American musical traditions, such as the blues and work songs, Edward Hirsh suggests that “all these forms model a particular kind of participatory relationship between the poet and the community.” Many modern poetic forms are also clearly influenced by musical forms. For example, Langston Hughes’s “The Weary Blues” borrows heavily from jazz and blues rhythms, yet does not follow classical metrical patterns. Like songs, poems are meant to be performed, recited, and perhaps in their own, sung.

Most traditional forms of poetry have their origins in forms of popular music. Longer poetic artifacts such as the great epics of the Greeks (Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey ), the Romans (Virgil’s Aeneid ), and from India (the Vedas , written in Sanskrit) are well-known. Ancient Babylonian hymns, like the Enûma Eliš , written in cuneiform, are widely regarded as the earliest known poems; likewise, the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh is one of the earliest popular epic. Many scholars have observed the similarities the Babylonia flood myth in the Epic of Gilgamesh and the biblical story of the flood in the book of Genesis.

An epic poem is a lengthy narrative poem (a poem that tells a story, often an adventure) written in verse. Similar to music, in poetry, verse refers to a piece of writing composed in meter or rhyme. The word verse may appear in some contexts as a synonym for poetry of any meter (or non-meter); this is not precise usage of the word and usually aims to distinguish the form of literature from prose , which is structured without the same attention to the meter and length of line in poetry.

One of the earliest known works of English poetry is Caedmon’s Hymn , composed sometime between 658 and 680 A.D. According to accounts by an English monk and scholar known as St. Bede or the Venerable Bede, the poem was originally composed by an illiterate herdsman who had miraculously acquired the gift of poetry and song from an angel. Its lyrics are composed in a form of early English that originated in a form of ancient German.

Listen to a recording of the poem in West Saxon, a dialect of Old English. (1)

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“Caedmon’s Hymn” (10)

Nú scylun hergan  hefaenrîcaes Uard, metudæs maecti  end his módgidanc, uerc Uuldurfadur,  suéh é uundra gihwaes, éci dryctin  ór ástelidæ hé ærist scÅ�p  aelda barnum heben til hrófe,&  háleg scepen. Thá middungeard  moncynnæs Uard, eci Dryctin,  æfter tíadæ firum foldu,  Fréa allmectig.

ballad is another type of narrative poem that contains repeated phrasing and is intended to be sung. Ballads often relate the deeds, and sometimes suffering, of a protagonist whose life serves as a metaphor for the day-to-day trials of the average person. (An example of a ballad in this module is “The Ballad of the Harp-Weaver” by Edna St. Vincent Millay). Ballads are typically arranged into quatrains , four-line stanzas, with usually only the second and fourth lines rhyming.

In contrast to narrative poetry (poetry that tells a story), lyric poetry focuses primarily on conveying emotion through melody and imagery. Sonnets fall under the category of lyric poetry; a sonnet is a poem consisting of fourteen lines with a metric pattern and variable rhyme scheme. Elegies (lamentations), haiku, and odes (praise poems) are other examples of lyric poetry. (Examples of lyric verse in our course readings include John Milton’s Sonnet 19, Percy Bysshe Shelley’s “Ode to the West Wind,” and Wilfred Owen’s “Dulce et Decorum est”).

Blank verse is the term for poetry that does have a set metrical pattern, yet does not rhyme. John Milton’s epic poem, Paradise Lost , is a masterful work of blank verse poetry that was highly influential as a work of English literature. However, many modern and contemporary poets write blank verse poetry, such as Robert Frost’s “The Death of the Hired Man” and Amy Beeder’s “Dear Drought,” Free verse , which did not develop until the 19 th century, follows no metrical pattern or rhyme scheme; much of modern poetry is free verse, although many modern poets who usually write in free verse will produce patterned verse on occasion. (Examples of free verse in this module include H.D.’s “Oread” and William Carlos Williams’s “Blizzard.”) (1)

Poetic language

All writing makes use of figurative language . Yet, the language of poetry focuses specifically on discovering meaning based on the way that certain combinations of words sound, as well as the way that groups of words appear on the page. Poetic language is fundamentally figurative; figurative language is language used in a nonliteral manner, as in words or phrases that convey meaning beyond or in addition to the dictionary definition of those words. For example, the statement “The town judge is intelligent” is a direct description. However, the sentence “The town judge holds the keys to the kingdom of knowledge” offers a similar description yet with added layers of creative images and associative meaning that connects with other symbols of power (keys, kingdom); it also uses alliteration (repetition of consonants) to create rhythm and pattern .

Below are the types of figurative language and a full description of common forms of poetic language.

Common Type of Figurative Language:

Apostrophe — A direct address to a person or object not literally listening; ex: “Oh, Great Mother Nature how you test our spirit…”

Allusion — Reference to a well-known object, character, or event, sometimes from another literary work.

Hyperbole — Exaggeration used for emphasis.

Imagery — Words and phrases that appeal to the senses, particularly sight.

Metaphor — A direct comparison of two seemingly dissimilar items (does not use the words like or as ).

Onomatopoeia — A word that imitates the sound of the object the word represents.

Personification — The attribution of human characteristics to nonhuman places or things.

Simile — A comparison of two seemingly dissimilar items using like or as (1)

Источник: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/atd-fscj-literatureforhumanities/chapter/poetic-forms-and-language/

Outline:

Imagery is a word used in literary terms to refer to mental images that are evoked by the use of descriptive language. Imagery in this sense is a series of words used to create visual picture of the experience. It helps the reader imagine the sensations described by the author, through his language. The author uses action words which bring out sensory experience by creating the mental image of the subject. Such images can be created by using figures of speech such as similes, metaphors, personification and assonance.

Imagery is the name given to the elements in a poem that trigger the senses and help create mental images. Imagery need not be only visual; they also include the five senses, such as sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell which responds to the description of the author. Examples of visual imagery can be found in the poem.Ode to A Nightingale." It is a poem in which Keats uses detailed description to contrast natural beauty and reality, life and death. In the opening verse, the writer becomes captivated by the nightingale's peaceful song. Throughout, the song becomes a powerful spell that transcends the mortal world of Keats. Interwoven throughout the poem are images that reflect his thoughts about death. It is important to note that Keats' father & mother died when he was young and his brother had recently died of tuberculosis, which probably accounts for this focus.

In the first stanza, Keats' mood is low and depressed but the nightingale's song creates a state of euphoria in him that allows him to escape reality. He is not envious of the bird's happy "lot" but is comforted by the nightingale's singing which lifts him from his unhappy mood.

              

ODE TO A NIGHTINGALE

 My heart aches, and a drowsy numbness pains

    My sense, as though of hemlock I had drunk,
Or emptied some dull opiate to the drains
    One minute past, and Lethe-wards had sunk:
'Tis not through envy of thy happy lot,  

  But being too happy in thine happiness,
 That thou, light-winged Dryad of the trees,
   In some melodious plot
  Of beechen green, and shadows numberless,
  Singest of summer in full-throated ease

The elements in a literary work are used to evoke mental images, not only of the visual sense, but of sensation and emotion as well. While most commonly used in reference to figurative language, imagery is a term which can apply to any and all elements of a poem that evoke sensory experience and emotional response, whether figurative or literal, and also applies to the concrete things which are used as a image.

Imaginative language transfers the poet's impressions of sight, sound, smell, taste and touch to the attentive reader as in "The Cloud ," by Percy Bysshe Shelley

 The Cloud

I bring fresh showers for the thirsty flowers,

  From the seas and the streams;

I bear light shade for the leaves when laid

  In their noonday dreams.

From my wings are shaken the dews that waken

 The sweet buds every one,

When rocked to rest on their mother’s breast,

 As she dances about the sun.

 Effective imagery has the power to utilize the inner wisdom of the reader and arouse meditative and inspirational responses. It adds more concrete initial impact, when the reader is able to get an image to relate to the description.

Related images are often clustered or scattered throughout a work, thus serving to create a particular effect. Images of disease, corruption, and death, for example, are recurrent patterns of Shakespeare's ‘Tempest’ .Imagery can also emphasize a theme or a thought, as do the suggestions of dissolution, depression, and mortality in John Keats' "Ode to a Nightingale." Imagery is used effectively by W.H.Davies to state that nothing is wonderful than “Leisure” to enjoy the beauty of life.

LEISURE

What is this life if’ full of care,

We have no time to stand and stare.

No time to see in broad daylight,

Streams full of stars like skies at night.

No time to turn at Beauty’s glance

And watch her feet, how they can dance.

No time to wait till her mouth can

Enrich that smile her eyes began.

A poor life this if, full of care,

We have no time to stand and stare.

.

The poet states in the first two lines, the theme of the poem. Then he goes onto paint small little pictures, which we can see and enjoy. The poet could just state ‘I see this or that’ but it is possible to conjure up, much more specific images by using figures of speech such as simile, personification or metaphor. The poet compares nature to beautiful woman, sparkling water to star studded sky at night. This line is simile.

According to M.H. Abrahams, Imagery is one of the most common terms used in modern criticism. Its application ranges from the mental pictures experienced by the reader of the poem, to the totality of elements which make up a poem. C.Day. Lewis in his ‘Poetic Image’ talks of an image, as a picture made out of words and that, a poem may itself be, an image, composed from multiplicity of images. Three uses of the word imagery are frequently meant.

Imagery is used to refer to all the qualities , objects or images taken collectively in the poem or works of literature , whether by literal description or by indirect reference using figures of speech such as simile, metaphor personification. For e.g. in Wordsworth’s poem ‘She dwelt among the Untrodden’ ways

 ‘She dwelt among the untrodden ways
Beside the springs of Dove,
Maid whom there were none to praise
And very few to love:

A violet by a mossy tone
Half hidden from the eye!
-- Fair as a star, when only one
Is shining in the sky.

She lived unknown, and few could know
When Lucy ceased to be;
But she is in her grave, and, oh,
The difference to me!

The imagery in this broad sense refers to literal objects. The poem refers to (ways, maid grave) as well as the violet, and stone of the metaphor and star and sky of the simile; in the second stanza. The term image should not be taken to imply a visual reproduction of the object referred to, as some readers experience visual images on reading the passage and some do not and among those who do, the explicitness and details of the mind – pictures vary greatly. Also imagery includes auditory, tactile (touch), olfactory (smell), gustatory (taste) or kinesthetic (sensations of movement) as well as visual qualities. In his’ In memoriam’ number 101 for e.g.: Tennyson’s references are to qualities of smell and hearing, as well as to sight, in the lines

Unloved, that beech will gather brown…

         And many a rose-carnation feed

           With summer spice the humming air…

         

Imagery is used in the narrow sense, to signify only descriptions of visual in         

Coleridge’s Ancient Mariner.

 The rock shone bright, the Kirk no less,

           That stands above the rock:

           The moonlight steeped in silentness

           The steady weathercock.

Most commonly imagery is used to signify figurative language, especially usage of metaphors and similes. In fact recent criticism has stressed imagery in this sense as an essential component in poetry and as a major clue to poetic meaning, structure and effect.

 TYPES OF VISUAL IMAGES :

SIMPLE DESCRIPTION - a  large   number  of  images  which  arise  in a poem come from simple description of visible objects or actions. . DRAMATIC SITUATION 
DRAMATIC MONOLOGUE - as soon as the reader becomes aware that the poem is a dramatic monologue, he visualizes a speaker with the result that the particularity of the situation is evident. 

 DIALOGUE - has the same effect as Dramatic Monologue. 

 STORY - like description, narration causes the reader or hearer to form images.  When the reader realizes that he is being told a tale he visualizes from habit; he does not wish to miss the point of the story. 

 METONYMY - when a poet uses metonymy, he names one thing when he really  
means another thing with which the first is closely connected. e.g. Seven little foreheads stared up at me from the first row. (where "foreheads" is used for "eyes" ). 

 SYNECDOCHE - when a poet uses synecdoche, he names a part of a thing whenhe means whole thing  (or vice versa) or the genius for the species. 6. ONOMATOPOEIA - although imagery usually  refers to visual images, there are also aural images.  The use of words which sound like their meaning is called onomatopoeia. e.g. buzz, hiss, clang , splash, murmur, chatter, etc. 


          

The persona of the poet, which is the deep well of his poetry will be a world created from all that he has known and felt and seen and heard and thought. His image-making poetic faculty and his imagination will put together his memories and his immediate perceptions into numberless varieties of shapes and associations beauty and power. The poet will always employ images in his poetry. However hard he tries, he cannot make poetry with out imagery.


Источник: http://peporoni.blogspot.com/2014/
The HyperTexts

The Best Metaphors and Similes
Examples of Metaphors, Mixed Metaphors and Similes
Definitions of Metaphor, Simile, Symbol, Allegory, Catachresis, Surrealism, Absurdism, etc.

Who wrote the best metaphors in the English language? Where can we find the best examples of metaphors in English literature, poetry and music? If you’re a student, educator or a seeker on a quest to discover the best metaphors and similes―particularly in literature and poetry―I believe you’ve found the right page. Writers famous for their use of metaphors, similes and/or symbols include Homer, Sappho, Virgil, Ovid, Dante, Petrarch, Chaucer, Cervantes, Shakespeare, Milton, William Blake, John Keats, Walt Whitman, Emily Dickinson, Edgar Allan Poe, William Butler Yeats, Robert Frost, Wallace Stevens, Franz Kafka, James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, J. R. R. Tolkien and Bob Dylan. On this page I will endeavor to understand what they were up to, and why what they did was so effective.

compiled by Michael R. Burch, editor of The HyperTexts

METAPHOR DEFINITION: A metaphor is a non-literal figure of speech, such as "iron hand" or "heart of stone." No human being has an actual hand of iron or a heart of stone, but we intuitively understand what such terms mean and imply. Metaphor is a form of transference, correspondence and/or parallelism.

Eros harrows my heart:
wild winds whipping desolate mountains,
uprooting oaks.
—Sappho, fragment 42, translation by Michael R. Burch

Sappho of Lesbos was one of the first great lyric poets we know by name. Her metaphor of lust (Eros was the Greek god of erotic love) being like a thunderstorm uprooting oaks is both powerful and timeless. If you like my translations you are welcome to share them, but please credit the original poet and translator.

Grasses wilt:
the braking locomotive
grinds to a halt.
—Yamaguchi Seishi, translation by Michael R. Burch

In this haiku by an oriental master, we see that metaphors are universal. The wilting grasses and the braking locomotive both represent the process of aging and dying.

METAPHOR EXAMPLES: Examples of commonly-used metaphors include "lemon," "bad egg," "black sheep," "wolf in sheep's clothing," "snake in the grass," "honey," "shining star," "apple of my eye," "dove," "angel of light" and "knight in shining armor." Sometimes a metaphor can be a double-edged rhetorical sword; for instance: "If life gives you lemons, make lemonade." One of the most famous literary metaphors is "Beauty is truth, truth beauty" from "Ode on a Grecian Urn" by John Keats. Here, Keats is comparing one abstract thing (beauty) to another abstract thing (truth). However, it is more common for metaphors to compare something abstract to something more tangible: for example, Bob Dylan's hard-to-find answers are compared to leaves "blowin' in the wind." A good example of a metaphor that illuminates something abstract by comparing it to something tangible is Emily Dickinson's "Hope is the thing with feathers― / That perches in the soul." Later, Maya Angelou, a black poet, would compare herself to a caged songbird. We can easily understand the image of a bird singing sweetly despite being caged and denied its freedom. A less abstract example of a metaphor is William Shakespeare's description of bare tree limbs as "Bare ruined choirs, where late the sweet birds sang." In this case, one tangible thing is being compared to another, while symbolizing autumn, death and loss. There are more examples of metaphors from poetry, literature and music later on this page.

SIMILE DEFINITION: A simile is a type of metaphor in which possibly quite dissimilar things are "linked" through an attribute, most commonly by using "like" or "as." A famous simile is William Wordsworth's "I wandered lonely as a cloud." Wordsworth was not claiming to be a cloud, only to share its attribute of being apart from everything else. To understand the chief difference between metaphor and simile, please compare "her cheeks were roses" [metaphor/direct] with "her cheeks were like roses" [simile/indirect]. In this case the difference may be hard to detect. But if I were to say, "My father is the Devil," that would be considerably different than saying, "My father is as sly as the Devil."

SIMILE EXAMPLES: Examples of commonly-used similes include "blind as a bat," "cool as a cucumber," "sweet as sugar," "slow as a snail," "mad as a hatter" and "sly as a fox." An example of a simile that does not employ "like" or "as" is William Shakespeare's "Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? / Thou art more lovely and more temperate." Shakespeare is not saying that his lover is a summer day, so he remains within the realm of simile. Here's an excellent example of simile from the novel Gone with the Wind by Margaret Mitchell: "The very mystery of him excited her curiosity like a door that had neither lock nor key." There are more examples of metaphors from poetry, literature and music later on this page.

SYMBOL DEFINITION: A symbol is a thing that represents or stands for something else, especially a material object that represents something abstract. For instance: a crown symbolizes royalty, a halo symbolizes saintliness, etc.

SYMBOL EXAMPLES: These are examples of common symbols: night=evil, light=good, spring=youth, summer=maturity, autumn=old age/aging, winter=death, dove=peace, olive=peace, moon=love, Venus=love, Mars=war, etc.

Metaphors and symbols are closely related. In general, a symbol stands for or represents something else, usually an abstract idea, whereas a metaphor compares two different things and illuminates similarities between them. For instance, Venus and the moon have become universal symbols of love (an abstract concept). But metaphors and similes do not depend on preconceived relationships. For instance, in one of my poems I compared an aging woman's thinning hair to emu feathers:

See how her hair has thinned: it doesn’t seem
like hair at all, but like the airy moult
of emus who outraced the wind and left
soft plumage in their wake.

I just love the wisdom and spirit of Hafiz in this subversive (pardon the pun) little poem below. I can see Trump putting refugees in cages, while Hafiz goes around letting them out for a moondance! In this poem, keys represent freedom.

The imbecile
constructs cages
for everyone he knows,
while the sage
(who has to duck his head
whenever the moon glows)
keeps dispensing keys
all night long
to the beautiful, rowdy,
prison gang.
—Hafiz, translation by Michael R. Burch

Here are three common metaphors: "He ruled with an iron hand because he had a heart of stone, but it turned out that he had feet of clay!"

Here are three similes: "Her lips are like cherries, her hair like spun gold, her eyes like flashing emeralds."

A universal symbol is like an extremely popular meme: it has been accepted and can be understood on its own, without any "help" from writers. Because the moon and Venus have become universal symbols of love, if I say, "The first time I saw her, Venus touched me!" most readers will immediately understand that what happened was love at first sight. If, on the other hand, I were to say, "The first time I saw her, Itokawa touched me!" most readers would draw a blank because the asteroid Itokawa has no commonly-understood symbolic meaning. A "global" or universal symbol carries its meaning everywhere it goes. But it is possible for writers to create "local" symbols in their works. For instance, the English poet William Blake created his own system of symbols in his prophetic poems, but an "outsider" might have a very hard time figuring them out.

A local symbol is one that is "local" to a particular poem or other work of literature. In this short poem of mine, I describe "poetic vision" as being like a scuba diver swimming through the bubbles created by his own breath ...

What the Poet Sees
by Michael R. Burch

What the poet sees,
he sees as a swimmer underwater
watching the shoreline blur
sees through his breath’s weightless bubbles ...
Both worlds grow obscure.

Surrealism occurs when the images, metaphors and/or symbols used are fantastic, irrational, incongruous, contradictory or "just don't make sense." Things take on the weirdness of a dream when things don't "add up." Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass are examples of still-popular surrealism. Carroll has been credited with the invention of surrealism with the publication of Alice in 1865, although the term came much later. Another possible forefather of surrealism is Johann Wolfgang van Goethe, whose often-surrealistic play Faust dates to around 1775. But we can find surrealistic elements in much older writings―for instance Homer's Odyssey and Iliad, Dante's Divine Comedy, William Shakespeare's Tempest and Edmund Spenser's Faerie Queen. Hell, one of the earth's oldest extant poems, The Epic of Gilgamesh, circa the 18th century B.C., seems wildly surreal in places! So do parts of the Hebrew Bible. In any case, "early adopters" of surrealism among major modern writers include Edgar Allan Poe, Charles Baudelaire, Arthur Rimbaud, Franz Kafka and e. e. cummings. Modern surrealism began as an artistic movement in Paris in the 1920s and lasted until the 1940s. André Breton founded and propelled the movement with his publication of The Manifesto of Surrealism in 1924. Other notable surrealistic writers and artists include Stéphane Mallarmé, Robert Desnos, Salvador Dali, Max Ernst, Luis Buñuel, René Magritte and Pablo Picasso. Although the movement died, its techniques remain with us in comic books, cartoons, graphic novels, video games and SNL skits like the Coneheads.

Related Definitions: In magic realism, most of the tale being told makes sense, but there are elements of surrealism. Notable magical realist writers include Jorge Luis Borges, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Salman Rushdie and Toni Morrison. In fabulism, magical realism takes the form of fables. Fairy tales are written by fabulists. Notable fabulists include Aesop, Uncle Remus, Hans Christian Anderson, Beatrix Potter and Italo Calvino. Conversely, absurdism stretches surrealism to such lengths that little or nothing makes sense. Poems written in Klingon or dog barks would be extreme examples of absurdism. For many readers, an absurdist poem or story is "complete nonsense." But then sometimes nonsense can be entertaining! Notable absurdist writers who can (at times) be understood include Albert Camus and Samuel Beckett.

EXTENDED METAPHOR DEFINITION: An extended metaphor, in certain more extensive cases known as a "metaphysical conceit," is a longer, more elaborate metaphor. Poets who became famous for such constructions include John Donne, Andrew Marvell, Andrew Cowley, John Cleveland, George Herbert and Henry Vaughn. Shakespeare's Sonnet 18 ("Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day") is an extended metaphor, as is Emily Dickinson's "Hope Is the Thing with Feathers." There are more examples of extended metaphors below.

MIXED METAPHOR DEFINITION: There is another, often not-so-good, category of metaphor: the mixed metaphor. Mixed metaphors contain correspondences that don't fully mesh. For instance, William Shakespeare has Hamlet considering whether to "... take arms against a sea of troubles / and, by opposing, end them. To die, to sleep ..." But obviously one can neither fight nor "end" a sea! Weapons and the sea don't mix. Shakespeare might have done better to compare ending life's struggles to pulling the plug on a bathtub full of dingy water! To employ a simile, mixed metaphors are like P.T. Barnum's Fiji Mermaid: "they sound cool and exotic in your head, but upon closer examination they're made up of two things hastily sewn together that really shouldn't be." Mixed metaphors are literature's shambling, badly-stitched-together Frankensteins!

CATACHRESIS DEFINITION: Catachresis is the use of words in inappropriate or unconventional ways. Another definition of catachresis is "an exaggerated comparison for rhetorical effect." Here's an example of good catachresis, from Francis Bacon: "A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green." Two lovely examples of catachresis can be found in the highly unconventional poetry of e. e. cummings: "the voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses / nobody, not even the rain, has such small hands."

IRONY: A metaphor can be used for purposes of irony, in which case the poet may not actually believe what he/she is saying. For example ...

Busy old fool, unruly sun,
Why dost thou thus,
Through windows, and through curtains call on us?

Here, in his poem "The Sun Rising," John Donne is accusing the sun of being a busybody who foolishly disturbs and wakes up Donne and his lover after a night of lovemaking! But of course Donne is just wisecracking, being clever.

METAPHOR EXAMPLES: Here are justly famous examples of metaphors in literature, poetry and music ...

"Tilting at windmills" = fighting imaginary foes [Miguel Cervantes]
"Gone with the wind" = time deprives us of everything [Ernest Dowson, later used by Margaret Mitchell as the title of her famous novel]
"Here be dragons" = we are entering dangerous territory [Unknown]
"All the world's a stage" = human beings are actors playing parts, perhaps in a predetermined script? [William Shakespeare]
"Ask not for whom the bell tolls: it tolls for thee" = everyone will die [John Donne]
"A candle in the wind" = human life is fragile and easily snuffed out [Elton John/Bernie Taupin]
"Every rose has its thorn" = beauty comes with the price of injury and suffering [Bret Michaels]
"The caged bird sings" = a black poet is like a bird singing in a cage [Maya Angelou]
"Like a bridge over troubled water" = a friend in need is like a bridge spanning a raging flood [Paul Simon]
"Conscience is a man's compass." [Vincent Van Gogh]

SIMILE EXAMPLES: Here are justly famous examples of similes in literature, poetry and music ...

"Juliet is the sun ..." [William Shakespeare]
"Oh, my luve's like a red, red rose ..." [Robert Burns]
"[Men] swarm around me, a hive of honey bees." [Unknown]
"She's like the wind." [Patrick Swayze and Stacy Widelitz]
"You are my sunshine." [Authorship Disputed]
"You ain't nothin' but a hound dog." [Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller]
"I am a rock, I am an island." [Paul Simon, refuting John Donne's claim that "no man is an island"]
"Laughter like a chime of bells." [Charles Reade]
"Laughter rich as woodland thunder." [Ralph Waldo Emerson]
"Laughter soft as tears." [Algernon Charles Swinburne]
"For as the crackling of thorns under a pot, so is the laughter of the fool." [Old Testament]

Soft laughter as of light that stirs the sea
With darkling sense of dawn ere dawn may be.
—Algernon Charles Swinburne

Sweet laughter in mirthfulness artlessly flowing
Like zephyrs at play through a fairy flute blowing.
—Ralph D. Williams

EXTENDED METAPHOR EXAMPLES

Writers sometimes employ extended metaphors, as William Shakespeare does in this famous scene from "Romeo and Juliet" ...

It is the east, and Juliet is the sun.
Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon,
Who is already sick and pale with grief,
That thou her maid art far more fair than she:
Be not her maid, since she is envious;
Her vestal livery is but sick and green
And none but fools do wear it; cast it off.

Here's another extended metaphor from Shakespeare's "Macbeth" ...

Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player
That struts and frets his hour upon the stage
And then is heard no more: it is a tale
Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,
Signifying nothing.

The example above may also be considered a mixed metaphor, as life is compared to a "walking shadow," to a "poor player" and to a "tale."

In some cases, an entire poem can become an extended metaphor ...

Robert Frost's "The Road Not Taken" and "Gathering Leaves"
Robert Frost's "Mending Wall"
William Shakespeare's Sonnet 18 ("Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day")
Emily Dickinson's "Hope Is the Thing with Feathers"

For example, the entire poem "Gathering Leaves" can be interpreted as an extended metaphor for unproductive human enterprises that waste time and effort ...

Gathering Leaves
by Robert Frost

Spades take up leaves
No better than spoons,
And bags full of leaves
Are light as balloons.

I make a great noise
Of rustling all day
Like rabbit and deer
Running away.

But the mountains I raise
Elude my embrace,
Flowing over my arms
And into my face.

I may load and unload
Again and again
Till I fill the whole shed,
And what have I then?

Next to nothing for weight,
And since they grew duller
From contact with earth,
Next to nothing for color.

Next to nothing for use.
But a crop is a crop,
And who's to say where
The harvest shall stop?

METAPHYSICAL CONCEIT EXAMPLES

John Donne is generally considered to be the pioneer of metaphysical poetry and the sometimes hard-to-swallow "metaphysical conceit." For example, in his poem "A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning," Donne compares the souls of lovers to the points on an architect's protractor! ...

If they be two, they are two so
As stiff twin compasses are two,
Thy soul the fixed foot, makes no show
To move, but doth, if the other do.
And though it in the center sit,
Yet when the other far doth roam,
It leans, and hearkens after it,
And grows erect, as that comes home.

If all that stiffness and growing erect is meant to be naughty, Donne has indeed blazed new poetic territory!

One very interesting metaphysical conceit appears in Donne's "Hymn to God, My God, in My Sickness." Shakespeare had Romeo compare Juliet to the East, because that's where the sun rises. But Donne compares himself to a map surrounded by cosmographers (physicians) who are studying his West (death). Donne then points out that in maps, East and West meet, and asks: "What shall my West hurt me?"

Other examples of full-poem metaphysical conceits include:

"To His Coy Mistress" by Andrew Marvell
"The Coronet" by Andrew Marvell
"The Collar" by George Herbert
"The Pulley" by George Herbert
"Redemption" by George Herbert
"Love (III)" by George Herbert
"The Waterfall" by Henry Vaughn
"The Night" by Henry Vaughn

MORE EXAMPLES OF METAPHOR

When Jewish poets wrote about the horrors of the Holocaust, they sometimes used powerful, evocative metaphors to stunning effect ...

Wasted feet, cursed earth,
the interminable gray morning
as Buna smokes corpses through industrious chimneys.
—"Buna" by Primo Levi, loose translation by Michael R. Burch

Buna was a Nazi concentration camp. The image of the chimneys of Buna "smoking" corpses to ash, the way smokers produce ash from cigarettes, is stunning. Levi's metaphor may also suggest that the morning is gray because of the ash rising from Buna's chimneys, the way smoking cigarettes can cloud the surrounding air.

We are digging a grave like a hole in the sky; there’s sufficient room to lie there.
The man of the house plays with vipers; he writes
in the Teutonic darkness, "Your golden hair Margarete ..."
He writes poems by the stars, whistles hounds to stand by,
whistles Jews to dig graves, where together they’ll lie.
He commands us to strike up bright tunes for the dance!
—"Death Fugue" by Paul Celan, loose translation by Michael R. Burch

Paul Celan mixes metaphor with reality, to paint a picture of a Nazi who writes romantic love poems while sending Jews to mass graves ("where together they'll lie"). We cannot take the "hole in the sky" and "plays with vipers" literally, nor is the darkness really "Teutonic." But we can certainly "get" what Celan wants us to see and understand. It is also vital to the poem that the Nazis considered fair-skinned human beings with "golden hair" to be "superior" to people with darker skin and hair. So when the Nazi poet writes "Your golden hair Margarete" in the Teutonic darkness, this is probably a metaphor for the primary cause of the Holocaust. It was not the Jews who were "dark" but the hearts, minds and beliefs of their Nazi oppressors.

I lived as best I could, and then I died.
Be careful where you step: the grave is wide.
—Michael R. Burch, "Epitaph for a Palestinian Child"

In my original poem above, the grave is a metaphor for death and "the grave is wide" does not refer to the physical characteristics of an actual grave, but to how Israeli and U.S. injustices that cause Palestinian children to suffer and die can lead to events like 911, and thus cause Israeli and American children to suffer and die.

The oppressed can but pursue suitable tracks
Learning to heed the lessons of awesome war
But will the mighty listen to reason’s voice
That justice will accomplish the peace of Rome?
Or will conscience’s dictates be inexorably ignored
As war’s clouds hover over culture’s great cradle?
And yet we do not harbor the odium of hatred
But pray that peace can still be humanity’s finest hour.
—Khaled Nusseibeh

Khaled Nusseibeh is a Palestinian poet writing about the Nakba (Arabic for "Catastrophe"). He uses several vivid, highly effective metaphors to make the argument that his people deserve justice but have been treated unjustly. He portrays "awesome war" (the "shock and awe" variety practiced by Israel and the U.S. on less powerful nations) as a stern, iron-handed, unjust teacher. He points out the that famous Pax Romana ("peace of Rome") was based on a system of justice. "War's clouds" refer to the dark state produced by war. He also points out that the Middle East is the "cradle" of human culture, as civilization began in the Middle East. Like Paul Celan, he mixes the literal with the metaphorical.

Throughout human history, oppressed people have used such metaphors in poems, songs, laments and dirges. For instance, in the popular negro spiritual "Sing Low, Sweet Chariot," the river Jordan represents death while the chariot represents salvation into the Promised Land (heaven), which lies on the other side of the Jordan (death):

I looked over Jordan,
An' what did I see,
Comin' for to carry me home?
A band of angels comin' after me,
Comin' for to carry me home!
Swing low, sweet chariot ...

Mary Elizabeth Frye is, perhaps, the most mysterious poet who appears on this page, and perhaps in the annals of poetry. Rather than spoiling the mystery, I will present her poem first, then provide the details ...

Do not stand at my grave and weep
by Mary Elizabeth Frye

Do not stand at my grave and weep:
I am not there; I do not sleep.
I am a thousand winds that blow,
I am the diamond glints on snow,
I am the sun on ripened grain,
I am the gentle autumn rain.
When you awaken in the morning’s hush
I am the swift uplifting rush
Of quiet birds in circling flight.
I am the soft starshine at night.
Do not stand at my grave and cry:
I am not there; I did not die.

This consoling elegy had a very mysterious genesis, as it was written by Mary Elizabeth Frye, a Baltimore housewife who lacked a formal education, having been orphaned at age three. She had never written poetry before. Frye wrote the poem on a ripped-off piece of a brown grocery bag, in a burst of compassion for a Jewish girl who had fled the Holocaust only to receive news that her mother had died in Germany. The girl was weeping inconsolably because she couldn't visit her mother's grave to share her tears of love and bereavement. When the poem was named Britain's most popular poem in a 1996 Bookworm poll, with more than 30,000 call-in votes despite not having been one of the critics' nominations, an unlettered orphan girl had seemingly surpassed all England's many cultured and degreed ivory towerists in the public's estimation. Although the poem's origin was disputed for some time (it had been attributed to Native American and other sources), Frye's authorship was confirmed in 1998 after investigative research by Abigail Van Buren, the newspaper columnist better known as "Dear Abby." The poem has also been called "I Am" due to its rather biblical repetitions of the phrase. Frye never formally published or copyrighted the poem, so we believe it is in the public domain and can be shared, although we recommend that it not be used for commercial purposes, since Frye never tried to profit from it herself.

English and American protest poetry and songwriting probably begin with William Blake, the great English poet, artist and mystic. In his poem "Jerusalem," the city of Jerusalem stands for the England that Blake believed England should have been, and the "dark Satanic mills" stand for what Dwight D. Eisenhower would later call the "military-industrial complex":

And did the Countenance Divine
Shine forth upon our clouded hills?
And was Jerusalem builded here
Among these dark Satanic mills?
—"Jerusalem" by William Blake

Blake's poem also mentions a "chariot of fire," which later became the title of a popular movie. While we can't be sure exactly what Blake means by his "chariot of fire," it probably refers to the fiery chariot that carried the prophet Elijah up to heaven, and so may symbolize correct belief, or true religion. But Blake did not agree with the black-robed priests of orthodox Christianity who erected "THOU SHALT NOT" signs in his garden of earthly delights. Blake was a mystic who claimed to speak to angels and saints on a regular basis, and he believed in free love, not what he saw as the false morality of the Religious Right of his day.

Interestingly, one of the best-known apologists for orthodox Christianity, C. S. Lewis, was haunted by a line of Norse poetry ...

I heard a voice, that cried,
“Balder the beautiful lies dead, lies dead . . .”
a voice like the flight of white cranes . . .
—“Tegner's Drapa,” loose translation by Michael R. Burch

Here are some of my own personal choices for the best brief, concise metaphors in the English language, in the form of epigrams (short, pithy sayings):

It is better to light a candle than curse the darkness.—Eleanor Roosevelt
Conscience is a man’s compass. Vincent Van Gogh
And your very flesh shall be a great poem. Walt Whitman
Advertising is the rattling of a stick inside a swill bucket. George Orwell
Dying is a wild night and a new road. Emily Dickinson
The violets in the mountains have broken the rocks.—Tennessee Williams
In the depths of winter, I finally learned that within me there lay an invincible summer.—Albert Camus
Little strokes fell great oaks.—Ben Franklin
Never tell me the sky's the limit when there are footprints on the moon.—Unknown
Even if you're on the right track, you'll get run over if you just sit there.—Will Rogers
I don't approve of political jokes; I have seen too many of them get elected.—Jon Stewart
Each has his past shut in him like the leaves of a book known to him by heart, and his friends can only read the title.—Virginia Woolf
Happiness is like a butterfly: the more you chase it, the more it will elude you. But if you turn your attention to other things, it will come and sit softly on your shoulder.—Henry David Thoreau
It takes courage to push yourself to places that you have never been before, to test your limits, to break through barriers. And the day came when the risk it took to remain tight inside the bud was more painful than the risk it took to blossom.—Anaïs Nin

In each case above, the saying means more than its literal meaning. Below are some short, epigrammatic poems that also convey more than their literal meaning ...

I am his Highness' dog at Kew;
pray tell me, sir, whose dog are you?
—Alexander Pope

Deep autumn:
my neighbor,
how does he continue ...
—Matsuo Basho, loose translation by Michael R. Burch

Come, investigate loneliness!
a solitary leaf
clings to the Kiri tree
—Matsuo Basho, loose translation by Michael R. Burch

The apparition of these faces in the crowd:
Petals on a wet, black bough.
—“In A Station Of The Metro” by Ezra Pound

Like a skein of loose silk blown against a wall
She walks by the railing of a path in Kensington Gardens
—“The Garden” by Ezra Pound

While this America settles in the mould of its vulgarity, heavily thickening to empire,
And protest, only a bubble in the molten mass, pops and sighs out, and the mass hardens,
—“Shine, Perishing Republic” by Robinson Jeffers

But for him it was his last afternoon as himself,
An afternoon of nurses and rumours;
The provinces of his body revolted,
The squares of his mind were empty,
Silence invaded the suburbs ...
—“In Memory of W. B. Yeats” by W. H. Auden

Here are Tweets that use metaphor to good effect ...

My phone reception is so clear, I can hear my wife’s eyes rolling as I talk.—@cpinck
The Tea Party enthusiast at work wants everyone to know she "brung muffins." In the distance, a lonely coyote howls.—@lafix

Here are two of my favorite modern metaphors and the evocative story behind them ...

How I wish, how I wish you were here.
We're just two lost souls
Swimming in a fish bowl,
Year after year ...

Shine on you crazy diamond ...
Come on you miner for truth and delusion, and shine!

The metaphors above were penned by Roger Waters of the progressive rock group Pink Floyd to express his hopes and concerns for Syd Barrett, a childhood friend and former bandmate. Barrett, a wonderfully attractive and talented young man, had been the band’s lead vocalist, lead guitarist and primary songwriter during its formative years. But unfortunately Barrett struggled with mental illness complicated by drug abuse, and at the time the lyrics above were penned, the other band members hadn’t seen Barrett for an extended period of time.

Barrett showed up unannounced during the recording of the songs above. Here is how Pink Floyd keyboardist Richard Wright recalls that unusual day:

Roger [Waters] was there, and he was sitting at the desk, and I came in and I saw this guy sitting behind him--huge, bald, fat guy. I thought, "He looks a bit ... strange ..." Anyway, so I sat down with Roger at the desk and we worked for about ten minutes, and this guy kept on getting up and brushing his teeth and then sitting--doing really weird things, but keeping quiet. And I said to Roger, "Who is he?" and Roger said "I don't know." and I said "Well, I assumed he was a friend of yours," and he said "No, I don't know who he is." Anyway, it took me a long time, and then suddenly I realized it was Syd, after maybe 45 minutes. He came in as we were doing the vocals for “Shine On You Crazy Diamond,” which was basically about Syd. He just, for some incredible reason he picked the very day that we were doing a song which was about him. And we hadn't seen him, I don't think, for two years before. That's what's so incredibly ... weird about this guy. And a bit disturbing, as well, I mean, particularly when you see a guy, that you don't, you couldn't recognize him. And then, for him to pick the very day we want to start putting vocals on, which is a song about him. Very strange.

It is also very strange that the closing line of “Shine On You Crazy Diamond” (“Come on you miner for truth and delusion, and shine!”) seems to have summoned Barrett to the christening of the songs written about him!

The ancient Greeks invented gods, the Muses, to explain the inexplicable source of poetry, which they assumed to be divinely inspired. While I can’t claim to “know” if there is any truth to the idea that gods sometimes inspire human poetry, I can certain share some of the better examples and more interesting stories about them.

But first, let’s try to define what we mean by the terms “metaphor” and “simile.”

According to the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, metaphor is a form of transference with magical qualities. In his Rhetoric, Aristotle said: “Metaphor especially has clarity and sweetness and strangeness.” The best metaphors might even be considered a form of transport. For instance:

Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate.
—“Sonnet 73" by William Shakespeare

One can easily imagine a young girl being temporarily transported by such words (and the young man reciting them might feel equally transported). In Aristotle’s Rhetoric he also says that metaphor makes learning pleasant, perhaps thinking of the entertaining insights poets like Homer create through vivid, memorable metaphors. But metaphor exists outside poetry and literature. For example:

Richard the Lionheart
Ted “the Splendid Splinter” Williams
Roberto "Hands of Stone" Duran

King Richard I of England was renowned for his courage in battle, hence the sobriquet “Lionheart” or “Lionhearted.” Ted Williams was one of the greatest hitters in the history of baseball — some say the best — and because a baseball bat is made of wood, and because Williams was lean and tall, “Splendid Splinter” says worlds and makes perfect sense, in two perfect words. Roberto Duran was a boxer who knocked out most of his opponents, thus "Hands of Stone."

Simile is a form of metaphor that uses “like” or “as”:

O my Luve is like a red, red rose
That’s newly sprung in June;
O my Luve is like the melody
That’s sweetly played in tune.
—“A Red, Red Rose" by Robert Burns

When asked to name the primary influence on his artistic life, the famous singer-songwriter Bob Dylan (who “borrowed” his last name from the first name of the Welsh poet Dylan Thomas) cited “A Red, Red Rose" by the great Scottish poet Robert Burns. The poem above is written an somewhat archaic version of the Scots-English dialect, but it still reads wonderfully well today. And while metaphor is probably as old as the eldest human language, the best metaphors remain both stunningly current and endlessly, vitally alive:

That time of year thou mayst in me behold
When yellow leaves, or none, or few, do hang
Upon those boughs which shake against the cold,
Bare ruined choirs, where late the sweet birds sang.
—“Sonnet 73" by William Shakespeare

Metaphor and simile have been with the human race for thousands of years. Here is an excerpt poem from an ancient Egyptian poem that is probably around 4,000 years old:

Death is before me today
Like the sky when it clears
Like a man's wish to see home after numberless years of captivity.

Metaphor is apparently as old as language itself, appearing in the earliest surviving work of literature, the Epic of Gilgamesh. For instance, Gilgamesh has a dream about a "falling star." Mystified, he turns to his mother Ninsun for its interpretation and she tells him that this "fallen star" is a metaphor representing a great friend or brother who would soon join Gilgamesh. In fact, it has been suggested that the entire story of Gilgamesh is an extended metaphor for man’s longing for immortality and his struggle to find meaning in a world full of death.

The earliest English poem still extant today employs the metaphors of God being the first Architect and Poet ...

Now let us honour heaven-kingdom's Guardian,
the might of the Architect and his mind-plans,
the work of the Glory-Father. First he, the Eternal Lord,
established the foundation of wonders.
Then he, the First Poet, created heaven as a roof
for the sons of men, Holy Creator,
Maker of mankind. Then he, the eternal Lord,
afterwards made men middle-earth: Master almighty!
—“Cædmon's Hymn” (circa 658-680 AD), loose translation by Michael R. Burch

"Cædmon's Hymn" was composed sometime between 658 and 680 AD. According to the Venerable Bede (673-735), Cædmon was an illiterate herdsman who was given the gift of poetic composition by an angel. In the original poem, hardly a word is recognizable as English because Cædmon was writing in a somewhat Anglicized form of ancient German. The word "England" harkens back to Angle-land; the Angles were a Germanic tribe. Nevertheless, by Cædmon's time the foundations of English poetry were being laid, particularly in the areas of accentual meter and alliteration. Poets were considered to be "Makers" (as in William Dunbar's "Lament for the Makaris"), and poetry was considered to have a divine origin, so the poem may express a sort of affinity between the poet and his God.

Homer developed metaphor into an art form, and his invention of the epic simile was picked up by later writers including Dante and Milton. In the Middle Ages the device of allegory underpinned much of French and English writing, while the later Metaphysical poets employed increasingly elaborate metaphorical conceits in the sixteenth century. Today most contemporary English/American poetry and songwriting tends toward the lyric, so the use of metaphor tends to be more specific than general, but there are wonderful exceptions to the rule. Here are some more typical modern metaphors, followed by entire poems that may be considered extended metaphors ...

There's a lady who's sure
All that glitters is gold
And she's buying a stairway to heaven ...
—“Stairway to Heaven" by Led Zeppelin

And so it was that later,
As the miller told his tale,
That her face at first just ghostly,
Turned a whiter shade of pale.
—“Whiter Shade of Pale" by Procol Harum

A winter's day
In a deep and dark December;
I am alone,
Gazing from my window to the streets below
On a freshly fallen silent shroud of snow.
I am a rock,
I am an island.
—“I am a Rock" by Paul Simon

There's a killer on the road
His brain is squirmin' like a toad
—“Riders on the Storm" by the Doors

And it seems to me you lived your life
Like a candle in the wind
—“Goodbye Norma Jean" by Elton John and Bennie Taupin

You do not do, you do not do
Any more, black shoe
In which I have lived like a foot
For thirty years, poor and white,
Barely daring to breathe or Achoo.
—“Daddy” by Sylvia Plath

There's a stake in your fat black heart
And the villagers never liked you.
They are dancing and stamping on you.
They always knew it was you.
Daddy, daddy, you bastard, I'm through.
—“Daddy” by Sylvia Plath

Now that I have your heart by heart, I see
The wharves with their great ships and architraves;
The rigging and the cargo and the slaves
On a strange beach under a broken sky.
O not departure, but a voyage done!
The bales stand on the stone; the anchor weeps
Its red rust downward, and the long vine creeps
Beside the salt herb, in the lengthening sun.
—“Song For The Last Act” by Louise Bogan

Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player
That struts and frets his hour upon the stage
And then is heard no more: it is a tale
Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,
Signifying nothing.
—“MacBeth” by William Shakespeare

They flee from me that sometime did me seek
With naked foot stalking in my chamber.
I have seen them gentle tame and meek
That now are wild and do not remember
That sometime they put themselves in danger
To take bread at my hand; and now they range
Busily seeking with a continual change.
—“They Flee from Me” by Thomas Wyatt

With an host of furious fancies,
Whereof I am commander,
With a burning spear and a horse of air
To the wilderness I wander.
By a knight of ghosts and shadows
I summoned am to tourney
Ten leagues beyond the wide world's end:
Methinks it is no journey.
Yet I will sing, Any food, any feeding,
Feeding, drink or clothing;
Come dame or maid, be not afraid,
Poor Tom will injure nothing.
—“Tom O' Bedlam's Song” anonymous ballad, circa 1620

Since it is the property
Of the sapient
To sit firm upon a rock,
it is evident
That I am a fool, since I
Am a flowing river,
Never under the same sky,
Transient for ever.
—“His Confession” by the Archpoet; circa 1165; translated from the original Medieval Latin by Helen Waddell

Oh, fallen camellias,
if I were you,
I'd leap into the torrent!
— Takaha Shugyo, loose translation by Michael R. Burch

Our life here on earth:
to what shall we compare it?
It is not like a rowboat
departing at daybreak,
leaving no trace of man in its wake?
—Takaha Shugyo, loose translation by Michael R. Burch

Wulf and Eadwacer
Anonymous Anglo Saxon poem, circa 960 AD
loose translation by Michael R. Burch

It is to the others as if someone robbed them of a gift.
They will kill him if he comes in force.
It is otherwise with us.

Wulf is on one island; I, on another.
That island is fast, surrounded by fens.
There are fierce men on this island.
They will kill him if he comes in force.
It is otherwise with us.

Wulf's far wanderings, I suffered with hope.
Whenever it rained and I woke, disconsolate,
the bold warrior came: he took me in his arms.
For me, that was pleasant, but it also was painful.
Wulf, O, my Wulf, my ache for you
has made me sick; your infrequent visits
have left me famished, unable to eat.
Do you hear, Eadwacer? A she-wolf has borne
our wretched whelp to the woods.
One can easily sunder what never was one:
our song together.

The metaphor of a loveless relationship being like a song in which two voices never really harmonized remains one of the strongest in the English language, or any language. Now here are poems that are essentially metaphors, being extended metaphors ...

The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner
by Randall Jarrell

From my mother's sleep I fell into the State,
And I hunched in its belly till my wet fur froze.
Six miles from earth, loosed from its dream of life,
I woke to black flak and the nightmare fighters.
When I died they washed me out of the turret with a hose.

Randall Jarrell was born in Nashville, Tennessee, in 1914, the year World War I began. He earned bachelor's and master's degrees from Vanderbilt University, where he studied under Robert Penn Warren, John Crowe Ransom and Allen Tate. In 1942 he enlisted in the Army Air Corps and worked as a control tower operator during World War II, an experience which influenced and provided material for his poetry. Jarrell’s reputation as a poet was established in 1945 with the publication of his second book, Little Friend, Little Friend, which "bitterly and dramatically documents the intense fears and moral struggles of young soldiers."

Last Night
by Faiz Ahmed Faiz
loose translation by Michael R. Burch

Last night, your memory stole into my heart
as spring sweeps uninvited into barren gardens,
as morning breezes reinvigorate dormant deserts,
as a patient suddenly feels well, for no apparent reason ...

A Noiseless Patient Spider
by Walt Whitman

A noiseless patient spider,
I mark'd where on a little promontory it stood isolated,
Mark'd how to explore the vacant vast surrounding,
It launch'd forth filament, filament, filament, out of itself,
Ever unreeling them, ever tirelessly speeding them.

And you O my soul where you stand,
Surrounded, detached, in measureless oceans of space,
Ceaselessly musing, venturing, throwing, seeking the spheres to connect them,
Till the bridge you will need be form'd, till the ductile anchor hold,
Till the gossamer thread you fling catch somewhere, O my soul.

Sweet Rose of Virtue
by William Dunbar [1460-1525]
loose translation by Michael R. Burch

Sweet rose of virtue and of gentleness,
delightful lily of youthful wantonness,
richest in bounty and in beauty clear
and in every virtue that is held most dear?
except only that you are merciless.

Into your garden, today, I followed you;
there I saw flowers of freshest hue,
both white and red, delightful to see,
and wholesome herbs, waving resplendently?
yet everywhere, no odor but bitter rue.

I fear that March with his last arctic blast
has slain my fair rose of pallid and gentle cast,
whose piteous death does my heart such pain
that, if I could, I would compose her roots again?
so comforting her bowering leaves have been.

The HyperTexts

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The wind is thus a destroyer and a preserver. The west wind also sweeps along storm clouds. It is the death song of the year. With amazon store card payment synchrony night that closes the year will come rain, lightning, and hail; there will be storms in the Mediterranean and the Atlantic. The poet pleads with the west wind to endow him with some of its power, for he feels depressed and helpless. If he were possessed of some of the power of the west wind, he would be inspired to write poetry which the world would read and by which it would be spiritually renewed, just as the renewal which is spring succeeds the dormancy of winter.

Shelley appended a note to the "Ode to the West Wind" when it appeared in the Prometheus Unbound volume in "This poem was conceived and chiefly written in a wood that skirts the Arno, near Florence, and on a day when that tempestuous wind, whose temperature is at once mild and animating, was collecting the vapours which pour down the autumnal rains.

They began, as I foresaw, at sunset with a violent tempest of hail and rain, attended by that magnificent thunder and lightning peculiar to the Cisalpine regions. The note is interesting in that it shows that the poem came out of a specific experience. The imagery of the poem suggests a natural phenomenon that is observed while it is taking place. The fact that it was written near Florence, Dante's city, may explain why Shelley used terza ninathe stanza of Dante's Divine Comedybut rare in English poetry, in the ode.

Terza nina is a series of triplets with interlocking rhymes, aba, bcb, cdc, etc. Shelley modified the pattern by ending each of the five sections of the poem with a climactic couplet. In keeping with his terza nina stanza, he concentrates on the effects of the west wind on three classes of objects: leaves, clouds, and water. The combination of terza nina and the threefold effect of the west wind gives the poem a pleasing structural symmetry.

In the ode, Shelley, as in "To a Skylark" and "The Cloud," uses the poetic technique of myth, with which he had been working on a large scale in Prometheus Unbound in The west wind is a spirit, as is the skylark.

It possesses great powers and for this very reason Shelley can pray to it for what he feels he is deeply in need of. He falls "upon the thorns of life," sun and surf realty outer banks nc bleeds; a "heavy weight of hours has chained and bowed" him. It was Shelley's belief that poetry, by appealing to the imagination, could stir the reader to action in a given direction. With Shelley, this direction was liberty and democracy.

In Is lindt 85 dark chocolate good for you Unboundhe sketched the wonderful world of freedom that he dreamed of; readers, fascinated by Shelley's glowing descriptions, would be stimulated to want such a world too. Unfortunately, readers seemed uninterested in his poetry, and democracy was not making progress in the Europe ofwhen he wrote the poem.If we can't tunnel through the Earth, how do we know what's at its center? A lady introduce her husband's name with saying by which can stop or move train what is that name.

Give points yo advocate thst biology is linked with physics chemistry mathsmatics geography. All Rights Reserved.

Shelley's Poems

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Part-4- Ode to the West Wind by P. B. Shelley. Explanation in Hindi.

Literary Devices and Figures of Speech. What is the Figure of speech of the poem ode to the west wind? Wiki User Having a conversation with something which isn't actually alive is called Apostrophe. In Ode to the West Wind, Shelley talks to the wind - so the main figure of speech used is Apostrophe. Related Questions Asked in Poetry, Ode What season of the year is presented in the poem ode to the west wind? The poem describes the west wind in the Autumn or, as the Americans say, the Fall.

Asked in Ode How does the poem 'ode to the west wind' reflect the poet's love for liberty? Asked in Poetry, Ode How does west wind effected the land sky and sea in poem ode to the west wind? Percy Bysshe Shelley in Asked in Poetry What are the figures of speech used in the poem annabel lee? Asked in Literature and Language The tumult of thy mighty harmonies?

Shelley, in is poem, "Ode to the West Wind", exalt the west wind with these words: "The tumult of they mighty harmonies". Shelley, claims the west wind to be mighty and musical with its tumult wave. There is a blend of devouring and preserving tone in the harmonies of west wind. Asked in Poetry What is the figure of speech used in the poem the highwayman? Metaphor - "The wind was a torrent of darkness" Alliteration - "cobbles, clattered, creaked" Onomatopoeia - "creaked" Simile - "his hair like mouldy hay" Personification - "There was Death at every window".

Asked in Allegory and Simile What is the figure of speech of simile? A simile is a comparison of two unlike things using like or as. Example: He ran like the wind, or she as fast as the wind. Asked in Poetry What is the full poem?Skip to: content. John the Divine in the Bible, 1. And being turned, I saw seuen golden Candlesticks, 13 And in the midst of the seuen candlestickes, one like vnto the Sonne of manclothed with a garment downe to the foot, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle.

This ode, one of afew personal lyrics published with his great verse drama, "Prometheus Unbound,"identifies Shelley with his heroic, tormented Titan.

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By stealing fire from heaven, Prometheus enabled humanity to found civilization. In punishment, according to Hesiod's account, Zeus chained Prometheus on a mountain and gave him unending torment, as an eagle fed from his constantly restored liver.

Shelley completed both his dramatic poem and "Ode to the West Wind" in autumn in Florence, home of the great Italian medieval poet, Dante. The autumn wind Shelley celebrates in this ode came on him, standing in the Arno forest near Florence, just as he was finishing "Prometheus Unbound. Shelley's ode invokes a like ascent from death to life for his own spark-like, potentially firy thoughts and words. Like Myat&t mobile app, Shelley hopes that his fire, a free-thinking, reformist philosophy, will enlighten humanity and liberate it from intellectual and moral imprisonment.

He writes about his hopes for the future. A revolutionary, Shelley believed that poets exercise the same similes in ode to the west wind mental powers that make civilization itself. Poets are the hierophants of an unapprehended inspiration, the mirrors of the gigantic shadows which nhl 3.5 lime near me casts upon the present, the words which express what they understand not, the trumpets which sing to battle and feel not what they inspire: the influence which is moved not, but moves.

Poets are the unacknowledged legislators of the World. The trumpeting poetic imagination, inspired by sources -- spirits -- unknown to the poet himself, actually reverses time. Poets prophesy, not by consciously extrapolating from past to present, and from present to future, with instrumental reason, but by capitulating to the mind's intuition, by freeing the imagination.

Poets influence what the future will bring by unknowingly reflecting or "mirroring" future's "shadows" on the present. For Shelley, a living entity or spirit, not a mechanism, drives the world. By surrendering to the creative powers of the mind, the poet unites his spirit with the world's spirit across time. The west wind, Zephirus, represents that animate universe in Shelley's ode.

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Shelley implores the West Wind to make him its "lyre" 57that is, its wind-harp. This is not just a pretty figure of speech from nature. We now recognize that poetic inspiration itself arises from a "wild", "uncontrollable,"; and "tameless" source like the wind, buffeting the mind's unconscious.

ode to the west wind figures of speech

Long before cognitive psychology taught us this fact, Shelley clearly saw that no one could watch her or his own language process as it worked. Like all procedural memories, it is recalled only in the doing. We are unconscious of its workings, what contributes both content and form, semantics and syntax, to our utterances.

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He writes that "the mind in creation is as a fading coal which some invisible influence, like an inconstant windawakens to transitory brightness; this power arises from within, like the colour of a flower which fades and changes as it is developed, and the conscious portions of our natures are unprophetic either of its approach or its departure" Section This epic metaphor goes beyond the action of the wind on the lyre, the world on the mind.

Inspiration gives the poet a melody, a sequence of simple notes, resembling the wind's "stream" 15but his creative mind imposes a new harmony of this melody, by adding chords and by repeating and varying the main motifs. The human imagination actively works with this "wind" to impose "harmony" on its melody.

The lyre "accomodate[s] its chords to the motions of that which strikes them, in a determined proportion of sound; even as the musician can accommodate his voice to the sound of the lyre" Section 8.JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser.

For the best experience on our site, be sure to turn on Javascript in your browser. Using the formal and old-fashioned "thou" and plenty of alliteration, the speaker proclaims his request with dignity. Odes are an ancient form of poetry that first appeared in classical Greek; they were extremely popular among the Romantic poets. Wordsworth, Coleridge, Keats, and Shelley all wrote odes that are still among the most famous poems in the English language.

We know that this is going to be a very serious poem.

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Basically, calling the poem an "Ode" is like putting "Black Tie Only" on a wedding invitation — things are going to be formal perhaps even to the point of awkwardness. The first section establishes one point; the second section establishes a contrary point, and the end of the poem brings them both together. Not every ode fits this pattern perfectly, but it works pretty well for "Ode to the West Wind," which shifts from second-person to first-person at the beginning of Canto IV and then moves on to consider the West Wind and speaker together in Canto V.

Oh, and what about the "West Wind" part of the title? Why the West Wind? More than anything else, Shelley sets this poem in the human mind. Even though the speaker claims that his thoughts are "like withered leaves" 64we learn that he is "tameless, and swift, and proud" 56 like Nature itself. In fact, by juxtaposing the wild West Wind blowing over the entire Earth with the desire of the speaker to scatter his thoughts, Shelley tries to fuse the mind of Man and the infinite range of Nature.

Even before the speaker starts talking about himself by saying, "I this" and "I that," we know that there is a speaker here. Not only does every poem have a speaker, but this speaker is addressing the West Wind, calling it "thou" and invoking its aid.

We know that this speaker is concerned about sending his ideas out into the world for other people to experience. He feels incapable of doing this on his own because of something that has happened to him.

It might be some specific traumatic thing, but it might just be the general pain of living. He only refers to it as "the thorns of life" We also suspect the speaker might be a writer or even a poet, because he likes to pun on the word "leaves," which could be things that fall off trees but could also be pages of books.

This poem is right in the middle of the range. But it does have metaphors that remind us of the analogy section on the SATs. But it also has sentences that are more twisted than a corkscrew. Shelley belonged to a philosophical movement called "neo-Platonism," which held that there was a perfect world of "forms" out there somewhere, and his resulting idealism usually causes him to leave the Earth entirely behind and soar up into the heavens with the "angels of rain and lightning" and "Spirit[s] fierce.

The most important form here is the ode.

My Essay Point

A lot of, ahem, other study sites will tell you that "Ode to the West Wind" is written in terza rima and leave it at that. Go check out what Shmoop has to say about Dante's Inferno. The idea with terza rima is that the lines are in groups of three, and the middle rhyme of one set of three becomes the outside rhyme of the next set. We prefer to think of it in a sandwich metaphor: the filling of each "sandwich" or stanza becomes the bread of the next one. Shelley fixes this problem by following each set of four three-line stanzas with a couplet.

In this poem, Shelley also plays with another form: the sonnet. For one thing, a sonnet is a fourteen-line poem in iambic pentameter.Shelley was an optimistic radical, who had a firm belief in his capacities to modify society. Historically, the poem is preceded by the Peterloo Massacre ofin which thousands of working-class citizens, demanding parliamentary reform were killed by royal soldiers at a rally in St. However, being dethatched from the political happenings in England, he could do little, a fact that resonates with the looming helplessness, discernable throughout the poem.

Throughout the poem, there are enough instances that evoke the presence of death. Consequently, there is every reason to hope, to look forward to days of spring. In lines, 11and 12, when the poet compares the sprouting of seeds with the movement of a flock of sheep, one gets a picturesque view of the ushering of spring.

In lines, 24 and 25, when Shelly calls the cloudy sky, the vault of a tomb, one gets the impression of a tumultuous storm. To have a line by line explanation of the poem, you may go through the summary. Your email address will not be published. My Essay Point. Thou dirge Of the dying year, to which this closing night Will be the dome of a vast sepulchre, Vaulted with all thy congregated might Of vapours, from whose solid atmosphere Black rain, and fire, and hail will burst: oh hear!

IV If I were a dead leaf thou mightest bear; If I were a swift cloud to fly with thee; A wave to pant beneath thy power, and share The impulse of thy strength, only less free Than thou, O uncontrollable!

Oh, lift me as a wave, a leaf, a cloud! I fall upon the thorns of life! I bleed! The Hollow Men by T. Eliot: A Summary. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published.

Quote of the day Technology has to be invented or adopted.Yellow, and black, and pale, and hectic red, Pestilence-stricken multitudes: O thou, Who chariotest to their dark wintry bed.

The winged seeds, where they lie cold and low, Each like a corpse within its grave, until Thine azure sister of the Spring shall blow. Thou dirge. Of the dying year, to which this closing night Will be the dome of a vast sepulchre, Vaulted with all thy congregated might.

Of vapours, from whose solid atmosphere Black rain, and fire, and hail will burst: oh hear! All overgrown with azure moss and flowers So sweet, the sense faints picturing them! Cleave themselves into chasms, while far below The sea-blooms and the oozy woods which wear The sapless foliage of the ocean, know. Thy voiceand suddenly grow gray with fear, And tremble and despoil themselves: oh hear! If I were a dead leaf thou mightest bear; If I were a swift cloud to fly with thee; A wave to pant beneath thy powerand share.

The impulse of thy strength, only less free Than thou, O uncontrollable! If even I were as in my boyhood, and could be. As thus with thee in prayer in my sore need. Oh, lift me as a wave, a leaf, a cloud! I fall upon the thorns of life!

I bleed! Make me thy lyre, even as the forest is: What if my leaves are falling like its own! The tumult of thy mighty harmonies. Will take from both a deep, autumnal toneSweet though in sadness.

Be thou, Spirit fierce, My spirit!

"Ode to the West Wind" Figure of Speech?

Be thou me, impetuous one! And, by the incantation of this verse. The poet has used various literary devices to enhance the intended impacts of her poem. Some of the major literary devices have been analyzed below. The literary analysis shows that appropriate use of literary elements has made the poem, not just thought-provoking but also explains the power of human imagination and nature.

Poetic and literary devices are the same, but a few are used only in poetry. Here is the analysis of some of the poetic devices used in this poem. The lines stated below can be used when teaching children about the winter season. These could also be used to describe any personal experience of taking a walk in the winter. Thou dirge Of the dying year, to which this closing night Will be the dome of a vast sepulchre, Vaulted with all thy congregated might Of vapours, from whose solid atmosphere Black rain, and fire, and hail will burst: oh hear!

IV If I were a dead leaf thou mightest bear; If I were a swift cloud to fly with thee; A wave to pant beneath thy powerand share The impulse of thy strength, only less free Than thou, O uncontrollable! V Make me thy lyre, even as the forest is: What if my leaves are falling like its own! The tumult of thy mighty harmonies Will take from both a deep, autumnal toneSweet though in sadness.

O Wind, If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind? My Captain!We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. Ode to the West Wind is a poem by Percy Bysshe Shelley that shows the correspondence between the inner and the outer world of the poet.

It is among his famous poems. This theme is metaphorically shown by the rejuvenation of nature through the west wind as an agent. It is described through his excellent use of imagery in it. Don't use plagiarized sources.

One may examine the excellence in the usage of imagery through the way it progresses from the beginning till the end. The poem commences with the imagery of the earth, shifting its attention to the air, then moving towards the water, and finally ending at the fire.

ode to the west wind figures of speech

Thus, the west wind affects all the four elements of the universe: earth, air, fire and water. All these images are conjured up in one thing-the poet-prophet figure. Before discussing these four imageries, it is necessary, at first, to discuss the symbol of the west wind itself. The west wind symbolizes a force, may be of the God or Christ like figure or of any powerful might that could dominate even the most powerful elements-earth, air, fire, and water. The speaker wants to be both the west wind itself and the objects the west wind spreads.

The poet wants himself to be that force so that he may bring some revolution among the mankind. As Shelley says:. Be thou me, impetuous one! At first, there comes the imagery of the earth.

ode to the west wind figures of speech

The earth is mostly associated with the femininity-fertility, rebirth, and stability. Both the dead leaves and the winged seeds together show the cyclicality of life on earth.

At the outset, the power of the west wind stirs the earth by blowing its leaves. This is a visual imagery to arouse the sensual expression of these emotions in the reader. By showing this imagery the poet wants to say that his thoughts too have become pale and dead and need some force that may derive them like the leaves.

ode to the west wind figures of speech

Since his thoughts have become pale and hectic red due to the growing age, he wants the rebirth of his emotions just like the winged seeds. West wind plants seeds in the ground during autumn and when the spring comes the buds grow out of them. They are buried like a corpse in the grave. His thoughts have become the corpse.


Источник: https://erw.c13h28lensed.pw/ode-to-the-west-wind-figures-of-speech.html

Outline:

Imagery is a word used in literary terms to refer to mental images that are evoked by the use of descriptive language. Imagery in this sense is a series of words used to create visual picture of the experience. It helps the reader imagine the sensations described by the author, through his language. The author uses action words which bring out sensory online trading academy refund by creating the mental image of the subject. Such images can be created by using figures of speech such as similes, metaphors, personification and assonance.

Imagery is the name given to the elements in a poem that trigger the senses and help create mental images. Imagery need not be only visual; they also include the five senses, such as sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell which responds to the description of the author. Examples of visual imagery can be found in the poem.Ode to A Nightingale." It is a poem in which Keats uses detailed description to contrast natural beauty and reality, life and death. In the opening verse, the writer becomes captivated by the nightingale's peaceful song. Throughout, the song becomes a powerful spell that transcends the mortal world of Keats. Interwoven throughout the poem are images that reflect his thoughts about death. It is important to note that Keats' father & mother died when he was young and his brother had recently died of tuberculosis, which probably accounts for this focus.

In the first stanza, Keats' mood is low and depressed but the nightingale's song creates a state of euphoria in him that allows him to escape reality. He is not envious of the bird's happy "lot" but is comforted by the nightingale's singing which lifts him from his unhappy mood.

              

ODE TO A NIGHTINGALE

 My heart aches, and a drowsy numbness pains

    My sense, as though of hemlock I had drunk,
Or emptied some dull opiate to the drains
    One minute past, and Lethe-wards had sunk:
'Tis not through envy of thy happy lot,  

  But being too happy in thine happiness,
 That thou, light-winged Dryad of the trees,
   In some melodious plot
  Of beechen green, and shadows numberless,
  Singest of summer in full-throated ease

The elements in a literary work are used to evoke mental images, not only of the visual sense, but of sensation and emotion as well. While most commonly used in reference to figurative language, imagery is a term which can apply to any and all elements of a poem that evoke sensory experience and emotional response, whether figurative or literal, and also applies to the concrete things which are used as a image.

Imaginative language transfers the poet's impressions of sight, sound, smell, taste and touch to the attentive reader as in "The Cloud ," by Percy Bysshe Shelley

 The Cloud

I bring fresh showers for the thirsty flowers,

  From the seas and the streams;

I bear light shade for the leaves when laid

  In their noonday dreams.

From my wings are shaken the dews that waken

 The sweet buds every one,

When rocked to rest on their mother’s breast,

 As she dances about the sun.

 Effective imagery has the power to utilize the inner wisdom of the reader and arouse meditative and inspirational responses. It adds more concrete initial impact, when the reader is able to get an image to relate to the description.

Related images are often clustered or scattered throughout a work, thus serving to create a particular effect. Images of disease, corruption, and death, for example, are recurrent patterns of Shakespeare's ‘Tempest’ .Imagery can also emphasize a theme or a thought, as do the suggestions of dissolution, depression, and mortality in John Keats' "Ode to a Nightingale." Imagery is used effectively by W.H.Davies to state that nothing is wonderful than “Leisure” to enjoy the beauty of life.

LEISURE

What is this life if’ full of care,

We have no time to stand and stare.

No time to see in broad daylight,

Streams full of stars like skies at night.

No time to turn at Beauty’s glance

And watch her feet, how they can dance.

No time to wait till her mouth can

Enrich that smile her eyes began.

A poor life this if, full of care,

We have no time to stand and stare.

.

The poet states in the first two lines, the theme of the poem. Then he goes onto paint small little pictures, which we can see and enjoy. The poet could just state ‘I see this or that’ but it is possible to conjure up, much more specific images by using figures of speech such as simile, personification or metaphor. The poet compares nature to beautiful woman, sparkling water to star studded sky at night. This line is simile.

According to M.H. Abrahams, Imagery is one of the most common terms used in modern criticism. Its application ranges from the mental pictures experienced by the reader of the poem, to the totality of elements which make up a poem. C.Day. Lewis in his ‘Poetic Image’ talks of an image, as a picture made out of words and that, a poem may itself be, an image, composed from multiplicity of images. Three uses of the word imagery are frequently meant.

Imagery is used to refer to all the qualitiesobjects or images taken collectively in the poem or works of literaturewhether by literal description or by indirect reference using figures of speech such as simile, metaphor personification. For e.g. in Wordsworth’s poem ‘She dwelt among the Untrodden’ ways

 ‘She dwelt among the untrodden ways
Beside the springs of Www maurices com capital one Maid whom there were none to praise
And very few to love:

A violet by a mossy tone
Half hidden from the eye!
-- Fair as a star, when only one
Is shining in the sky.

She lived unknown, and few could know
When Lucy ceased to be;
But she is in her grave, and, oh,
The difference to me!

The imagery in this broad sense refers to literal objects. The poem refers to (ways, maid grave) as well as the violet, and stone of the metaphor and star and sky of the simile; in the second stanza. The term image should not be taken to imply a visual reproduction of the object referred to, as some readers experience visual images on reading the passage and some do not and among those who do, the explicitness and details of the mind – pictures vary greatly. Also imagery includes auditory, tactile (touch), olfactory (smell), gustatory (taste) or kinesthetic (sensations of movement) as well as visual qualities. In his’ In memoriam’ number 101 for e.g.: Tennyson’s references are to qualities of smell and hearing, as well as to sight, in the lines

Unloved, that beech will gather brown…

         And many a rose-carnation feed

           With summer spice the humming air…

         

Imagery is used in the narrow sense, to signify only descriptions of visual in         

Coleridge’s Ancient Mariner.

 The rock shone bright, the Kirk no less,

           That stands above the rock:

           The moonlight steeped in silentness

           The steady weathercock.

Most commonly imagery is used to signify figurative language, especially usage of metaphors and similes. In fact recent criticism has stressed imagery in this sense as an essential component in poetry and as a major clue to poetic meaning, structure and effect.

 TYPES OF VISUAL IMAGES :

SIMPLE DESCRIPTION - a  large   number  of  images  which  arise  in a poem come from simple description of visible objects or actions. DRAMATIC SITUATION 
DRAMATIC MONOLOGUE - as soon as the reader becomes aware that the poem is a dramatic monologue, he visualizes a speaker with the result that the particularity of the situation is evident. 

 DIALOGUE - has the same effect as Dramatic Monologue. 

 STORY - like description, narration causes the reader or hearer to form images.  When the reader realizes that he is being told a tale he visualizes from habit; he does not wish to miss the point of the story. 

 METONYMY - when a poet uses metonymy, he names one thing when he really  
means another thing with which the first is closely connected. e.g. Seven little foreheads stared up at me from the first row. (where "foreheads" is used for "eyes" ). 

 SYNECDOCHE - when a poet uses synecdoche, he names a part of a thing whenhe means whole thing  (or vice versa) or the genius for the species. 6. ONOMATOPOEIA - although imagery usually  refers to visual images, there are also aural images.  The use of words which sound like their meaning is called onomatopoeia. e.g. buzz, hiss, clangsplash, murmur, chatter, etc. 


          

The persona of the poet, which is the deep well of his poetry will be a world created from all united savings bank san francisco he has known and felt and seen and heard and thought. His image-making poetic faculty and his imagination will put together his memories and his immediate perceptions into numberless varieties of shapes and associations beauty and power. The poet will always employ images in his poetry. However hard he tries, he cannot make poetry with out imagery.


Источник: http://peporoni.blogspot.com/2014/
The Ode to the West Wind was written by Percy Blythe Shelley.  Percy wrote this poem while traveling to Italy in 1819 during the autumn at the time the west wind blew and this experience inspired him out of admiration of the power of the wind as it blew away the dead leaves. What makes this poem unique was the way Shelley wrote it because it was in a style that was different from the standard way of writing poems.

Besides being used as a medium for communication, Shelley had shown how English could also be used creatively in an artful manner.  This can be done by the skillful use of what is called figurative language or figures of speech.  One particular characteristic that indicates the use of English as an art is their background.  Words are used to represent objects and it is up to the reader or listener to try and create these pictures in their minds.  Imagination is very vital to appreciate the artful use of English for without it, the art in English would be missed or overlooked.  Poems provide the best proof on how English can be artfully employed such as Shelleys poem.

In terms of stylistics, Shelley made use of various figures of speech to make his poem anything but dull. One style Shelley used was foregrounding.  Foregrounding is a technique where the writer would deviate from the standard writing norms.  The result of this would be a less than aesthetic use of words.  One example is his oft-repeated use of the preposition of in some lines such as in the second stanza (Ogidefa, 2008)
Of some fierce Maenad, even from the dim verge
Of the horizon to the zeniths height,
The locks of the approaching storm. Thou dirge
Of the dying year, to which this closing night
Will be the dome of a vast sepulchre
Vaulted with all thy congregated might
Of vapours, from whose solid atmosphere
Black rain, and fire, and hail will burst O hear

Shelley made use of alliteration where the first letters of the consistently follow in succession.  One example is from the first line, Wild West Wind.  At the start, Shelley sets the tone by making the poem sound invigorating the moment it is uttered.   Because (based on Shelleys experience or anyone for customer service number for chime bank matter), the wind is a living force of nature and it can also be strong if it wants to, hence, he wanted to capture the powerful essence of the wind.  The alliteration then helps put the readerspeaker in the right perspective and mood especially when these words are spoken vigorously.

With rhyme, where the last words of the lines tend to sound identical, Shelly applied a number of it all throughout.  The first stanza serves as an example of Shelleys liberal use of rhymes which often occurs between the words of the first and third lines
O wild West Wind, thou breath of Autumns being,
Thou, from whose unseen presence the leaves dead
Are driven, like ghosts from an enchanter fleeing,
Yellow, and black, and pale, and hectic red,
Pestilence-stricken multitudes O thou,
Who chariotest to their dark wintry bed
The wingd seeds, where they lie cold and low,
Each like a corpse within its grave,until
Thine azure sister of the Spring shall blow
Her clarion oer the dreaming earth, and fill
(Driving sweet buds like flocks to feed in air)
With living hues and odours plain and hill
For similes, words that are used to describe something of a similar quality or characteristic, Shelley made use these as well such as the following
Thou, from whose unseen presence the leaves dead
Are driven, like ghosts from an enchanter fleeing,

In this case, Shelley describes the movement of the leaves swept away by the wind by comparing it to a ghost pursued by an enchanter that is trying to exorcise it.  Ghosts are often depicted as ethereal, swirling flowing beings similes in ode to the west wind the wind-blown leaves tend to resemble that kind of dynamic movement.  Another use of simile can be found here
The wingd seeds, where they lie cold and low,
Each like a corpse within its grave, until
Thine azure sister of the Spring shall blow

    In this case, Shelley likened the seeds blown by the wind (hence winged as the wind carries them wherever it blows) and when it settles, the soil, also blown by the wind would cover it up and bury it and in time and with the help of the elements, it will grow like a corpse rising from its grave on the day of reckoning or when the spirit would rise out of it upon germination.  Another  use of simile can be found in these lines
Thou on whose stream, mid the steep skys commotion,
Loose clouds like Earths decaying leaves are shed,
Shook from the tangled boughs of Heaven and Ocean,
Angels of rain and lightning there are spread
On the blue surface of thine airy surge,
Like the bright hair uplifted from the head.

    Here, Shelley compares the clouds being detached or torn off a larger mass as if it is being shed off by the larger clouds.  He compares it to the leaves falling off the trees when they change color, a sign of autumn and the detachment of clouds indicate that the west wind is at work, the way Shelley must have observed it.  As for the rains, he must have observed them as they fell to the earth, straight and true in a fine straight as if it were hair rising from the head and made brighter through the illumination provided by lightning.

    Collocation entails the proper and appropriate use of a combination of words.  Such examples would be, Each like a corpse within its grave where corpse and grave go together and are often associated with each other.  Another would be Wild Spirit, which art moving everywhere. A spirit is often associated as a dynamic entity, it is never static and always moving.

    In metaphor, certain words are used to symbolize or represent the subjects Shelley mentioned earlier.  These words are used because they possess similar characteristics and attributes to the one being referred to.  Such examples are the following (Zheng, 2009) the leaves dead Are driven, like ghosts from and enchanter fleeing

In this case, the enchanter represents the west wind as it blows away the leaves the same way the enchanter drives away ghosts.  In addition, the west wind is also referred to as a wild spirit.  Another metaphor can be found here Shook from the tangled boughs of Heaven an Ocean In here, a large tree represents that heaven in an ocean.  The giveaway or hint that Shelley was referring to a tree is the word bough(s). Another one, The locks of an approaching storm represents the clouds in the sky when blown, tend to swirl like locks of hair.  Will be the dome of a vast sepulcher represents the night as it creeps in as the daytime gives way.  The night would blanket the sky like a dome and the word sepulcher or tomb adds emphasis that the night is often quiet like a tomb. A heavy weight of hours has chained and bowed. Here the hours symbolize the chains that hold or restrain something.  In this case, the heaviness of the hours tends to slow things down (Zheng, 2009)

    With regards to grammar, Shelley deliberately went against the rules of grammar in order to create an attention-grabbing effect.  Nothing gets the attention of the reader and listener like noticing something out of place or out of the ordinary.
On the blue surface of thine airy surge,

Thine azure sister of the Spring shall blow
In these lines, Shelley deliberately used thine instead of thy. Thine is roughly the equivalent of mine and thy is equivalent to my or your.  The purpose for the intentional deviation from the grammatical norms was aimed at getting peoples attention and helps make the poem anything but dull.

All in all, Shelley made use of various stylistics not only to capture the attention of the readerlistener but also provoke them into using their imagination to better appreciate the beauty and the power of the west wind the same way he saw it.  Through stylistics, he made the wind a living being people could feel even though it is unseen.
Источник: https://englishliterature-notes.blogspot.com/2014/09/an-analysis-of-percy-shelleys-ode-to.html
The HyperTexts

The Best Metaphors and Similes
Examples of Metaphors, Mixed Metaphors and Similes
Definitions of Metaphor, Simile, Symbol, Allegory, Catachresis, Surrealism, Absurdism, etc.

Who wrote the best metaphors in the English language? Where can we find the best examples of metaphors in English literature, poetry and music? If you’re a student, educator or a seeker on a quest to discover the best metaphors and similes―particularly in literature and poetry―I believe you’ve found the right page. Writers famous for their use of metaphors, similes and/or symbols include Homer, Sappho, Virgil, Ovid, Dante, Petrarch, Chaucer, Cervantes, Shakespeare, Milton, William Blake, John Keats, Walt Whitman, Emily Dickinson, Edgar Allan Poe, William Butler Yeats, Robert Frost, Wallace Stevens, Franz Kafka, James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, J. R. R. Tolkien and Bob Dylan. On this page I will endeavor to understand what they were up to, and why what they did was so effective.

compiled by Michael R. Burch, editor of The HyperTexts

METAPHOR DEFINITION: A metaphor is homes for sale in tennessee with land non-literal figure of speech, such as "iron hand" or "heart of stone." No human being has an actual hand of iron or a heart of stone, but we intuitively understand what such terms mean and imply. Metaphor is a form of transference, correspondence and/or parallelism.

Eros harrows my heart:
wild winds whipping desolate mountains,
uprooting oaks.
—Sappho, fragment 42, translation by Michael R. Burch

Sappho of Lesbos was one of the first great lyric poets we know by name. Her metaphor of lust (Eros was the Greek god of erotic love) being like a thunderstorm uprooting oaks is both powerful and timeless. If you like my translations you are welcome to share them, but please credit the original poet and translator.

Grasses wilt:
the braking locomotive
grinds to a halt.
—Yamaguchi Seishi, translation by Michael R. Burch

In this haiku by an oriental master, we see that metaphors are universal. The wilting grasses and the braking locomotive first savings bank mortgage represent the process of aging and dying.

METAPHOR EXAMPLES: Examples of commonly-used metaphors include "lemon," "bad egg," "black sheep," "wolf in sheep's clothing," "snake in the grass," "honey," "shining star," "apple of my eye," "dove," "angel of light" and "knight in shining armor." Sometimes a metaphor can be a double-edged rhetorical sword; for instance: "If life gives you lemons, make lemonade." One of the most famous literary metaphors is "Beauty is truth, truth beauty" from "Ode on a Grecian Urn" by John Keats. Here, Keats is comparing one abstract thing (beauty) to another abstract thing (truth). However, it is more common for metaphors to compare something abstract to something more tangible: for example, Bob Dylan's hard-to-find answers are compared to leaves "blowin' in the wind." A good example of a metaphor that illuminates something abstract by comparing it to something tangible is Emily Dickinson's "Hope is the thing with feathers― / That perches in the soul." Later, Maya Angelou, a black poet, would compare herself to a caged songbird. We can easily understand the image of a bird singing sweetly despite being caged and denied its freedom. A less abstract example of a metaphor is William Shakespeare's description of bare tree limbs as "Bare ruined choirs, where late the sweet birds sang." In this case, one tangible thing is being compared to another, while symbolizing autumn, death and loss. There are more examples of metaphors from poetry, literature and music later on this page.

SIMILE DEFINITION: A simile is a type of metaphor in which possibly quite dissimilar things are "linked" through an attribute, most commonly by using "like" or "as." A famous simile is William Wordsworth's "I wandered lonely as a cloud." Wordsworth was not claiming to be a cloud, only to share its attribute of being apart mlb at bat app t mobile everything else. To understand the chief difference between metaphor and simile, please compare "her cheeks were roses" [metaphor/direct] with "her cheeks were like roses" [simile/indirect]. In this case the difference may be hard to detect. But if I were to say, "My father is the Devil," that would be considerably different than saying, "My father is as sly as the Devil."

SIMILE EXAMPLES: Examples of commonly-used similes include "blind as a bat," "cool as a cucumber," "sweet as sugar," "slow as a snail," "mad as a hatter" and "sly as a fox." An example of a simile that does not employ "like" or "as" is William Shakespeare's "Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? / Thou art more lovely and more temperate." Shakespeare is not saying that his lover is a summer day, so he remains within the realm of simile. Here's an excellent example of simile from the novel Gone with the Wind by Margaret Mitchell: "The very mystery of him excited her curiosity like a door that had neither lock nor key." There are more examples of metaphors from poetry, literature and music later on this page.

SYMBOL DEFINITION: A symbol is a thing that represents or stands for something else, especially a material object that represents something abstract. For instance: a crown symbolizes royalty, a halo symbolizes saintliness, etc.

SYMBOL EXAMPLES: These are examples of common symbols: night=evil, light=good, spring=youth, summer=maturity, autumn=old age/aging, winter=death, dove=peace, olive=peace, moon=love, Venus=love, Mars=war, etc.

Metaphors and symbols are closely related. In general, a symbol stands for or represents something else, usually an abstract idea, whereas a metaphor compares two different things and illuminates similarities between them. For instance, Venus and the moon have become universal symbols of love (an abstract concept). But metaphors and similes do not depend on preconceived relationships. For instance, in one of my poems I compared an aging woman's thinning hair to emu feathers:

See how her hair has thinned: it doesn’t seem a&m football like hair at all, but like the airy moult
of emus who outraced the wind and left
soft plumage in their wake.

I just love the wisdom and spirit of Hafiz in this subversive (pardon the pun) little poem below. I can see Trump putting refugees in cages, while Hafiz goes around letting them out for a moondance! In this poem, keys represent freedom.

The imbecile
constructs cages
for everyone he knows,
while the sage
(who has to duck his head
whenever the moon glows)
similes in ode to the west wind dispensing keys
all night long
to the beautiful, rowdy,
prison gang.
—Hafiz, translation by Michael R. Burch

Here are three common metaphors: "He ruled with an iron hand because he had a heart of stone, but it turned out that he had feet of clay!"

Here are three similes: "Her lips are like cherries, her hair like spun gold, her eyes like flashing emeralds."

A universal symbol is like an extremely popular meme: it has been accepted and can be understood on its own, without any "help" from writers. Because the moon and Venus have become universal symbols of love, if I say, "The first time I saw her, Venus touched me!" most readers will immediately understand that what happened was love at first sight. If, on the other hand, I were to say, "The first time I saw her, Itokawa touched me!" most readers would draw a blank because the asteroid Itokawa has no commonly-understood symbolic meaning. A "global" or universal symbol carries its meaning everywhere it goes. But it is possible for writers to create "local" symbols in their works. For instance, the English poet William Blake created his own system of symbols in his prophetic poems, but an "outsider" might have a very hard time figuring them out.

A local symbol is one that is "local" to a particular poem or other work of literature. In this short poem of mine, I describe "poetic vision" as being like a scuba diver swimming through the bubbles created by his own breath .

What the Poet Sees
by Michael R. Burch

What the poet sees,
he sees as a swimmer underwater
watching the shoreline blur
sees through his breath’s weightless bubbles .
Both worlds grow obscure.

Surrealism occurs when the images, metaphors and/or symbols used are fantastic, irrational, incongruous, contradictory or "just don't make sense." Things take on the weirdness of a dream when things don't "add up." Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass are examples of still-popular surrealism. Carroll has been credited with the invention of surrealism with the publication of Alice in 1865, although the term came much later. Another possible forefather of surrealism is Similes in ode to the west wind Wolfgang van Goethe, whose often-surrealistic play Faust dates to around 1775. But we can find surrealistic elements in much older writings―for instance Homer's Odyssey and Iliad, Dante's pull up bar for home use Comedy, William Shakespeare's Tempest and Edmund Spenser's Faerie Queen. Hell, one of the earth's oldest extant poems, The Epic of Gilgamesh, circa the 18th century B.C., seems wildly surreal in places! So do parts of the Hebrew Bible. In any case, "early adopters" how to activate walmart prepaid debit card surrealism among major modern writers include Edgar Allan Poe, Charles Baudelaire, Arthur Rimbaud, Franz Kafka and e. e. cummings. Modern surrealism began independent financial advisor vs bank an artistic movement in Paris in the 1920s and lasted until the 1940s. André Breton founded and propelled the movement with his publication of The Manifesto of Surrealism in 1924. Other notable surrealistic writers and artists include Stéphane Mallarmé, Robert Desnos, Salvador Dali, Max Ernst, Luis Buñuel, René Magritte and Pablo Picasso. Although the movement died, its techniques remain with us in comic books, cartoons, graphic novels, video games and SNL skits like the Coneheads.

Related Definitions: In magic realism, most of the tale being told makes sense, but there are elements of surrealism. Notable magical realist writers include Jorge Luis Borges, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Salman Rushdie and Toni Morrison. In fabulism, magical realism takes the form of fables. Fairy tales are written by fabulists. Notable fabulists include Aesop, Uncle Remus, Hans Christian Anderson, Beatrix Potter and Italo Calvino. Conversely, absurdism stretches surrealism to such lengths that little or nothing makes sense. Poems written in Klingon or dog barks would be extreme examples of absurdism. For many readers, an absurdist poem or story is "complete nonsense." But then sometimes nonsense can be entertaining! Notable absurdist writers who can (at times) be understood include Albert Camus and Samuel Beckett.

EXTENDED METAPHOR DEFINITION: An extended metaphor, in certain more extensive cases known as a "metaphysical conceit," is a longer, more elaborate metaphor. Poets who became famous for such constructions include John Donne, Andrew Marvell, Andrew Cowley, John Cleveland, George Herbert and Henry Vaughn. Shakespeare's Sonnet 18 ("Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day") is an extended metaphor, as is Emily Dickinson's "Hope Is the Thing with Feathers." There are more examples of extended metaphors below.

MIXED METAPHOR DEFINITION: There is another, often not-so-good, category of can i pay my aps bill with a credit card metaphor: the mixed metaphor. Mixed metaphors contain correspondences that don't fully mesh. For instance, William Shakespeare has Hamlet considering whether to ". take arms against a sea of troubles / and, by opposing, end them. To die, to sleep ." But obviously one can neither fight nor "end" a sea! Weapons and the sea don't mix. Shakespeare might have done better to compare ending life's struggles to pulling the plug on a bathtub full of dingy water! To employ a simile, mixed metaphors are like P.T. Barnum's Fiji Mermaid: "they sound cool and exotic in your head, but upon closer examination they're made up of two things hastily sewn together that really shouldn't be." Mixed metaphors are literature's shambling, badly-stitched-together Frankensteins!

CATACHRESIS DEFINITION: Catachresis is the use of words in inappropriate or mack real estate group unconventional ways. Another definition of catachresis is "an exaggerated comparison for rhetorical effect." Here's an example of good catachresis, from Francis Bacon: "A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green." Two lovely examples of catachresis can be found in the highly unconventional poetry of e. e. cummings: "the voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses / nobody, not even the rain, has such small hands."

IRONY: A metaphor can be used for purposes of irony, in which case the poet may not actually believe what he/she is saying. For example .

Busy old fool, unruly sun,
Why dost thou thus,
Through windows, and through curtains call on us?

Here, in his poem "The Sun Rising," John Donne is accusing the sun of being a busybody who foolishly disturbs and wakes up Donne and his lover after a night of lovemaking! But of course Donne is just wisecracking, being clever.

METAPHOR EXAMPLES: Here are justly famous examples of metaphors in literature, poetry and music .

"Tilting at windmills" = fighting imaginary foes [Miguel Cervantes]
"Gone with the wind" = time deprives us of everything [Ernest Dowson, later used by Margaret Mitchell as the title of her famous novel]
"Here be dragons" = we are entering dangerous territory [Unknown]
"All the world's a stage" = human beings are actors playing parts, perhaps in a americas next top model season 4 winner script? [William Shakespeare]
"Ask not for whom the bell tolls: it tolls for thee" = everyone will die [John Donne]
"A candle in the wind" = human life is fragile and easily snuffed out [Elton John/Bernie Taupin]
"Every rose has its thorn" = beauty comes with the price of injury and suffering [Bret Michaels]
"The john f kennedy jr biography bird sings" = a black poet is like a bird singing in a cage [Maya Angelou]
"Like a bridge over troubled water" = a friend in need is like a bridge spanning a raging flood [Paul Simon]
"Conscience is a man's compass." [Vincent Van Gogh]

SIMILE EXAMPLES: Here are justly famous examples of similes in literature, poetry and music .

"Juliet is the sun ." [William Shakespeare]
"Oh, my luve's like a red, red rose ." [Robert Burns]
"[Men] swarm around me, a hive of honey bees." [Unknown]
"She's like the wind." [Patrick Swayze and Stacy Widelitz]
"You are my sunshine." [Authorship Disputed]
"You ain't nothin' but a hound dog." [Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller]
"I am a rock, I am an island." [Paul Simon, refuting John Donne's claim that "no man is an island"]
"Laughter like a chime of bells." [Charles Reade]
"Laughter rich as woodland thunder." [Ralph Waldo Emerson]
"Laughter soft as tears." [Algernon Charles Swinburne]
"For as the crackling of thorns under a pot, so is the laughter of the fool." [Old Testament]

Soft laughter as of light that stirs the sea
With darkling sense of dawn ere dawn may be.
—Algernon Charles Swinburne

Sweet laughter in mirthfulness artlessly flowing
Like zephyrs at play through a fairy flute blowing.
—Ralph D. Williams

EXTENDED METAPHOR EXAMPLES

Writers sometimes employ extended metaphors, as William Shakespeare does in this famous scene from "Romeo and Juliet" .

It is the east, and Juliet is the sun.
Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon,
Who is already sick and pale with grief,
That thou her maid art far more fair than she:
Be not her maid, since she is envious;
Her vestal livery is but sick and green
And none but fools do wear it; cast it off.

Here's another extended metaphor from Shakespeare's "Macbeth" .

Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player
That struts and tcf home equity line of credit login his hour upon the stage
And then is heard no more: it is a tale
Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,
Signifying nothing.

The example above may also be considered a mixed metaphor, as life is compared to a "walking shadow," to a "poor player" and to a "tale."

In some cases, are the american markets open today entire poem can become an extended metaphor .

Robert Frost's "The Road Not Taken" and "Gathering Leaves"
Robert Frost's "Mending Wall"
William Shakespeare's Sonnet 18 ("Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day")
Emily Dickinson's "Hope Is the Thing with Feathers"

For example, the entire poem "Gathering Leaves" can be interpreted as an extended metaphor for unproductive human enterprises that waste time and effort .

Gathering Leaves
by Robert Frost

Spades take up leaves
No better than spoons,
And bags full of leaves
Are light as balloons.

I make a great noise
Of rustling all day
Like rabbit and deer
Running away.

But the mountains I raise
Elude my embrace,
Flowing over my arms
And into my face.

I may load and unload
Again and again
Till I fill the whole shed,
And what have I then?

Next to nothing for weight,
And since they grew duller
From contact with earth,
Next to nothing for color.

Next to nothing for use.
But a crop is a crop,
And who's to say where
The harvest shall stop?

METAPHYSICAL CONCEIT EXAMPLES

John Donne is generally considered to be the pioneer of metaphysical poetry and the sometimes hard-to-swallow "metaphysical conceit." For example, in his poem "A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning," Donne compares the souls of lovers to the points on an architect's protractor! .

If they be two, they are two so
As stiff twin compasses are two,
Thy soul the fixed foot, makes no show
To move, but doth, if the other do.
And though it in the center sit,
Yet when the other far doth roam,
It leans, and hearkens after it,
And grows erect, as that comes home.

If all that stiffness and growing erect is meant to be naughty, Donne has indeed blazed new poetic territory!

One very interesting metaphysical conceit appears in Donne's "Hymn to God, My God, in My Sickness." Shakespeare had Romeo compare Juliet to the East, because that's where the sun rises. But Donne compares himself to a map surrounded by cosmographers (physicians) who are studying his West (death). Donne then points out that in maps, East a&m football West meet, and asks: "What shall my West hurt me?"

Other examples of full-poem metaphysical conceits include:

"To His Coy Mistress" by Andrew Marvell
"The Coronet" by Andrew Marvell
"The Collar" by George Herbert
"The Pulley" by George Herbert
"Redemption" by George Herbert
"Love (III)" by George Herbert
"The Waterfall" by Henry Vaughn
"The Night" by Henry Vaughn

MORE EXAMPLES OF METAPHOR

When Jewish poets wrote about the horrors of the Holocaust, they sometimes used powerful, evocative metaphors to stunning effect .

Wasted feet, cursed earth,
the interminable gray morning
as Buna smokes corpses through industrious chimneys.
—"Buna" by Primo Levi, loose translation by Michael R. Burch

Buna was a Nazi concentration camp. The image of the chimneys of Buna "smoking" corpses to ash, the way smokers produce ash from cigarettes, is stunning. Levi's metaphor may also suggest that the morning is gray because of the ash rising from Buna's chimneys, the way smoking cigarettes can cloud the surrounding air.

We are digging a grave like a hole in the sky; there’s sufficient room to lie there.
The man of the house plays with vipers; he writes
in the Teutonic darkness, "Your golden hair Margarete ."
He writes poems by the stars, whistles hounds to stand by,
whistles Jews to dig graves, where together they’ll lie.
He commands us to strike up bright tunes for the dance!
—"Death Fugue" by Paul Celan, loose translation by Michael R. Burch

Paul Celan mixes metaphor with reality, to paint a picture of a Nazi who writes romantic love poems while sending Jews to mass graves ("where together they'll lie"). We cannot take the "hole in the sky" and "plays with vipers" literally, nor is the darkness really "Teutonic." But we can certainly "get" what Celan wants us to see and understand. It is also vital to the poem that the Nazis considered fair-skinned human beings with "golden hair" to be "superior" to people with darker skin and hair. So when the Nazi poet writes "Your golden hair Margarete" in the Teutonic darkness, this is probably a metaphor for the primary cause of the Holocaust. It was not the Jews who were "dark" but the hearts, minds and beliefs of their Nazi oppressors.

I lived as best I could, and then I died.
Be careful where you step: the grave is wide.
—Michael R. Burch, "Epitaph for a Palestinian Child"

In my original poem above, the grave is a metaphor for death and "the grave is wide" does not refer to the physical characteristics of an actual grave, but to how Israeli and U.S. injustices that cause Palestinian children to suffer and die can lead to events like 911, and thus cause Israeli and American children to suffer and die.

The oppressed can but pursue suitable tracks
Learning to heed the lessons of awesome war
But will the mighty listen to reason’s voice
That justice will accomplish the peace of Rome?
Or will conscience’s dictates be inexorably ignored
As war’s clouds hover over culture’s great cradle?
And yet we do not harbor the odium of hatred
But pray that peace can still be humanity’s finest hour.
—Khaled Nusseibeh

Khaled Nusseibeh is a Palestinian poet writing about the Nakba (Arabic for "Catastrophe"). He uses several vivid, highly effective metaphors to make the argument that his people deserve justice but have been treated unjustly. He portrays "awesome war" (the "shock and awe" variety practiced by Israel and the U.S. on less powerful nations) as a stern, iron-handed, unjust teacher. He points out the that famous Pax Romana ("peace of Rome") was based on a system of justice. "War's clouds" refer to the dark state produced by war. He also points out that the Middle East is the "cradle" of human culture, as civilization began in the Middle East. Like Paul Celan, he mixes the literal with the metaphorical.

Throughout human history, oppressed people have used such metaphors in poems, songs, laments and dirges. For instance, in the popular negro spiritual "Sing Low, Sweet Chariot," the river Jordan represents death while the chariot represents salvation into the Promised Land (heaven), which lies on the other side of the Jordan (death):

I looked over Jordan,
An' what did I see,
Comin' for to carry me home?
A band of angels comin' after me,
Comin' for to carry me home!
Swing low, sweet chariot .

Mary Elizabeth Frye is, perhaps, the most mysterious poet who appears on this page, and perhaps in the annals of poetry. Rather than spoiling the mystery, I will present her poem first, then provide the details .

Do not stand at my grave and weep
by Mary Elizabeth Frye

Do not stand at my grave and weep:
I am not there; I do not sleep.
I am a thousand winds that blow,
I am the diamond glints on snow,
I am the sun on ripened grain,
I am the gentle autumn rain.
When you awaken in the morning’s hush
I am the swift uplifting rush
Of quiet birds in circling flight.
I am the soft starshine at night.
Do not stand at my grave and cry:
I am not there; I did not die.

This consoling elegy had a very mysterious genesis, as it was written by Mary Elizabeth Frye, a Baltimore housewife who lacked a formal education, having been orphaned at age three. She had never written poetry before. Frye wrote the poem on a ripped-off piece of a brown grocery bag, in a burst of compassion for a Jewish girl who had fled the Holocaust only to receive news that her mother had died in Germany. The girl was weeping inconsolably because she couldn't visit her mother's grave to share her tears of love and bereavement. When the poem was named Britain's most popular poem in a 1996 Bookworm poll, with more than 30,000 call-in votes despite not having been one of the critics' nominations, an unlettered orphan girl had seemingly surpassed all England's many cultured and degreed ivory towerists in the public's estimation. Although the poem's origin was disputed for some time (it had been attributed to Native American and other sources), Frye's authorship was confirmed in 1998 after investigative research by Abigail Van Buren, the newspaper columnist better known as "Dear Abby." The poem has also been called "I Am" due to its rather biblical repetitions of the phrase. Frye never formally published or copyrighted the poem, so we believe it is in the public domain and can be shared, although we recommend that it not be used for commercial purposes, since Frye never tried to profit from it herself.

English and American protest poetry and songwriting probably begin with William Blake, the great English poet, artist and mystic. In his poem "Jerusalem," the city of Jerusalem stands for the England that Blake believed England should have been, and the "dark Satanic mills" stand for what Dwight D. Eisenhower would later call the "military-industrial complex":

And did the Countenance Divine
Shine forth upon our clouded hills?
And was Jerusalem builded here
Among these dark Satanic mills?
—"Jerusalem" by William Blake

Blake's poem also mentions a "chariot of fire," which later became the title of a popular movie. While we can't be sure exactly what Blake means by his "chariot of fire," it probably refers to the fiery chariot that carried the prophet Elijah up to heaven, and so may symbolize correct belief, or true religion. But Blake did not agree with the black-robed priests of orthodox Christianity who erected "THOU SHALT NOT" signs in his garden of earthly delights. Blake was a mystic who claimed to speak to angels and saints on a regular basis, and he believed in free love, not what he saw as the false morality of the Religious Right of his day.

Interestingly, one of the best-known apologists for orthodox Christianity, C. S. Lewis, was haunted by a line of Norse poetry .

I heard a voice, that cried,
“Balder the beautiful lies dead, lies dead. . .”
a voice like the flight of white cranes. . .
—“Tegner's Drapa,” loose translation by Michael R. Burch

Here are some of my own personal choices for the best brief, concise metaphors in the English language, in the form of epigrams (short, pithy sayings):

It is better to light a candle than curse the darkness.—Eleanor Roosevelt
Conscience is a man’s compass. Vincent Van Gogh
And your very flesh shall be a great poem. Walt Whitman
Advertising is the rattling of a stick inside a swill bucket. George Orwell
Dying is a wild night and a new road. Emily Dickinson
The violets in the mountains have broken the rocks.—Tennessee Williams
In the depths of winter, I finally learned that within me there lay an invincible summer.—Albert Camus
Little strokes fell great oaks.—Ben Franklin
Never tell me the sky's the limit when there are footprints on the moon.—Unknown
Even if you're on the right track, you'll get run over if you just sit there.—Will Rogers
I don't approve of political jokes; I have seen too many of them get elected.—Jon Stewart
Each has his past shut in him like the leaves of a book known to him by heart, and his friends can only read the title.—Virginia Woolf
Happiness is like a butterfly: the more you chase it, the more it will elude you. But if you turn your attention to other things, it will come and sit softly on your shoulder.—Henry David Thoreau
It takes courage to push yourself to places that you have never been before, to test your limits, to break through barriers. And the day came when the risk it took to remain tight inside the bud was more painful than the risk it took to blossom.—Anaïs Nin

In each case above, the saying means more than its literal meaning. Below are some short, epigrammatic poems that also convey more than their literal meaning .

I am his Highness' dog at Kew;
pray tell me, sir, whose dog are you?
—Alexander Pope

Deep autumn:
my neighbor,
how does he continue .
—Matsuo Basho, loose translation by Michael R. Burch

Come, investigate loneliness!
a solitary leaf
clings to the Kiri tree
—Matsuo Basho, loose translation by Michael R. Burch

The apparition of these faces in the crowd:
Petals on a wet, black bough.
—“In A Station Of The Metro” by Ezra Pound

Like a skein of loose silk blown against a wall
She walks by the railing of a path in Kensington Gardens
—“The Garden” by Ezra Pound

While this America settles in the mould of its vulgarity, heavily thickening to empire,
And protest, only a bubble in the molten mass, pops and sighs out, and the mass hardens,
—“Shine, Perishing Republic” by Robinson Jeffers

But for him it was his last afternoon as himself,
An afternoon of nurses and rumours;
The provinces of his body revolted,
The squares of his mind were empty,
Silence invaded the suburbs .
—“In Memory of W. B. Yeats” by W. H. Auden

Here are Tweets that use metaphor to good effect .

My phone reception is so clear, I can hear my wife’s eyes rolling as I talk.—@cpinck
The Tea Party enthusiast at work wants everyone to know she "brung muffins." In the distance, a lonely coyote howls.—@lafix

Here are two of my favorite modern metaphors and the evocative story behind them .

How I wish, how I wish you were here.
We're just two lost souls
Swimming in a fish bowl,
Year after year .

Shine on you crazy diamond .
Come on you miner for truth and delusion, and shine!

The metaphors above were penned by Roger Waters of the progressive rock group Pink Floyd to express his hopes and concerns for Syd Barrett, a childhood friend and former bandmate. Barrett, a wonderfully attractive and talented young man, had been the band’s lead vocalist, lead guitarist and primary songwriter during its formative years. But unfortunately Barrett struggled with mental illness complicated by drug abuse, and at the time the lyrics above were penned, the other band members hadn’t seen Barrett for an extended period of time.

Barrett showed up unannounced during the recording of the songs above. Here is how Pink Floyd keyboardist Richard Wright recalls that unusual day:

Roger [Waters] was there, and he was sitting at the desk, and I came in and I saw this guy sitting behind him--huge, bald, fat guy. I thought, "He looks a bit . strange ." Anyway, so I sat down with Roger at the desk and we worked for about ten minutes, and this guy kept on getting up best online savings rates instant access brushing his teeth and then sitting--doing really weird things, but keeping quiet. And I said to Roger, "Who is he?" and Roger said "I don't know." and I said "Well, I assumed he was a friend of yours," and he said "No, I don't know who he is." Anyway, it took me a long time, and then suddenly I realized it was Syd, after maybe 45 minutes. He came in as we were doing the vocals for “Shine On You Crazy Diamond,” which was basically about Syd. He just, for some incredible reason he picked the very day that we were doing a song which was about him. And we hadn't seen him, I don't think, for two how to activate walmart prepaid debit card before. That's what's so incredibly . weird about this guy. And a bit disturbing, as well, I mean, particularly when you see a guy, that similes in ode to the west wind don't, you couldn't recognize him. And then, for him to pick the very day we want to start putting vocals on, which is a song about him. Very strange.

It is also very strange that the closing line of “Shine On You Crazy Diamond” (“Come on you miner for truth and delusion, and shine!”) seems to have summoned Barrett to the christening of the songs written about him!

The ancient Greeks invented gods, the Muses, to explain the inexplicable source of poetry, which they assumed to be divinely inspired. While I can’t claim to “know” if there is any truth to the idea that gods sometimes inspire human poetry, I can certain share some of the better examples and more interesting stories about them.

But first, let’s try to define what we mean by the terms “metaphor” and “simile.”

According to the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, metaphor is a form of transference with magical qualities. In his Rhetoric, Aristotle said: “Metaphor especially has clarity and sweetness and strangeness.” The best metaphors might even be considered a form of transport. For instance:

Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate.
—“Sonnet 73" by William Shakespeare

One can easily imagine a young girl being temporarily transported by such words (and the young man reciting them might feel equally transported). In Aristotle’s Rhetoric he also says that metaphor makes learning pleasant, perhaps thinking of the entertaining insights poets like Homer create through vivid, memorable metaphors. But metaphor exists outside poetry and literature. For example:

Richard the Lionheart
Ted “the Splendid Splinter” Williams
Roberto "Hands of Stone" Duran

King Richard I of England was renowned for his courage in battle, hence the sobriquet “Lionheart” or “Lionhearted.” Ted Williams was one of the greatest hitters in the history of baseball — some say the best — and because a baseball bat is made of wood, and because Williams was lean and tall, “Splendid Splinter” says worlds and makes perfect sense, in two perfect words. Roberto Duran was a boxer who knocked out most of his opponents, thus "Hands of Stone."

Simile is a form of metaphor that uses “like” or “as”:

O my Luve is like a red, red rose
That’s newly sprung in June;
O my Luve is like the melody
That’s sweetly played in tune.
—“A Red, Red Rose" by Robert Burns

When asked to name the primary influence on his artistic life, the famous singer-songwriter Bob Dylan (who “borrowed” his last name from the first name of the Welsh poet Dylan Similes in ode to the west wind cited “A Red, Red Rose" by the great Scottish poet Robert Burns. The poem above is written an somewhat archaic version of the Scots-English dialect, but it still reads wonderfully well today. And while metaphor is probably as old as the eldest human language, the best metaphors remain both stunningly current and endlessly, vitally alive:

That time of year thou mayst in me behold
When yellow leaves, or none, or few, do hang
Upon those boughs which shake against the cold,
Bare ruined choirs, where late the sweet birds sang.
—“Sonnet 73" by William Shakespeare

Metaphor and simile have been with the human race for thousands of years. Here is an excerpt poem from an ancient Egyptian poem that is probably around 4,000 years old:

Death is before me today
Like the sky when it clears
Like a man's wish to see home after numberless years of captivity.

Metaphor is apparently as old as language itself, appearing in the earliest surviving work of literature, the Epic of Gilgamesh. For instance, Gilgamesh has a dream about a "falling star." Mystified, he turns to his mother Ninsun for its interpretation and she tells him that this "fallen star" is a metaphor representing a great friend or brother who would soon join Gilgamesh. In fact, it has been suggested that the entire story of Gilgamesh is an extended metaphor for man’s longing for immortality and his struggle to find meaning in a world full of death.

The earliest English poem still extant today employs the metaphors of God being the first Architect and Poet .

Now let us honour heaven-kingdom's Guardian,
the might of the Architect and his mind-plans,
the work of the Glory-Father. First he, the Td bank business direct online banking login Lord,
established the foundation of wonders.
Then he, the First Poet, created heaven as a roof
for the sons of men, Holy Creator,
Maker of mankind. Then he, the www dollar bank Lord,
afterwards made men middle-earth: Master almighty!
how to activate walmart prepaid debit card Hymn” (circa 658-680 AD), loose translation by Michael R. Burch

"Cædmon's Hymn" was composed sometime between 658 and 680 AD. According to the Venerable Bede (673-735), Cædmon was an illiterate herdsman who was given the gift of poetic composition by an angel. In the original poem, hardly a word is recognizable as English because Cædmon was writing in a somewhat Anglicized form of ancient German. The word "England" harkens back to Angle-land; the Angles were a Germanic tribe. Nevertheless, by Cædmon's time the foundations of English poetry were being laid, particularly in the areas of accentual meter and alliteration. Poets were considered to be "Makers" (as in William Dunbar's "Lament for the Makaris"), and poetry was considered to have a divine origin, so the poem may express a sort of affinity between the poet and his God.

Homer developed metaphor into an art form, and his invention of the epic simile was picked up by later writers including Dante and Milton. In the Middle Ages the device of allegory underpinned much of French and English writing, while the later Metaphysical poets employed increasingly elaborate metaphorical conceits in the sixteenth century. Today most contemporary English/American poetry and songwriting similes in ode to the west wind toward the lyric, so the use of metaphor tends to be more specific than general, but there are wonderful exceptions to the rule. Here are some more typical modern metaphors, followed by entire poems that may be considered extended metaphors .

There's a lady who's sure
All that glitters is gold
And she's buying a stairway to heaven .
—“Stairway to Heaven" by Led Zeppelin

And so it was that later,
As the miller told his tale,
That her face at first just ghostly,
Turned a whiter shade of pale.
—“Whiter Shade of Pale" by Procol Harum

A winter's day
In a deep and dark December;
I am alone,
Gazing from my window to the streets below
On a freshly fallen silent shroud of snow.
I am a rock,
I am an island.
—“I am a Rock" by Paul Simon

There's a killer on the road
His brain is squirmin' like a toad
—“Riders on the Storm" by the Doors

And it seems to me you lived your life
Like a candle in the wind
—“Goodbye Norma Jean" by Elton John and Bennie Taupin

You do not do, you do not do
Any more, black shoe
In which I have lived like a foot
For thirty years, poor and white,
Barely daring to breathe or Achoo.
—“Daddy” by Sylvia Plath

There's a stake in your fat black heart
And the villagers never liked you.
They are dancing and stamping on you.
They always knew it was you.
Daddy, daddy, you bastard, I'm through.
—“Daddy” by Sylvia Plath

Now that I have your heart by heart, I see
The wharves with their great ships and architraves;
The rigging and the cargo and the slaves
On a strange beach under a broken sky.
O not departure, but a voyage done!
The bales stand on the stone; the anchor weeps
Its red rust downward, and the long vine creeps
Beside the salt herb, in the lengthening sun.
—“Song For The Last Act” by Louise Bogan

Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player
That struts and frets his hour upon the stage
And then is heard no more: it is a tale
Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,
Signifying nothing.
—“MacBeth” by William Shakespeare

They flee from me that sometime did me seek
With naked foot stalking in my chamber.
I have seen them gentle tame and meek
That now are wild and do not remember
That sometime they put themselves in danger
To take bread at my hand; and now they range
Busily seeking with a continual change.
—“They Flee from Me” by Thomas Wyatt

With an host of furious fancies,
Whereof I am commander,
With a burning spear and a horse of air
To the wilderness I wander.
By a knight of ghosts and shadows
I summoned am to tourney
Ten leagues beyond the how do i activate my chime card world's end:
Methinks it is no journey.
Yet I will sing, Any food, any feeding,
Feeding, drink or clothing;
Come dame or maid, be not afraid,
Poor Tom will injure nothing.
—“Tom O' Bedlam's Song” anonymous ballad, circa 1620

Since it is the property
Of the sapient
To sit firm upon a rock,
similes in ode to the west wind is evident
That I am a fool, since I
Am a flowing river,
Never under the same sky,
Transient for ever.
—“His Confession” by the Archpoet; circa 1165; translated from the original Medieval Latin by Helen Waddell

Oh, fallen camellias,
if I were you,
I'd leap into the torrent!
— Takaha Shugyo, loose translation by Michael R. Burch

Our life here on earth:
to what shall we compare it?
It is not like a rowboat
departing at daybreak,
leaving no trace of man in its wake?
—Takaha Shugyo, loose translation by Michael R. Burch

Wulf and Eadwacer
Anonymous Anglo Saxon poem, circa 960 AD
loose translation by Michael R. Burch

It is to the others as if someone robbed them of a gift.
They will kill him if he comes in force.
It is otherwise with us.

Wulf is on one island; I, on another.
That island is fast, surrounded by fens.
There are fierce men on this island.
They will kill him if he comes in force.
It chase bank number to call otherwise with us.

Wulf's far wanderings, I suffered with hope.
Whenever it rained and I woke, disconsolate,
the bold warrior came: he took me in his arms.
For me, that was pleasant, but it also was painful.
Wulf, O, my Wulf, my ache for you
has made me sick; your infrequent visits
have left me famished, unable to eat.
Do you hear, Eadwacer? A she-wolf has borne
our wretched whelp to the woods.
One can easily sunder what never was one:
our song together.

The metaphor of a loveless relationship being like a song in which two voices never really harmonized remains one of the strongest in the English language, or any language. Now here are poems that are essentially metaphors, being extended metaphors .

The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner
by Randall Jarrell

From my mother's sleep I fell into the State,
And I hunched in its belly till my wet fur froze.
Six miles from earth, loosed from its dream of life,
I woke to black flak and the nightmare fighters.
When I died they washed me out of the turret with a hose.

Randall Jarrell was born in Nashville, Tennessee, in 1914, the year World War I began. He earned bachelor's and master's degrees from Vanderbilt University, where he studied under Robert Penn Warren, John Crowe Ransom and Allen Tate. In 1942 he enlisted in the Army Air Corps and worked as a control tower operator during World War II, an experience which influenced and provided material for his poetry. Jarrell’s reputation as a poet was established in 1945 with the publication of his second book, Little Friend, Little Friend, which "bitterly and dramatically documents the intense fears and moral struggles of young soldiers."

Last Night
by Faiz Ahmed Faiz
loose translation by Michael R. Burch

Last night, your memory stole into my heart
as spring sweeps uninvited into barren gardens,
as morning breezes reinvigorate dormant deserts,
as a patient suddenly feels well, for no apparent reason .

A Noiseless Patient Spider
by Walt Whitman

A noiseless patient spider,
I mark'd where on a little promontory it stood isolated,
Mark'd how to explore the vacant vast surrounding,
It launch'd forth filament, filament, filament, out of itself,
Ever unreeling them, ever tirelessly speeding them.

And you O my soul where you stand,
Surrounded, detached, in measureless oceans of space,
Ceaselessly musing, venturing, throwing, seeking the spheres to connect them,
Till the bridge you will need be form'd, till the ductile anchor hold,
Till the www firstcitizens com online banking thread you fling catch somewhere, O my soul.

Sweet Rose of Virtue
by William Dunbar [1460-1525]
loose translation by Michael R. Burch

Sweet rose of virtue and of gentleness,
delightful lily of youthful wantonness,
richest in bounty and in beauty clear
and in every virtue that is held most dear?
except only that you are merciless.

Into your garden, today, I followed you;
there I saw flowers of freshest hue,
both white and red, delightful to see,
and wholesome herbs, waving resplendently?
yet everywhere, no odor but bitter rue.

I fear that March with his last arctic blast
has slain my fair rose of pallid and gentle cast,
whose piteous death does my heart such pain
that, if I could, I would compose her roots again?
so comforting her bowering leaves have been.

The HyperTexts

Источник: http://www.thehypertexts.com/Best%20Metaphors%20Similes%20Examples%20Definitions.htm

“Ode to the Midwest” by Kevin Young

Young’s poem is a representation of seemingly light poetry which, at the same time, gives food for thought. He dedicates his ode to the place where he small vacation rentals outer banks nc born and also to the whole country. The poem is very “American,” it employs a lot of words and phrases about our nation. “Christmas sweater” (10), “a teddy bear” (11), “a sweatsuit” (8), “television” (42), “driveway” (15) are the stereotypes connected with the Americans. Also, the author humorously depicts such thing as trying to clean one’s driveway earlier than the neighbors do and mentions “cholesterol” (7) and “supermarket” (6) which are typically associated with the American nation. Another bank of america app for kindle fire to the Americans as a country of consumers is the constant repetition of the phrase “I want,” which is mentioned fourteen times including one modification of the phrase: “I wanta” (26). This word-combination gives a hint to the people who want a lot of things, even if they are not sure whether they need them and what they will do once they obtain them.

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The poem is not big, but it is filled with elements of poetry. The first thing that catches the eye is its enjambment: most ideas do not end simultaneously with the end of the lines. However, despite this incomplete syntax, the prosodic element of rhythm is presented rather well. Even though rhyme is scarcely noted, wifi hotspot for home poem is rhythmic and easily read. There are two instances of rhyme: “fried” (3) – “high” (6) – “die” (7) and “go” (21) – “know” (22) – “throw” (22).

The poet generously uses tropes in his poem. There are cases of the following figures of speech:

  • leitmotif: phrase “I want” (1, 3, 7, 9, 12, 14, 19, 21, 23, 28, 29, 31, 34), “I wanta” (26);

  • metaphor: “my heart’s / supermarket” (5-6), “make it [the river] my bed” (33);

  • simile: “stocked high / as cholesterol” (6-7), “changes and shines / like television” (41-42);

  • personification: “what the sun / sees before it tells / the snow to go” (19-21);

  • pun: “I want to be / the only black person I know” (21-22);

  • alliteration: “supermarket stocked” (6);

  • assonance: “go home” (39), “rooms… moon” (40).

Figures of speech and enjambment produce a captivating effect on the audience. The poem is the manifestation of the basic US things, and that is what makes it so likable. The cases of colloquial language employed by the author are “em” (18), “wanta” (26) “n stuff” (28), “make me” (31) make the poem closer to the people and provide a better understanding.

Young’s “Ode to the Midwest” is connected with other odes analyzed previously by a common theme. This poem, as well as Keats’ “Ode to a Nightingale,” Coleridge’s harris auto An Ode,” Wadsworth’s “Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood,” and Shelley’s “Ode to the West Wind,” expresses ardent feelings towards its main subject. In Young’s case, it is the celebration of the native land. Keats glorifies the happiness of a bird; Coleridge dedicates his poetry to pleasant recollections, Wadsworth also reminisces in his poem, but about a concrete life period – his childhood; and Shelly’s ode is the glorification of the wind and its many powers. Another feature in common is that all authors employ a lot of figures of speech.

The striking difference between Young’s “Ode to the Midwest” and other odes is that poems by other authors have regular rhythm patterns. “Ode to a Nightingale” consists of eight ten-line stanzas, and the lines have various meters. All the lines within the stanzas are iambic pentameters except the eighth line which is a trimeter. The rhyme within every stanza is the same. The eight stanzas of “Dejection: An Ode” are written in iambic trimeters and pentameters. The prevalent rhyme types are couplets and bracketed rhymes. “Ode: Intimations of Immortality” consists of eleven stanzas with different rhyme patterns. The lines are iambic, and the number of stressed syllables varies between two and five. The rhyme types are bracketed rhymes, couplets, and rhyming within a line. “Ode to the West Wind” has seven parts each of which consists of five stanzas metered in iambic pentameter. Every stanza has four three-lined stanzas and one two-line couplet. The scheme for every part is ABA BCB CDC DED EE.

Notwithstanding the size of other odes and their rhyme patterns, Young’s ode does not fall behind. On the contrary – the author’s ability to put so much essence within such a short piece makes him an outstanding allpoint atm deposit cash locations your
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Work Cited

Young, Kevin. “Ode to the Midwest.”Poetry Foundation, Web.

Источник: https://studycorgi.com/ode-to-the-midwest-by-kevin-young/
Introduction

This poem was written in 1819 and published in 1820 along with Shelley's musical drama Prometheus Unbound. Shelley was living in Italy at that time. As Shelley tells us in a note, the poem was conceived and chiefly written in a wood round the Arno, near Florence (in Italy). He wrote it on a day when the stormy wind was collecting the vapours that send the autumnal rains. At sunset, as Shelley had foreseen, there was a violent tempest of hail and rain, attended by an exceptional thunder of of clouds and lightening.

It is one of Shelley's greatest poems. It has been called a 'matchless ode'. But it is not easy to understand. The main difficulty in understanding the poem arises from the abundance of similes and metaphors which follow one another with an astonishing quickness. In the course of the poem, Shelley passes from a magnificent realisation of nature's storm and peace to equally great self description. Finally he mingles nature and himself together in order to sing of the Golden Age of Mankind.

Critical Summary

Stanza 1: The opening stanza describes the activities of the West Wind on land. The West Wind drives the dead leaves before it just as the magician drives away a ghost by his approach. The West Wind scatters the seeds far and near and covers them with dust so that they are buried underground where they remain, like dead bodies in their graves, till the similes in ode to the west wind of spring when they sprout into plants which bear flowers filling the valley with sweet smells and attractive colours. The poet addresses the West Wind as a 'wild spirit' moving everywhere, and a destroyer (of dead leaves) and www gottoteach com 5 a day language review answer key preserver (of living seeds).

"Wild spirit, which art moving everywhere;

Destroyer and preserver; hear, Oh, hear!"

Stanza 11: The second stanza describes the activities of the West Wind in the air. The West Wind carries on its surface loose clouds which seems to have fallen from the sky just as withered leaves fall from the trees in autumn. The clouds floating on the surface of the West Wind are messengers of rain and lightening. The locks of the approaching storm are spread on the airy surface of the West Wind like the bright hair uplifted from the head of a frenzied Bacchante. Furthermore, the West Wind is the dirge of the dying year for which the closing night will be the dome of a big tomb vaulted with all the aggregated strength of the West Wind as seen in rain, lightning and hailstorm. The poet calls upon the West Wind bb gun hunting rifle listen to him. This stanza is an example of the abstract imagery which characterises much of Shelley's poetry. It is remarkable also for its various similes and metaphors.

Stanza 111: The third stanza describes the effects of the West Wind on water. The West Wind awakens from sleep the blue Mediterranean which was dreaming of old palaces and towers which once stood on its shores. Similes in ode to the west wind the West Wind blows on the Atlantic, the waves rise on both sides to prepare a sort of passage for the West Wind, while far below, the plants growing at the bottom of the ocean tremble with fear and shed their leaves. The stanza is remarkable for its vivid imagery and for the manner in which the two oceans ____ the Mediterranean and the Atlantic ______ are personified. The phenomena alluded to in lines 36-42 is well known to naturalists. In a note, Shelley pointed out that the vegetation at the bottom of the sea, of rivers, and of lakes, sympathises with that of the land in the change of seasons, and is consequently influenced by the winds which announce that change.

Stanza 1v: The poet here establishes a link between his own personality and the personality similes in ode to the west wind the West Wind. He recalls his boyhood when he was a swift, energetic and uncontrollable as the West Wind. In his boyhood he could excel the speed of the West Wind and could accompany it on its wanderings over the sky. But now the misfortunes of life have crushed him. He is bleeding on the thorns of life helplessly. He wishes that he were a leaf, a wave, a cloud, so that the West Wind could lift him. He makes a pathetic appeal to the West Wind to come to his help:

"Oh, lift me as a wave, leaf, a cloud!

I fall upon the thorns of life! I bleed!

A heavy weight of hours has chained and bowed

One too like thee: tameless and Swift and Proud."

Stanza v: The final stanza includes the whole universe in its sweep. The poet appeals to the West Wind to treat him as a lyre and to blow on him as it blows on the forest. Like the forest, he too is passing through the autumn of his life. The West Wind blowing on him and on the forest will produce a sad but sweet music. Addressing the West Wind as 'Spirit fierce' and as 'impetuous one', he appeals to it to become one with him and to scatter his dead thoughts over the universe in order that these thoughts may bring about a new period in human history. He would like the West Wind to broadcast over the whole world his prophecy about the coming of the Golden Age:"If winter comes, can spring be far behind?" In this stanza we find a clear expression of Shelley's idealism, his belief in the perfectibility of human nature and his belief in the golden age of mankind.

Explanation

Stanza 1 (Lines 1-14):

Источник: http://englishnotesyahiya.blogspot.com/2011/07/shelleys-ode-to-west-wind.html

What does Shelley mean by Wild West Wind?

“Ode to the West Wind” is a poem written by the English Romantic poet, Percy Bysshe Shelley. In the poem, the speaker directly addresses the west wind. The speaker treats the west wind as a force of death and decay, and welcomes this death and decay because it means that rejuvenation and rebirth will come soon.

What does PB Shelley mean to say in his poem Ode to the West Wind when he says I sat upon the thorns of life I bleed?

In the final line, he refers to himself as one who is in the final stages of his life when he says, “I fall upon the thorns of life! I bleed”. Just like the wind swept away the dead leaves of the Autumn, the speaker calls for the wind to sweep him away, old and decaying as he is.

How does Shelley portray the West Wind?

Shelley’s “Ode to the West Wind” is a good example of Shelley’s poetic mind at work, and when it is at work, it is heaping up similes and metaphors. The leaves are driven from the presence of his west wind divinity “like ghosts from an enchanter fleeing.” The simile is not based in reality nor is it functional.

What is the message of Ode to the West Wind?

Major themes in “Ode to the West Wind”: Power, human limitations and the natural world are the major themes of this poem. The poet adores the power and grandeur of the west wind, and also wishes that revolutionary ideas could reach every corner of the universe.

What does West wind symbolize?

Shelley uses the West Wind to symbolize the power of nature and of the imagination inspired by nature. Unlike Mont Blanc, however, the West Wind is active and dynamic in poems, such as “Ode to the West Wind.” While Mont Blanc is immobile, the West Wind is an agent for change.

What kind of poem is the west wind?

‘Ode to the West Wind’ is a type of poem known as an ode.

What is the symbolic meaning of the west wind?

What does the wind symbolize?

The wind symbolises the raw and brutal power of nature. The wind god is a symbol of might and strength.

What is the poet’s prayer to the west wind?

The speaker prays to the west wind to make him its lyre. A lyre is an ancient musical instrument, kind of like a small U-shaped harp. Lyres had special resonance for poets such as Shelley, as in Ancient Greece, poems would often be sung to the accompaniment… (The entire section contains 148 words.)

What does wind represent spiritually?

It is the messenger of divine intervention, and it is the vital breath of the universe (Cooper, 192). Wind often represents the fleeting and transient, the elusive and the intangible. In the Bible, God’s ruah (wind, spirit, breath) moved upon the face of the waters (Genesis 1:2).

What is the name of the west wind?

zephyr
A west wind can be known as a zephyr.

What is the symbolism of wind explain?

The wind symbolises the uncontrollable and raw power of nature. The wind god symbolises strength and steadfastness. Weaklings who are weak in the mind and body are swept away by the mighty power of the wind.

What do winds symbolize?

What do the four winds represent in the Bible?

The four winds are referred to in the context of extraordinary events or situations as foreseen by prophets, made known to select persons by God in the form of visions, or revealed by Jesus Himself to His disciples.

What is the west wind in the Bible?

In fact, the west wind finds a mention just once, in connection with the plague of the locusts, in which it was used to send the locusts away from Egypt (Exodus 10:19).

What are the names of the 4 winds?

Homer. The archaic Greek poet Homer (c. 800 BC) refers to the four winds by name – Boreas, Eurus, Notos, Zephyrus – in his Odyssey, and in the Iliad.

What are the four wind of heaven?

The four individual winds blowing from the east, west, north and south directions are described in the Bible in the same way as a human observer would describe, even today. We get an idea of the strength of these winds, the weather phenomena associated with them, and their effects.

Источник: https://answerstoall.com/technology/what-does-shelley-mean-by-wild-west-wind/

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