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The world bank provides funding for


the world bank provides funding for

View more than 20 million economic indicators for 196 countries. Get free indicators, Historical Data, Charts, News and Forecasts for 196 countries. Country financing parameters prepared by the World Bank for The (especially the country's commitment and ability to provide continued financing for. the International Development Association (IDA) provides interest-free loans – called credits – and grants to governments of the world's poorest countries; the.
the world bank provides funding for

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Donors eye Dec. 10 decision on shifting frozen funds for Afghanistan

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Reuters

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WASHINGTON — Donors to the World Bank-administered Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF) have agreed to decide about a transfer of funds to humanitarian aid agencies by Dec. 10, a World Bank spokesperson said on Friday.

The World Bank’s board this week backed transferring $280 million from the $1.5 billion trust fund, which was frozen after the Taliban took over the Afghan government in August, to the World Food Programme and UNICEF, Reuters reported on Wednesday, citing sources familiar with the plan.

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The World Bank spokesperson gave no details on the proposal, but said ARTF donors met on Friday and agreed to make a decision on transfers out of the fund in one week.

No further details about the ARTF meeting were immediately available.

The U.S. Treasury Department had no comment.

Afghanistan’s 39 million people face a collapsing economy, a winter of food shortages and growing poverty since the Taliban seized power at the end of August as the last U.S. troops withdrew from 20 years of war.

Afghan experts have said the aid would help, but big questions remain, including how to get funds into Afghanistan without exposing any financial institutions involved to U.S. sanctions. (Reporting by Andrea Shalal; Editing by Sandra Maler)

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In FY21-23, MIGA will also focus on three areas, all of which will help execute the four strategic directions:

i. MORE INNOVATION & NEW PRODUCTS

MIGA will increase its innovation and new product applications while paying due attention to the additional risks which these may add to the Agency’s portfolio.

ii. CLOSER COLLABORATION WITH OTHER WBG MEMBERS

MIGA will foster closer collaboration with the World Bank and IFC to leverage their expanded upstream work, which will generate more investable transactions.

iii. DEEPER PARTNERSHIPS WITH OTHER MDBS & ECAS

MIGA will strengthen actionable partnerships and collaboration with other Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) and Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) to tackle development challenges through the application of complementary and comprehensive products and solutions.

Performance Standards


As a multilateral development agency, MIGA only supports investments that are developmentally sound and meet high social and environmental standards. MIGA applies a comprehensive set of social and environmental performance standards to all projects and offers extensive expertise in working with investors to ensure compliance to these standards.

Источник: https://www.miga.org/about-us

World Bank

What Is the World Bank?

The World Bank is an international organization dedicated to providing financing, advice, and research to developing nations to aid their economic advancement. The bank predominantly acts as an organization that attempts to fight poverty by offering developmental assistance to middle- and low-income countries.

Currently, the World Bank has two stated goals that it aims to achieve by 2030. The first is to end extreme poverty by decreasing the number of people living on less than $1.90 a day to below 3% of the world population. The second is to increase overall prosperity by increasing income growth in the bottom 40% of every country in the world.

Key Takeaways

  • The World Bank is an international organization that provides financing, advice, and research to developing nations to help advance their economies.
  • The World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF)—founded simultaneously under the Bretton Woods Agreement—both seek to serve international governments.
  • The World Bank has expanded to become known as the World Bank Group with five cooperative organizations, sometimes known as the World Banks.
  • The World Bank Group offers a multitude of proprietary financial assistance, products, and solutions for international governments, as well as a range of research-based thought leadership for the global economy at large.
  • The World Bank's Human Capital Project seeks to help nations invest in and develop their human capital to produce a better society and economy.

Understanding the World Bank

The World Bank is a provider of financial and technical assistance to individual countries around the globe. The bank considers itself a unique financial institution that sets up partnerships to reduce poverty and support economic development.

The World Bank supplies qualifying governments with low-interest loans, zero-interest credits, and grants, all to support the development of individual economies. Debt borrowings and cash infusions help with global education, healthcare, public administration, infrastructure, and private-sector development. The World Bank also shares information with various entities through policy advice, research and analysis, and technical assistance. It offers advice and training for both the public and private sectors.

Examples of What the World Bank Does

The World Bank provides financing, advice, and other resources to developing countries in the areas of education, public safety, health, and other areas of need. Often, nations, organizations, and other institutions partner with the World Bank to sponsor development projects.

Human Capital Project

In 2017, the World Bank created the Human Capital Project, which seeks to help countries invest in and develop their people to be productive citizens and active contributors to their economy. World leaders are urged to prioritize investments in education, healthcare, and social protections, and, in return, they will realize a stronger economy full of healthy, thriving adults.

The Human Capital project outlines how governments should invest in providing quality, affordable childcare to support and improve child development, increase women's access to better employment opportunities, and increase economic growth, to name a few.

To build human capital globally, the World Bank has identified several areas of focus: the Human Capital Index (HCI), measurement and research, and country engagement.

Created in October 2018, the Human Capital Index summarizes a nation's investments in its human capital, specifically concerning health and education. The index is used to identify what is lost from the lack of investments in human capital; it also prompts leaders to think of how to remedy these deficiencies.

Beyond analyzing human capital, the World Bank measures the effectiveness of a nation's educational and healthcare systems. Doing so helps them identify what should be continued and what should be changed. It can also give insight on where to allocate resources.

Country engagement requires a country to take a "whole government" approach to addressing factors that compromise human capital. The nation, its leaders, and influencers band together to champion reducing poverty and increasing shared prosperity.

National Immunization Support Project

In April 2016, the World Bank approved the National Immunization Support Project for Pakistan. This project, costing an estimated $377.41 million, aims to increase the equitable distribution of vaccines to children ages 0 to 23 months.

The project consists of five components that are designed to enhance the country's vaccine distribution to the most vulnerable. The first component creates a governance structure and addresses logistics, monitoring, and evaluation systems. The second component involves performance planning and the alignment of skilled human resources.

The third component increases the awareness of and promotes the program among Pakistan's citizens, as well as addresses how their schools' curriculum aligns with this initiative. The fourth component makes it possible to obtain the necessary equipment to widely distribute vaccines and increase the supply chain for vaccines. Lastly, the fifth component includes being able to expand the program's reach and enhance research and development in this field.

Learning for the Future

The Learning for the Future project was created to enhance children's readiness for school and the effectiveness of secondary instruction in specific Kyrgyz Republic communities. The project consists of two components: increasing the equitable access of early childhood education and improving the effectiveness of instruction in secondary education.

To meet these objectives, the program establishes 500 community-based kindergarten programs, which will allow for the enrollment of 20,000 children. To increase the effectiveness of instruction, the project finances a training program for 500 new teachers and provides digital resources to complement existing learning resources (e.g., textbooks). The project also assesses how well students learn, cognitively and non-cognitively.

World Bank Financials

The World Bank is an organization, rather than a bank. Therefore, its financials are not comparable to traditional financial institutions.

Within the organization operates different sectors: the International Bank of Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International Development Association (IDA), the International Finance Corporation (IFC), and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA).

The World Bank has loaned the most money, $122,746.71 million, to India.

The IBRD, the original World Bank, loans money to creditworthy low-income or middle-income countries. For the fiscal year ended June 30, 2020, the IBRD recorded net interest revenues of $2,414 million and allocable income of $1,381 million. Its equity-to-loans ratio was 22.8%.

The IDA issues credits, or interest-free loans, to the poorest nations. For the fiscal year ended June 30, 2020, the World Bank recorded an adjusted net income of $724 million and a deployable strategic capital (DSC) ratio of 35.8%, which is the available capital divided by the capital needed to support the portfolio.

IFC provides funds and guidance to the private sector for the purpose of helping developing nations stay on a growth trajectory. For the fiscal year ended June 30, 2020, the World Bank recorded net income loss of $1,672 million and a total comprehensive income loss of $2,424. Its DSC ratio was 18%.

Lastly, MIGA directs investments to the poorest countries to help reduce poverty and improve the welfare of a nation's citizens. For the fiscal year ended June 30, 2020, the World Bank recorded net interest revenues of $57 million.

For the fiscal year 2020, the World Bank has distributed $27,975.99 million in IBRD loans, $22,423.69 in interest-free loans or credits, and $7,991.47 million in grants.

History of the World Bank

The World Bank was created in 1944 out of the Bretton Woods Agreement, which was secured under the auspices of the United Nations in the latter days of World War II. The Bretton Woods Agreement included several components: a collective international monetary system, the formation of the World Bank, and the creation of the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

Since their founding, both the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have worked toward many of the same goals. The original goals of both the World Bank and IMF were to support European and Asian countries needing financing to fund post-war reconstruction efforts.

Both the World Bank and IMF outlasted the collective international monetary system which was central to the Bretton Woods Agreement. President Nixon halted the Bretton Woods international monetary system in the 1970s. However, the World Bank and IMF remained open and continued to thrive on providing worldwide aid.

The World Bank and IMF are headquartered in Washington, D.C. The World Bank currently has more than 10,000 employees in more than 130 offices worldwide.

Though titled as a bank, the World Bank, is not necessarily a bank in the traditional, chartered meanings of the word. The World Bank and its subsidiary groups operate within their own provisions and develop their own proprietary financial assistance products, all with the same goal of serving countries' capital needs internationally.

The World Bank’s counterpart, the IMF, is structured more like a credit fund. The differing in the structuring of the two entities and their product offerings allows them to provide different types of financial lending and financing support. Each entity also has several of its own distinct responsibilities for serving the global economy.

World Banks

Through the years, the World Bank has expanded from a single institution to a group of five unique and cooperative institutional organizations, known as the World Banks or collectively as the World Bank Group. The first organization is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), an institution that provides debt financing to governments that are considered middle income. The second organization within the World Bank Group is the International Development Association (IDA), a group that gives interest-free loans to the governments of poor countries.

The International Finance Corporation (IFC), the third organization, focuses on the private sector and provides developing countries with investment financing and financial advisory services. The fourth part of the World Bank Group is the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), an organization that promotes foreign direct investments in developing countries. The fifth organization is the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), an entity that provides arbitration on international investment disputes.

World Bank FAQs 

What Is the Purpose of the World Bank?

The World Bank is an organization that provides funds, advice, and research to developing nations to help advance their economy and combat poverty.

Who Owns the World Bank?

No person, organization, government, or nation owns the World Bank. It is an organization made up of member countries, represented by a Board of Governors.  This Board governs the organization, creates policies, and appoints executive directors. The executive directors govern the Bank's business and budget, and grant loan approvals. The president and managers manage the day-to-day operations.

Where Does the World Bank Get Its Money?

The World Bank receives funding from wealthy nations and from the issance of debt securities, such as bonds.

Which Country Is the World Bank In?

The World Bank is headquartered in Washington D.C.; however, it has locations in more than 130 countries, including Benin, Argentina, and China.

Who Is the CEO of the World Bank?

The World Bank is led by President David Malpass. The organization's Board of Directors is comprised of four separate Boards, one for each division of the World Bank. Each Board oversees the operations of their respective sector. For example, the Board for the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) oversees the operations for that segment, and the Board for the International Development Agency (IDA) oversees the operations for that segment.

Источник: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/w/worldbank.asp

World Bank Launches 2022 Funding Year with New 7 Year GBP Benchmark

Washington, D.C., July 8, 2021 – The World Bank (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, IBRD, Aaa/AAA) kicked off its new fiscal year with a 7-year British pound sterling (GBP) benchmark bond due July 2028.  The Sustainable Development Bond raised GBP 1 billion from investors globally to support the financing of its sustainable development activities.

The bond offers an annual coupon of 0.625% and an annual yield of 0.685%. It was priced at +28 basis points over the 0.125% UK Gilt due January 2028. Bank of America, Deutsche Bank, JP Morgan, and NatWest Markets are joint lead managers for the transaction. The bond will be listed on the Luxembourg Stock Exchange.

Jingdong Hua, World Bank Vice President and Treasurer, said,“With what is usually a slow time in the summer for market activity, we were very pleased to see such strong investor participation in our first IBRD benchmark of the fiscal year. Much remains to be done as the global community continues to respond and recover from the pandemic and the World Bank remains at the forefront supporting member countries in their response.  We thank investors for their support.”

The high-quality order book attracted over 40 investors. The majority of the transaction was placed with investors in the United Kingdom.

Investor Distribution 

By Geography

 

By Investor Type

 

United Kingdom

78%

Banks/Bank Treasuries/Corporates

57%

Europe

12%

Asset Mangers/Insurance/Pension Funds

23%

Asia

7%

Central Banks/Official Institutions

20%

Americas

3%

 

 

Joint Lead Manager Quotes

Adrien de Naurois, Managing Director, BofA Securities,said,An outstanding start for the World Bank's new fiscal year with its first sterling outing of 2021. The issuer was able to navigate a volatile trading session on the back of continued support from its high quality and diversified investor base. This demonstrates once again the high standing of the World Bank’s credit and overall position in the capital markets.”

Katrin Wehle, Managing Director, SSA DCM, Deutsche Bank,said, The World Bank kicked off their financial year with a highly successful new GBP 1 billion 7-year Sustainable Development Bond. The superb reception of the deal from both high quality local as well as a diverse pool of global investors was reflected in the dynamic book building and oversubscription. This transaction reinforces the World Bank’s commitment towards supporting their sustainable development goals and cements its status as a benchmark issuer in the GBP market. A fantastic return to the sterling market and Deutsche Bank is proud to have supported this landmark transaction.”

Keith Price, Managing Director, Head of Frequent Borrowers Group, J.P. Morgan, said, “A stellar return to the sterling market from the World Bank to kick-start their new fiscal year and first GBP deal of 2021. By offering a new 2028 reference point with such a high quality orderbook, the transaction highlighted the World Bank’s exceptional standing amongst the UK investor base. J.P. Morgan was delighted to be involved.”

Kerr Finlayson, Managing Director, Head of Frequent Borrower Group Syndicate, NatWest Markets, said,“The World Bank continues to innovate in capital markets, bringing to market the first sterling 2028 maturity since 2001. By offering investors an attractive SONIA spread and creating a new reference point in 2028, they have once again been rewarded with strong demand from a loyal investor base. In the end, a GBP 1 billion print reiterates the high standing in which the World Bank’s credit is held amongst investors. The choice to issue in GBP as the first issuance of the new financial year underlines the World Bank's sincere commitment to this market and we are incredibly proud to be involved at NatWest.

Transaction Summary 

Issuer

World Bank (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, IBRD)

Issuer rating:

Aaa / AAA

Amount:

GBP 1,000,000,000

Settlement date:

15 July 2021

Maturity date:

14 July 2028

Issue price:

99.590%

Issue yield:

0.685% annual

Denomination:

GBP 1,000

Coupon:

0.625% per annum

Listing

Luxembourg Stock Exchange

ISIN

XS2365061931

Clearing systems

Euroclear/Clearstream Luxembourg

Joint lead managers

Bank of America, Deutsche Bank, JP Morgan, and NatWest Markets

About the World Bank

The World Bank (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, IBRD), rated Aaa/AAA (Moody’s/S&P), is an international organization. Created in 1944, it is the original member of the World Bank Group and operates as a global development cooperative owned by 189 nations. The World Bank provides loans, guarantees, risk management products, and advisory services to middle-income and other creditworthy countries to support the Sustainable Development Goals and to end extreme poverty and promote shared prosperity. It also provides leadership to coordinate regional and global responses to development challenges. The World Bank has been issuing sustainable development bonds in the international capital markets for over 70 years to fund programs and activities that achieve a positive impact. More information on World Bank bonds is available at www.worldbank.org/debtsecurities.

World Bank bonds support the financing of programs that further the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). World Bank bonds are aligned with the Sustainability Bond Guidelines published by the International Capital Market Association and as such support the financing of a combination of green and social, i.e., “sustainable development” projects, programs and activities in IBRD member countries as described in the World Bank Sustainable Development Bond Framework. The World Bank is also a member of the Executive Committee of the Green Bond, Social Bond, and Sustainability Bond Principles. A key priority for the World Bank’s capital markets’ engagement is building strategic partnerships with investors to promote the importance of private sector financing in sustainable development. The World Bank’s Sustainable Development Bond Impact Report describes how the World Bank engages with investors on the SDGs and raises awareness for specific development challenges.

Disclaimers

This press release is not an offer for sale of securities of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development ("IBRD"), also known in the capital markets as "World Bank". Any offering of World Bank securities will take place solely on the basis of the relevant offering documentation including, but not limited to, the prospectus, term sheet and/or final terms, as applicable, prepared by the World Bank or on behalf of the World Bank, and is subject to restrictions under the laws of several countries. World Bank securities may not be offered or sold except in compliance with all such laws.

The net proceeds from the sale of World Bank securities are used to finance sustainable development projects and programs in World Bank’s member countries without being committed or earmarked for lending to, or financing of, any particular projects or programs. Returns on World Bank securities are not linked to the performance of any particular project or program.

Contact

Heike Reichelt
Head of Investor Relations and Sustainable Finance
World Bank Treasury
[email protected]
 

Источник: https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2021/07/08/world-bank-launches-2022-funding-year-with-new-7-year-gbp-benchmark

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

A Partner to Middle-Income Countries

The World Bank Group engages with middle-income countries (MICs) both as clients and shareholders. These countries are major drivers of global growth, home to major infrastructure investments, and recipients of a large share of exports from advanced economies and poorer countries. Many are making rapid economic and social progress, and they play an ever larger role in finding solutions to global challenges.  

But MICs also have more than 70% of the world’s poor people, often in remote areas. And limited access to private finance makes these countries vulnerable to economic shocks and the crises that cross borders, including climate change, forced migration, and pandemics. The World Bank is an essential partner to MICs, which represent more than 60% of IBRD’s portfolio. 

  • We provide a combination of financial resources, knowledge, and technical services. 
  • Our strategic advice helps governments reform to improve services, encourage more private investment, and innovate and share solutions.  
  • We partner with countries as challenges emerge and evolve, through innovative financial products and a wide range of global forums. 

Above all, we help ensure that progress in reducing poverty and broadening prosperity can be sustained. We place special emphasis on supporting lower-middle-income countries as they move up the economic chain, graduating from IDA to become clients of IBRD. We are also expanding capacity to help countries dealing with fragility and conflict situations. And as a long-term partner, we step up our support to all MICs in times of crisis.

IBRD’s Services

Through our partnership with MICs and creditworthy poorer countries, IBRD offers innovative financial solutions, including financial products (loans, guarantees, and risk management products) and knowledge and advisory services (including on a reimbursable basis) to governments at the national and subnational levels.

IBRD finances investments across all sectors and provides technical support and expertise at each stage of a project.  IBRD’s resources not only supply borrowing countries with needed financing, but also serve as a vehicle for global knowledge transfer and technical assistance.  

Advisory services in public debt and asset management help governments, official sector institutions, and development organizations build institutional capacity to protect and expand financial resources.

IBRD supports government efforts to strengthen public financial management as well as improve the investment climate, address service delivery bottlenecks, and strengthen policies and institutions.

 

Источник: https://www.worldbank.org/en/who-we-are/ibrd

The World Bank

The World Bank is an international organization that helps emerging market countries to reduce poverty. Its first goal is to end extreme poverty. It wants no more than 3% of people to live on $1.90 a day or less by 2030. Its second goal is to promote shared prosperity. It wants to improve the incomes of the bottom 40% of the population in each country. Since 1947, the World Bank has funded more than 12,000 projects.

The World Bank is not a bank in the conventional sense of the word. Instead, it consists of two organizations. One is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, which provides loans, credit, and grants. The second is the International Development Association, which provides low- or no-interest loans and grants to low-income countries.

The Bank works closely with three other organizations in the World Bank Group:

  1. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) provides investment, advice, and asset management to companies and governments.
  2. The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) insures lenders and investors against political risk such as war.
  3. The International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) settles investment disputes between investors and countries.

The Bank's 189 member countries share ownership. The United States has a controlling voting interest.

World Bank Purpose and Function

The World Bank provides low-interest loans, interest-free credit, and grants. It focuses on improving education, health, and infrastructure. It also uses funds to modernize a country's financial sector, agriculture, and natural resources management.

The Bank's stated purpose is to "bridge the economic divide between poor and rich countries." It does this by turning "rich country resources into poor country growth." It has a long-term vision to "achieve sustainable poverty reduction."

To achieve this goal, the Bank focuses on several areas:

  • Overcome poverty by spurring growth, especially in Africa.
  • Help reconstruct countries emerging from war, the biggest cause of extreme poverty.
  • Provide a customized solution to help middle-income countries remain out of poverty.
  • Spur governments to prevent climate change.
  • Work with partners to bring an end to AIDS.
  • Manage international financial crises and promote open trade.
  • Work with the Arab League on three goals: improve education, build infrastructure, and provide microloans to small businesses.
  • Share its expertise with developing countries via reports and its interactive online database.

The Head of the World Bank Group

On February 6, 2019, President Donald Trump nominated David Malpass to be president of the World Bank. He was undersecretary of the U.S. Treasury Department for international affairs. Malpass had criticized bank lending to China but needed the support of China and Japan, who are the top two World Bank shareholders after the United States. He was officially approved on April 9, 2019.

The World Bank president reports to a 25-member Board of Executive Directors. Among the contributing countries are France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

The person nominated by the president of the United States has been selected the World Bank president since its founding. The voting power of the United States is 15.62%, making it the largest shareholder. Many members complain that the Bank represents the interests of the developed world and not the poor countries it assists.

Jim Yong Kim, M.D., Ph.D., was president from 2012 to 2019. He resigned on February 1, 2019, three years before his term ended, to join Global Infrastructure Partners, a private equity fund. Prior to his time with The World Bank, Dr. Kim had been the president of Dartmouth College and advocated for improved health service.

Robert Zoellick was president from 2007 to 2012. During President George H.W. Bush's administration, Zoellick served with Secretary of State James Baker, III, as Under Secretary of State for Economic and Agricultural Affairs. Zoellick held executive positions in Fannie Mae from 1993 to 1997 and the Office of Trade Representative from 2001 to 2005. From there, he went to the State Department in 2005 until 2006 and then on to Goldman Sachs from 2006 to 2007.

The Bank has thousands of employees from over 170 countries.

The World Bank Fights Climate Change

The World Bank has joined the fight against climate change because it could push much more of the world's population into poverty by 2030. It has committed $83 billion to climate-related improvements in developing countries and plans to add 30 gigawatts of renewable energy, support early warning systems for 100 million people, and develop climate-smart agriculture for 40 countries. The Bank also uses the true cost of carbon in all its projects.

Statistics and Reports

The World Bank provides a wealth of downloadable data for more than 200 countries. In 2010, the Bank launched an Open Data website, which provides free access to hundreds of major indicators, including:

  • Climate change, the environment, and energy
  • Health, such as life expectancy
  • Urban development and infrastructure
  • Labor, income, and education
  • Government, economic policy, and sovereign debt
  • Demographics such as poverty, gender, and aid effectiveness
  • Business, agriculture, and financial

The Bank analyzes development issues in depth, including the annual World Development Report. Its research reports examine global trends in trade, financial flows, and commodity prices, along with their impact on developing countries. The Bank also publishes the World Development Indicators and Global Development Finance. It provides the Little Data Book, Little Green Data Book, and The World Bank Atlas.

History of The Word Bank

The 1944 Bretton Woods Conference established The World Bank. Its loans helped European countries rebuild after World War II. That made it the world's first multilateral development bank. 

It was funded through the sale of bonds. Its first loans were to France and other European countries. Since then, the Bank has worked with developing countries such as India and China on projects that include rail.

World Bank lending became controversial. Many countries used their loans to prevent a sovereign debt default. That debt was often a result of overspending and extensive borrowing. Even with the World Bank’s help, many countries devalued their currencies, which caused hyperinflation. 

To combat this, the Bank required austerity measures. Borrowing countries had to agree to cut back on spending and support their currency. Unfortunately, this usually caused a recession, making it difficult to repay the Bank's loans. 

Источник: https://www.thebalance.com/the-purpose-of-the-world-bank-3306119
the world bank provides funding for

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